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S3 



\ 




CYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN HORTICULTURE 

P 



Cyclopedia of 
American Horticulture 

/Oj 13} 

COMPRISING SUGGESTIONS FOR CULTIVATION OF HORTI- 
CULTURAL PLANTS, DESCRIPTIONS OF THE SPECIES OF 
FRUITS, VEGETABLES, FLOWERS AND ORNAMENTAL PLANTS 
SOLD IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA, TOGETHER 
WITH GEOGRAPHICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



LvH. BAILEY 

Professor of Hortlcnlture ia Cornell UnlTertlty 
Assisted bt 

WILHELM MILLER 

Atuclate Editor 
AND MANY EXPERT CULTIVATORS AND BOTANISTS 



JUtttfttateli tnftli otm 
^n»o ^IiimtfanQ iDcfitituil Cfnsrafifniitf 



In Four Volumes 
A-D 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

LONDON : MACMILLAN & CO., Ltd. 

1900 

Th4 righU of reproduetion and of tramlaHon are strictly reserved 



Copyright, 1900, 
By the MACMILLAN COMPANY 



9fi9unt l^IrajMiit IPrinter; 

J. Rormce McFarUad Company 
Harriftburflr. Pa. 




PREFACE 

T IS THE PUEPOSE OF THIS WORK to make a complete 
record of the status of North American horticulture as it 
exists at the close of the nineteenth century. The work dis- 
cusses the cultivation of fruits, flowers and garden vegetables, 
describes all the species which are known to be in the hor- 
ticultural trade, outlines the horticultural possibilities of the 
various states, territories and provinces, presents biographies 
of those persons not living who have contributed most to the 
horticultural progress of North America, and indicates the leading mono- 
graphic works relating to the various subjects. 

It has been the dream of years to close the century with a comprehensive 
index to American horticulture, and for a long period the Editor, therefore, 
has collected notes, books, plants and information for the furtherance of 
the work. Before the active preparation of the manuscript was begun, a 
year was expended in making indexes and references to plants and litera- 
ture. Every prominent plant and seed catalogue published in the United 
States and Canada has been indexed, and the horticultural periodicals have 
been explored. A dozen artists have been employed in various horticul- 
tural centers to draw plants as they grow. Expert cultivators and botanists 
have contributed on their various specialties. All the important articles 
are signed, thus giving each author full credit for his work, and holding 
him responsible for it. 

The work is made first-hand, from original sources of information. 
So far as possible, the botanical matter has been newly elaborated from 
the plants themselves ; and in all cases it is specially prepared directly for 
this Cyclopedia, and is not the work of copyists nor of space-writers. In 
many of the most important subjects, two authors have contributed, one 
writing the culture and the other the botany; and in some cases the 
culture is presented from two points of view. When it has been 
necessary to compile in comparatively unfamiliar groups, the greatest 
pains has been taken to select authentic sources of information; and the 
proofs always have been submitted to recognized specialists. In fact. 



vi PREFACE 

proofs of every article in the work have been read by experts in that 
subject. 

Every effort has been made to present a truthful picture of American 
horticulture, by describing those plants which are or lately have been in 
th« trad,, Jd by giXg cultll direetto» founded upon American 
experience. Therefore the Old World cyclopedias, which represent other 
horticultural floras and other methods of cultivation, have not been fol- 
lowed. Species which are commonly cultivated in the Old World, or 
which are mentioned prominently in horticultural literature, but which are 
not known to be in North American commerce, are briefly recorded in 
smaller type in supplementary lists. The object has been to make the 
work essentially American and wholly alive. 

Particular attention has been given to the tropical and sub -tropical 
plants which are now being introduced in southern Florida and southern 
Oalifomia. These plants already represent the larger part of the cultivated 
tropical flora; and a knowledge of them will be of increasing interest 
and importance with the enlargement of our national sphere. The work 
is intended to cover the entire field from Key West and the Rio Grande 
to Quebec and Alaska. 

North America is a land of outdoor horticulture, and the hardy fruits, 
trees, shrubs and herbs are given the prominence which they deserve. In 
most works of this character, the glasshouse and fanciers' plants receive 
most emphatic attention. 

Since it is hoped that the work will be of permanent value, descriptions 
of varieties are not included ; for such descriptions would increase the bulk 
of the work enormously, and the information would be out of date with the 
lapse of a few months or years. If the work finds sufficient patronage, it 
is hoped that a small supplemental volume may be issued annually, to 
record the new species and varieties and the general progress of horticul- 
tural business and science. 

The illustrations have been made under the personal supervision of 
the Editor so far as possible, and, with few exceptions, they are owned 
and controlled by the publishers. No trade cuts have been purchased. In 
various confused groups, copies have been made of old prints for the pur- 
pose of showing the original or native form of a plant, and thereby to 
illustrate the course of its evolution; but credit is given to the source 
of the illustration. 

The point of view is the garden, not the herbarium. The herbarium 



PREFACE vii 

is the apdjunct. In other words, the stress is laid upon the plants as 
domesticated and cultivated subjects. Special efforts have been made to 
portray the range of variation under domestication, and to suggest liie 
course of the evolution of the greatly modified forms. Garden plants are 
worthy subjects of botanical study, notwithstanding the fact that they 
have been neglected by systematists. It is desired to represent the 
plants as living, growing, varyiQg things, rather than as mere species or 
bibliographical formulas. 

The Editor desires to say that he considers this book but a beginning. 
It is the first complete survey of our horticultural activities, and it is 
published not because it is intended to be complete, but that it may 
bring together the scattered data in order that further and better studies 
may be made. A first work is necessarily crude. We must ever improve. 
To the various articles in the work, the teacher of horticulture may assign 
his advanced students. The Editor hopes that every entry in this book 
will be worked over and improved within the next quarter century. 

HOBTICULTUBAL DEPARTMENT, U. Ji. J J/l MM iT iX. 

College of Aobigulture of Cornell Uniyersitt, 
Ithaca, New York, December SO, 1899, 



COLLABORATORS 



I. PARTIAL LIST OF CONTBIBUTOBS TO THE CYCLOPEDIA 

Ths atUriak detignatet the eontrUmtors to th» Hrtt volume Many of the eontribvUor§ have tUto atnsted in readtng 
prooU and in cither toavi. 



Adams, Geo. £., Asst. Horticaltarist, B. I. Exp. 

8ta.y Eangston, B. I. {Rhode Island,) 
*AUES, Oakes, Asst. Dir. Bo^anio Garden, and 

Instmctor in Botany in Harvard Univ., Cam- 
bridge, Mass. {Many genera of Orchids.) 
*Abnold, Jr., Geo., Florist, Boehester, N. T. 

{China Asters,) 
Arthur, Prof. J. C, Purdue Univ., Lafayette, 

Ind. {Physiology of Plants.) 
Atkinson, Geo. P., Prof, of Botany, Cornell Univ., 

Ithaca, N. Y. {Mushrooms.) 
Balher, Prof. J. A., Hortionlturist, Wash. Exp. 

Sta., Pullman, Wash. {Washington.) 
♦Barclay, P. W., Gardener, Haverford, Pa. {Na- 
tive Asters. Various hardy plants.) 
Barnes, Charles B., Prof, of Plant Physiology, 

Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, Ills. {Fertiliga- 

tion. Flower.) 
Batersdorfer, H., Dealer in florists' supplies, 

Philadelphia, Pa. {Everlasting flowers. ) 
*Beach, Prof. S. A., Horticulturist, N. Y. Exp. 

Sta., Geneva, N. Y. {Com. Thinning.) 
*Bbadle, C. D., Botanist and horticulturist, Bilt- 

more, N. C. {Bamboos.) 
BSAL, Prof. W. J., Mich. Agric. College, Agri- 
cultural College, Mich. {Article ^ Grasses.^) 
*Bbckert, Theo. P., Florist, Allegheny City, Pa. 

{BougainvilUa,) 
Bbrckicaks, p. J., Pomologist and nurseryman, 

Augusta, Ga. {Kaki. Has read proof of vari- 

ous groups of importance in the South.) 
Blair, Prof. J. C, Horticulturist, III. Exp. Sta., 

Champaign, Ills. {Okiss. Illinois.) 
♦Bruckner, Nichol N., Dreer's nursery, Biver- 

ton, N. J. {The article ^ Ferns.'* Many groups 

of tender ferns, ) 
BUFFUM, Prof. B. C, Horticulturist, Wyo. Exp. 

Sta., Laramie, Wyo. ( Wyoming.) 
Burnetts, Prof. F. H., Horticulturist, La. Exp. 

Sta., Baton Bouge, La. {Louisiana.) 
Bush and Sons and Meissner, Bushberg, Mo. 

{Orape Culture in the Prairie States.) 
*Butz, Prof. Geo. C, Asst. Horticulturist, Pa. 

Exp. Sta., State College, Pa. {Carnation. 

Pennsylvania. ) 



♦Cameron, Bobert, Gardener, Botanic Garden of 
Harvard Univ. ( Various articles and much help 
on rare plants, Alpinia. Campanula, etc.) 

♦Canning, Edward J., Gardener, Smith College, 
Botanic Gardens, Northampton, Mass. {Many 
articles and much help on rare plants. Anthu- 
Hum, Gloxinia, etc.) 

♦Card, Prof. Fred. W., Horticulturist, B. I. Exp. 
Sta., Kingston, B. I. {Nebraska. Botany and 
culture of many bush fruits. Amelanehier. Ber- 
beris. Blackberry. Buffalo Berry. Currant.) 
Clinkaberrt, Henrt T., Gardener, Trenton, N. 
J. {Certain oixhids, as Lcslia, Lycaste.) 

♦Cook, O. F., Div. of Botany, Section of Seed and 
Plant Introduction, Dept. of Agric, Washing- 
ton, D. C. {Coffee.) 
CoRBETT, Prof. L. C, Horticulturist, W. Va. Exp. 
Sta., Morgantown, W. Va. ( West Virginia.) 

♦Coulter, John M., Professor and Head of the 
Dept. of Botany, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, 
Illinois. 

♦Craio, Prof. John, Horticulturist, la. Exp. Sta., 
Ames, la. {Canada. Gooseberry.) 

♦Craiq, Bobert, Florist, Philadelphia, Pa. {Arau- 

caria* Ardisia. Codiesum. ) 
Craiq, W. N., Taunton, Mass. 

♦Crandall, Prof. C. S., Horticulturist, Colo. Exp. 
Sta., Fort Collins, Colo. (Colorado.) 
CusHMAN, E. H., Gladiolus specialist, Euclid, 
Ohio. {Gladiolus,) 

♦Davis, K. C, Science teacher, Ithaca, N. Y. 
( Ranunculacea. ) 

♦Davt, J. Burtt, Assistant Botanist, Univ. of 
Calif. Agric. Exp. Sta., Berkeley, Calif. 
{Acacia. Eucalyptus. Myrtacees.) 

♦Dorner, Fred., Carnation specialist, Lafayette, 
Ind. {Carnation.) 
DoRSETTjP. H . , Associate Physiologist and Patholo- 
gist Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C.( Violet.) 
DuoGAR, B. M., formerly Asst. Cryptogamic Bota- 
nist, Cornell Exp. Sta., Ithaca, N. Y. {Pollen.) 

♦Earle, Prof. F. S., Horticulturist, Ala. Poly- 
technic Institute, Auburn, Ala. {AUibama, ) 
Earle, Parker, Horticulturist, Boswell, N. M. 
{New Mexico.) 



(ix; 



COLLABORATORS 



^IBELB, J. D., Foreman Dreer's Nnnery, River- 
ton, N. J. (Cardyline.) 

*Elliott, William H., Florist, Brighton, Mass. 

{Asparagus plumosus.) 
Emert, S. M., Director Mont. Exp. Bta., Bose- 
man, Mont. (Montana,) 

*Emdioott, W. E., Teacher, Canton, Mass. {A^im- 
enes. Addanthera. ) 

*£yAN8, Walter H., Office of Exp. Stations, Dept. 
of Agric, Washington, D. 0. (Alaska.) 

*Fawoett, Wm., Dir. Dept. Public Gardens and 
Plantations, Kingston, Jamaica. (Tropieal 
fruits, as Cherimoya, Mangosteen, etc, ) 

*Fernow, Prof. B. E., Dir. College of Forestry, 
Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. (Conifers. For- 
estry.) 

*Finlat80N, Kenneth, Gardener, Brookline, 
Mass. {Diasma. ) 

^Fletcher, S. W., Horticnltnrlst, Ithaca, N. T. 
(ConvoUnUaeeof, HeUanthus. Papaver, ) 

*Franoe80HI, Dr. F., Manager 8. Calif. Acclima- 
tizing Ass'n, Santa Barbara, Calif. (Bare 
plants of 8, Calif., as Dasylirion, etc.) 
Garfield, C W., Horticaltnrist, Grand Bapids, 
Mich . ( Michigan. ) 

*Gerard, J. N., Elizabeth, N. J. (Many articles, 
especially on InUbous plants, as Crocus, Iris, 
Narcissus. ) 
GiLLETT, Edward, Nurseryman, South wick, Mass. 

(Hardy Ferns.) 
GOFF, Prof. E. S., Horticulturist, Wis. Ezp. Sta., 
Madison, Wis. ( Wisconsin.) 

*GouLD, H. P., Asst. Entomologist and Horti- 
culturist', Maryland Ezp. Sta., College Park, 
Md. (Br%$ssels Sprouts. Celeriac. ) 
Green, Prof. S. B., Horticulturist, Minnesota 
Exp. Sta., St. Anthony Park, Minn. (Minne- 
sota.) 
Green, Wx. J., Horticulturist, Ohio Ezp. Sta., 
Wooster, Ohio. (Ohio. Sub-irrigation.) 

^Grsiner, T., Specialist in yegetables. La Salle, 
N. T. (Garden vegeitibles, as Artichoke, As- 
paragus, Bean, Cress. ) 

*Grey, Robert M., Gardener, North Easton, Mass. 
( Cypripedium and other orchids.) 
Groff, H. H., Simcoe, Ont. (Gladiolus.) 

*GuRNET, James, Gardener, Mo. Botanical Garden, 
St. Louis, Mo. (Cacti.) 

*Hale, J. H., Nurseryman and pomologist, South 
Glastonbury, Conn. (Connecticut.) 

*Hal8TED, Prof. B. D., Rutgers College, New 

Brunswick, N.J. (Diseases. Fungi.) 
ELiNBEN, Geo., Landscape architect and botanist, 

Berkeley, Calif. (Epidendrum.) 
Hansen, Prof. N. E., Horticulturist, S. Dak. 
Ezp. Sta., Brookings, S. Dak. (South 
Dakota.) 



Hasselbrino, H., Instructor in Botany, Cornell 
Univ., Ithaca, N. T. (Iris and certain orchids, 
aa Gongora, Odontoglossum.) 
'Hastings, G. T., Asst. in Botany, Cornell Univ., 
Ithaca, N. T. (Some tropical plants, as Berria, 
BerthoUeUa.) 
Hatfield, T. D., Gardener, Wellesley, Mass. 

(Gesnera and various articles.) 
Hedrigk, U. p., Asst. Prof, of Horticulture, 
Agricultural College , Mich . (Evaporated Fruits . ) 
'Henderson & Co., Peter, Seedsmen, 37 Cort- 

landt St., New York, N. Y. (Bulhs.) 
*Herrington, a., Ghtrdener, Florham Farms^ 

Madison, N. J. (Chrysanthemum eocdneum.) 
Hexamer, Dr. F. M., Editor American Agricul- 
turist, New York, N. Y. (A. S. Fuller.) 
Hicks, G. H., late of Dept. of Agric, Washing- 
ton, D. C. {Seed Testing.) 
*HiLL, E. G., Florist, Richmond, Ind. (Begonia.) 
HooPES, JosiAH, Nurseryman, West Chester, Pa. 

(Hedges.) 
*HoRSFORD, Fred. H., Nurseryman, Charlotte, Vt. 
(Alpine Gardens. Has read proof of numy ar- 
ticles on native plants.) 
HuNN, Charles E., Gardener, Cornell Ezp. Sta.^ 

Ithaca, N. Y. (Forcing of vegetables.) 
HuNTLET, Prof. F. A., Idaho Ezp. Sta., Moscow^ 

Idaho. (Iddho.) 
HuTCHiNS, Rev. W. T., Sweet Pea specialist, In- 
dian Orchard, Mass. (Sweet Pea.) 
^Irish, H. C, Horticulturist, Mo. Botanical Gar- 
den, St. Louis, Mo. (Capsicum.) 
^Jackson & Perkins Co., Nurserymen, Newark^ 

N. Y. (Clematis.) 
Jordan, A. T., Asst. Horticulturist, New Bruns- 
wick, N. J. (New Jersey.) 
*Kain8, M. G.,Div. of Botany, Dept. of Agric, 
Washington, D. C. (Minor vegetables. Pot 
Herbs. Importa tions . ) 
^Keller, J. B., Florist, Rochester, N. Y. (Many 

groups of hardy herbaceous perennials. ) 
Kelbet, Harlan P., Landscape architect, Boston, 
Mass. (North Carolina plants, as Galax and 
Leucotho'e.) 
•Kennedy, P. Beveridge, Div. of Agrostology, 
Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. (Many 
genera of grasses . Begonia . ) 
Kerr, J. W., Nurseryman, Denton, Md. (Mary- 
land.) 
•KiFT, Robert, Florist, Philadelphia, Pa. (Cut- 
flowers. ) 
King, F. H., Prof, of Agricultural Physics, Madi- 
son, Wis. (Irrigation.) 
•Kinnet, L. F., Horticulturist, Kingston, R. I. 

(Celery.) 
*Lager & HuRRELL, Orohid cultivators, Summit^ 
N.J. (Cattleya.) 



COLLABORATORS 



zi 



Lake, Prof. £. R., Horticultarist, Ore. Exp. Sta., 
Corvallis, Ore. {Oregon.) 

Lauman, 6. N., Instructor in Horticulture, Cor- 
nell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. {Geranium. Pelar- 
gonium.) 
*IiONSDALX, Edwin, Florist, Chestnut Hill, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. {Coftservatory.) 

Lord & Burnhau Co., Horticultural architects 
and builders, Irvington- on -Hudson, N. Y. 
{Greenhouse Construction.) 
*LoTHROP & HiGOiNS, Dahlia specialists. East 

Bridgewater, Mass. 
*MANNn70, J. Woodward, Nurseryman, Reading, 
Mass. {Pyrethrum, Has read proof of many 
groups of herhiuseous perennials.) 

Manning, Warren H., Landscape architect, 
Boston, Mass. (Article, ^Herbaceous Peren- 
nials.'*) 

Masset, Prof. W. P., Horticulturist, N. C. Exp. 
Sta., Raleigh, N. C. {Figs. North Carolina.) 

Mathews, Prof. C. W., Horticulturist, Ky. Exp. 

Sta., Lexington, Ky. {Kentucky.) 
*Mathew8, F. Schuyler, Artist, 2 Morley St., 
Boston, Mass. {Color.) 

Matnard, Prof. S. T., Horticulturist, Mass. 
Hatch Exp. Sta., Amherst, Mass. {Massa- 
chusetts. ) 

MoDowELL, Prof. R. H., Reno, Nev. {Nevada.) 

*McFarland, J. Horace, Horticultural printer 

and expert in photography, Harrisburg, Pa. 

{Border. ) 

*McWiLLiAH, Geo., Gardener, Whitinsville, Mass. 

{Dipladenia.) 
•Mead, T. L., Horticulturist, Oviedo, Fla. {Cri- 
nun. Has helped in matters of extreme southern 
horticulture. ) 

Morris, O. M., Asst. Horticulturist, Okla. Exp. 
Sta., Stillwater, Okla. {OklcLhoma.) 

Moon, Samuel C, Nurseryman, Morrisville, Pa. 
{TS'eesfor ornament.) 

MuNSON, T. v., Nurseryman and grape hybridist, 
Denison, Tex. {Grape culture in the South.) 

MuNSON, Prof. W. M., Horticulturist, Me. Exp. 

Sta., Orono, Me. (Maine.) 
*NswELL, A. J., Gardener, Wellesley, Mass. {Cer- 
tain orchids. ) 

Norton, J. B. S.,BotanicalAssistant, Mo. Botan- 
ical Garden, St. Louis, Mo. {Euphorbia. ) 
•Ogston, Colin, Gardener, Kimball Conserva- 
tories, Rochester, N. Y. {Dendrobium.) 
•Oliver, G. W., Ghardener, U. S. Botanic Gardens, 
Washington, D. C. {Many articles on palms, 
aroidSf succulents and rare plants, and much help 
on proofs, Alstrcemeria. Amaryllis.) 
*Obpet, Edward O., Gardener, So. Lancaster, 
Mass. {Many articles. Border. Cyclamen. Dian- 
thus, and certain orchids. ) 



•Peacock, Lawrence K., Dahlia specialist, Atco, 
N. J. {Dahlia.) 

*PowELL, Prof. G. Harold, Horticulturist, Del. 
Exp. Sta., Newark, Del. {Cherry. Deilaware.) 

Price, Prof. R. H., Horticulturist, Tex. Exp. 
Sta., College Station, Tex. {leosas.) 

•PuRDY, Carl, Specialist in California bulbs, 
Ukiah, Calif. {CcUifomian native plants, as 
Brodicsa, Caloehortus, Friiillaria.) 

Rane, Prof. F. W., Horticulturist, N. H. Exp. 
Sta., Durham, N. H. (New Hampshire.) 

•Rawson, W. W., Seedsman and market- gardener, 
Boston, Mass. {Cucumber.) 

*Rbasoner, E. N., Nurseryman and horticulturist, 
OnecOy Fla. {Many articles, and much help on 
extreme southern horticulture. CcssaXpinia. 
Cocos.) 

*Rehd£r, Alfred, Specialist in hardy trees and 
shrubs, Jamaica Plain, Mass. {Botany and 
culture of most of the hardy trees and shrubs.) 

'Roberts, Prof. I. P., Dir. College of Agric, 
Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. {Drainage. Fer- 
tility. Potato.) 
Rolfs, Prof. P. H., Horticulturist, S. C. Exp. 
Sta., Clemson College, S. C. {Florida. Egg- 
plant.) 

'Rose, J. N., Asst. Curator, U. S. Nat. Herb., 
Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D. C. 
{Agave.) 
Rose, N. J., Landscape gardener to New York 
City Parks, New York, N. Y. 

*RowLBE, Prof. W. W., Asst. Prof, of Botany, 
Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. {NymphtBa. Nar- 
cissus. Salix. Definitions.) 

'Sargent, Prof. C. S., Dir. Arnold Arboretum, 
Jamaica Plain, Mass. {Abies.) 

*SooTT, Wm., Florist, Buffalo, N. Y. {Acacia. Cy- 
tisus. Convallaria. Cyclamen. Smilax, etc.) 

*SooTT, Wm., Gardener, Tarrytown, N. Y. {Berto- 
lonia and other dwarf tender foliage plants.) 

'Semple, Jambs, Specialist in China Asters, Belle - 
Yue, Pa. {Aster.) 

'Shinn, Charles H., Inspector of Experiment Sta- 
tions, Univ. of Calif., Berkeley, Calif. {Cali- 
fornia. Fig, etc.) 

'Shore, Robert, Gardener, Botanical Dept., Cor- 
nell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y. ( Various articles, as 
Acalypha, Bedding, Marguerites, Dichorisandra, 
Fittonia.) 

'SiEBRECHT, Henrt A., Florist and surseryman, 
New York and Rose Hill Nurseries, New Ro- 
chelle, N. Y. {Drcuxsna and various articles. 
Much help on rare greenhouse plants, particularly 
orchids. ) 
SiMONDS, O. C, Supt. Graceland Cemetery, Buena 
Ave., Chicago, 111. {Cemeteries, in article an 
Landscape Gardening.) 



Xll 



COLLABORATORS 



SUNGSRLAKD, Prof. M. V., Asst. Prof. Eeonomio 
Entomology, Cornell Uniy., Ithaea, N. T. 
(Insects. Insecticides.) 

*Smith, a. W.y Cosmos cultiTator, Amerieos, Ga. 
{Cosmos. Moonflawer.) 

*Smith, Elher D., Chrysanthemum specialist, 
Adrian, Mich. {Chrysanthemum.) 

^Smith, Jabbb G., DiY. of Botany, Dept. of Agric, 
Washington, D. C. {Nearly all palms and va- 
riaus genera^as CentaureafCerasHum, Cotyl&don.) 
Spxmcer, John W., Fruit- grower, Westfield, Chau- 
tauqua Co., N. Y. {Orapes. Help on impor- 
tant fruits.) 
Starnss, Prof. Hugh N., Horticulturist, Ga. Exp. 
8ta., Athens, Ga. {Georgia.) 

*Stin80N, Prof. John T., Dir.Mo. Fruit Exp. Sta., 
Mountain GroTc, Mo. {Arkansas.) 
Taft, Prof. L. R., Horticulturist, Mich. Agric. 
Coll., Agricultural College, Mich. {Heating. 
Hoibeds.) 

*Taplin, W. H., Specialist in palms and ferns, 
Holmesburg, Philadelphia, Pa. {Culture of 
many palms, ferns and foliage plants.) 

*Tatlor, Wm. a., Asst. Pomologist, Div. of Po- 
mology, Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. 
(NuU.) 

^Thompson, C. H., Assistant Botanist, Mo. Botani- 
cal Garden, St. Louis, Mo. {Many genera of 
CaeH.) 

♦TouMBY, Prof. J. W., Biologist, Ariz. Exp. Sta., 
Tucson, Ariz. {Arizona. Date.) 
Tract, S. M., Biloxi, Miss. {Mississippi.) 

♦Tracy, Prof. W. W., Seedsman, Detroit, Mich. 
{Cabbage.) 

*Trxlxase, Dr. Wm., Dir. Mo. Botanical Garden, 
St. Louis, Mo. (Aloe. Apiera. Oasteria. Ha- 
worthia.) 

^Thicker, Wm., Specialist in aquatics, Dreer's 
Nursery, BiYcrton, N. J. {Aquarium. Aqua- 
tics. Nymphosa. Nelumbium. Victoria^ etc.) 
Troop, Prof. Jambs, Horticulturist, Ind. Exp. Sta., 

Lafayette, Ind. (Indiana.) 
Turner, Wm., Gardener, Tarrytown, N. Y. 
(Fiyrdng FruiU.) 



*TuTTLB, H. B., Cranberry grower. Valley June- 

tion. Wis. (Cranberry.) 
♦Underwood, Prof. L. M., Columbia UniYersity, 

New York, N. Y. (Botany of aU ferns.) 
*Van Dbman, H. E., Pomologist, Parksley, Va. 

(Date.) 
Vaughan, J. C, Seedsman and florist, Chicago 

and New York. (Christmas Greens.) 
VooRHEES, Prof. Edward B., Dir. N. J. Exp. Sta., 

New Brunswick, N. J. (FertOisers.) 
Waldron, Prof. C. B., Horticulturist, N. Dak. 

Exp. Sta., Fargo, N. Dak. (North Dakota.) 
*Walebr, Ernest, Horticulturist, Arkansas Exp. 

Sta., FayettcYille, Ark. (Annuals, Basket 

Plants. Watering.) 
Watrous, C. L., Nurseryman, Des Moines, la. 

(Iowa.) 
*Wat80N, B. M., Instructor in Horticulture, Bus- 

sey Inst., Jamaica Plain, Mass. (Cdehioum. 

Cuttage. Forcing. House Plants.) 
Watts, B. L., Horticulturist, Tenn. Exp. Sta., 

KnoxYille, Tenn. (Tennessee.) 
♦Waugh, Prof. F. A., Horticulturist, Vt. Exp. 

Sta., Burlington, Vt. {Beet. Carrot. Cucumber. 

lAlium. Pentstemon. Salad Plants. Vermont.) 
*Webber, H. J., In charge of Plant Breeding 

Laboratory, DiY. of Veg. Phys. and Path., 

Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. 

(Citrus.) 
Whitney, Prof. Milton, Chief Div. of Soils, 

Dept. of Agric, Washington, D. C. (Soil.) 
Whitten, Prof. J. C, Horticulturist, Mo. Exp. 

Sta., Columbia, Mo. (Missouri.) 
*Wi0K8ON, Edward J., Prof, of Agricultural Prac- 
tice, UniY. of Calif., and Horticulturist, Calif. 

Exp. Sta., Berkeley, Calif. { Almond, Apri- 

eot, Cherry, Grape, etc., in California.) 
*WiEGAND, K. M., Instructor in Botany, Cornell 

UniY., Ithaca, N. Y. (Coreopsis. Cordyline. 

Cyperus. Dracaena.) 
*Wyman, a. p., Asst. to Olmsted Bros., Land- 
scape Architects, Brookline, Mass. (Diroa, 

Epigcsa, Halesia and other hardy trees and 

shrubs. ) 



II. PARTIAL LIST OF THOSE WHO HAVE ASSISTED BY BEADING PROOF, 

AND IN OTHER WAYS 



Andrews, D. M., Nurseryman, Boulder, Colo. 
(NaOne western plants, especially new hardy Cacti . ) 

Ball, CD., Wholesale florist, Holmesburg, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. (Palms. Ferns. Foliage 
Plants.) 

Barker, Michael, Editor ^American Florist," 
824 Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. (Many sug- 
gestions,) 



Bassbtt, Wm. F., & Son, Hammonton, N. J. 
(Hibiscus and other plants. ) 

Berger & Co., H. H., New York, N. Y. (Japa- 
nese and Calif omian plants.) 

Blanc, A., Seedsman andplantsman, Philadelphia, 
Pa. ( Cacti. Novelties.) 

Breck ft Sons, Joseph, Seedsmen, Boston, Mass. 
(Portrait of Joseph Breck.) 



COLLABORATORS 



Xlll 



BuDLONG Bros., Pickle makers, Providence, B. I. 
{Cucumber,) 

Clark, Miss Josephine A., Asst. Librarian, Dept. 
of Agric, Washington, D. C. {Information as 
to species since Index Eewensis ) 

CoATBs, Leonard, Napa City, Calif. {Fruit Cul- 
ture in California.) 

CoviLLE, Frederick V., Botanist, Dept. of Agric, 
Washington, D. C. {Suggestions as to con- 
tributors. ) 

CowEN, J. H., Horticulturist, Ithaca, N. Y. 
{Colorado,) 

Dat, Miss Mart A., Librarian, Gray Herbarium 
of Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. (Bare 
books, ) 

Deane, Walter, Cambridge, Mass. {Various 
botanical problems,) 

Devron, Dr. G., Amateur in Bamboos, New 
Orleans, La. {Bamboos,) 

Dock, Miss M. L., Harrisburg, Pa. {Bartram,) 

Dreer, H. a.. Seedsmen and plantsmen, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. {Many and varied services, espe- 
cially in aquatics, ferns, foliage plants and rare 
annuals,) 

E0AN, W. C. Amateur, Highland Park, Ills. 
{Plants of exceptional hardiness.) 

Ellwanger & Barry, Nurserymen, Rochester, 
N. Y. {Hardy plants.) 

Ganono, W. p.. Prof, of Botany, Smith College, 
Northampton, Mass. {Cacti,) 

Hallidat Bros., Baltimore, Md., Florists. 
( Azalea, Camellia, ) 

Lupton, J. M., Market- gardener, Gregory, L. I. 
( Cabbage. ) 

Makepeace, A. D., Cranberry grower. West Barn- 
stable, Mass. {Cranberry,) 

Manda, W. a.. Nurseryman, South Orange, N. J. 
( Orchid pictures. ) 

Manning, Jacob W., Nurseryman, Reading, Mass. 
{Dried specimens of herbaceous perennial 
plants, ) 

Manning, Robert, Sec. Mass. Hort. Soc., Boston, 
Mass . ( Biographical sketches, ) 



Mathews, Wm. , Florist, Utioa, N. Y. ( Orchids, ) 

May, John N., Florist, Summit, N. J. {Florists^ 
flowers, ) 

Meehan & Sons, Thos., Nurserymen, German- 
town, Pa. {Hardy plants.) 

PiERSON, F. R., Nurseryman, Tarrytown-on- 
Hudson. N. Y. {Bulbs,) 

Powell, Geo. T., Pomologist, Ghent, N. Y. 
{Important fruits, ) 

Rider, Prof. A. J., Trenton, N. J. {Cran- 
berry,) 

Robinson, Dr. B. L., Curator Gray Herbarium of 
Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. (Various 
articles.) 

ScooN, C. K., Fruit-grower, Geneva, N. Y. 
{Cherry.) 

Sears, Prof. F. C, Wolfville, Nova Scotia. 
{Canada,) 

Shady Hill Nursery Co., Boston, Mass. {Her- 
baceous perennials . ) 

Slaymaker, a. W., Fruit-grower, Camden, Del. 
{Delaware.) 

Storrs & Harrison, Nurserymen, Painesville, 
Ohio. {Various plants,) 

Suzuki & Iida, Yokohama Nursery Co., 11 Broad- 
way, New York, N. Y. (Japanese plants.) 

Thorburn & Co., J. M., Seedsmen, New York, 
N. Y. {Numerous important and rare plants, 
especially annuals. ) 

Todd, Frederick G., Landscape architect, Mon- 
treal, P. Q. {Hardy trees and shrubs. ) 

Vice's Sons, James, Seedsmen, Rochester, N. Y. 
{Various plants.) 

Ward, C. W., Florist, Cottage Gardens, Queens, 
L. I. {Carnation,) 

Webb, Prof. Wesley, Dover, Del. {Delaware,) 

White, J. J., Cranberry grower. New Lisbon, 
N. J. {Cranberry.) 

Willard, S. D., Nurseryman, Geneva, N. Y. 
{Important fruits, as Cherry.) 

Wood, E. M., Florist, Natick, Mass. 

Wright, Charles, Horticulturist, Seaford, Del. 
{Delaware.) 



EXPLANATIONS 



HoRTiOTTLTURB 18 the art of raising fruits, vege- 
tables, flowers and ornamental plants. The lines 
of demarcation between it and the art of agricul- 
ture on the one hand and the science of botany 
on the other, are purely arbitrary. In this work, 
the word horticulture has been interpreted liber- 
ally. Herein are included discussions of land- 
scape gardening, and brief notes of such impor- 
tant agricultural subjects as Coffee, Cotton, Flax, 
and such economic subjects as Cinchona, India 
Rubber. Forage and medicinal plants are men- 
tioned only incidentally. 

WHAT IS MEANT BY "^TRE TRADE'' 

It is the design of the Cyclopedia to describe 
fully all those species of plants which are in the 
American trade, — ^that is, the species that are 
bought and sold. In order to determine what 
species are in the trade, catalogues of nurserymen, 
seedsmen and florists haye been indexed, and 
other commercial literature has been consulted; 
in addition to this, specialists have been consulted 
freely for lists of plants. The work includes the 
plants offered by foreign dealers who have Ameri- 
can agents, and who circulate in America cata- 
logues printed in the English language : therefore, 
the work will be found to include many species 
offered by the bulb growers of Holland, and by 
most other large European concerns. The pur- 
pose is to make a live record of the real status 
of our horticulture, rather than a mere compila- 
tion from the other literature. However, im- 
portant plants which are not in the American 
trade are mentioned, for they may be expected to 
appear at anytime: but these plants are in sup- 
plementary lists in smaller type. Thus, the size 
of type indicates that Ahobra viridiHora is in the 
trade, whereas Ahroma augusta is not. It will no 
doubt be a surprise to the reader, as it has been 
to the Editor, to discover the great wealth of 
American horticulture in species of plants. 

NOMENCLATURE 

The Editor has desired to be conservative on the 
vexed question of nomenclature. This effort is 
particularly important in the discussion of culti- 
vated plants, because names become established 



in the trade and are worth money. A plant sells 
under a familiar name, but it may be a commer- 
cial failure under a new or strange one. Since 
plants belong as much to the horticulturist as to 
the botanist, it is only fair that the horticulturist 
be consulted before wholesale changes are made 
in nomenclature. 

It is well to bear in mind that changes in the 
names of plants proceed from two general causes, — 
(1) from new conceptions respecting the limits of 
genera, species, varieties, and (2) from new ideas in 
the merely arbitrary fashions or systems of nomen- 
clature. Changes of the former kind are usually 
welcomed by horticulturists, because they eluci- 
date our understanding of the plants, but changes 
of the latter kind are usually deplored. At the 
present moment, there is the greatest unrest in 
respect to systems of nomenclature. This unrest 
is, to be sure, in the interest of the fixity or per- 
manency of names, but there is no guarantee— if, 
indeed, there is any hope— that the system which 
may be adopted to-day will be accepted by the 
next generation. In fact, the very difficulty of ar- 
riving at a common understanding on the question 
is itself the strongest evidence that the systems do 
not rest on fundamental or essential principles, 
but upon expediency and personal preference. 
There is no evidence that names which are mak- 
ing to-day will persist any longer than have those 
which they are supplanting. 

So-called reforms in nomenclature are largely 
national or racial movements, often differing 
widely between different peoples : consequently it 
is impossible to bring together under one system 
of nomenclature the cultivated plants of the world 
without making wholesale changes in names. 
Therefore, the Editor has accepted the most ten- 
able names which the plants bring, without in- 
quiring into the system under which they are 
given. In general, however, he believes that the 
technical name of a plant is comprised of two 
words, and that the first combination of these 
two parts should be accepted as the name. Such 
double names as Catalpa Catalpa and Glaudum 
Olaucium are the results of carrying arbitrary 
rules to the utmost limit, but their ugliness and 
arbitrariness condemn them. It is to be expected 
that in the names of plants, as in everything elsei 
the race will not long tolerate inflexibility. 



(xiv) 



EXPLANATIONS 



XV 



In generie names, the STStem of Bentham and 
Hooker (Oenera Plantamm) has been followed. 
This system makes fewer changes in accepted 
horticnltoral names than any other, and this ie 
considered to be a distinct merit. The chief rea- 
son for adopting the British ideas of genera, how- 
eyer, is that Index Kewensis affords a complete 
finding -list of species under those genera. It 
would be impossible, in a work like the present, 
to follow the more recent system of Engler and 
Prantl (Die Natdrlichen Pflanzenfamilien), be- 
cause there is no index or finding- list for the 
species under those genera, and to make the 
proper combinations of generic and specific names 
for horticultural plants would necessitate a compi- 
lation practically equivalent to Index Kewensis. 
However, the various contributors have been at 
liberty to adopt their own ideas of generic limita- 
tions, so that the work will be found to occupy a 
somewhat middle ground between the British and 
German ideas of genera. 

CHIEF LITERARY AIDS. 

In the compilation of this work, the Editor has 
had access to most of the important world -floras, 
and to the leading geographical floras. In the 
systematic botany, the greatest help has been 
derived from the following great general works : 
Bentham and Hooker, Genera Plantamm (1862- 
1883); Hooker & Jackson, Index Kewensis (1893- 
1895); DeCandolle's Prodromus (1824-1873)- 
DeCandolle's MonographifB Phanerogamarum 
(1878-1896, and continuing); Engler and Prantl, 
Die Natdrlichen Pflanzenfamilien (begun 1889) ; 
Botanical Magazine (1786 to the present, and con- 
tinuing); Botanical Register (1815-1847); Bevue 
Horticole, Paris (1829 to the present, and continu- 
ing) ; Ghirdeners' Chronicle, London (1841, and con- 
tinuing); Garden, London (1871, and continuing); 
Loddiges's Botanical Cabinet, London (1817-1833) ; 
Flore des Serres, Ghent (1845-1880) ; L' Illustration 
Horticole, Ghent ( 1854-1896) ; Gartenflora, Berlin 
(1852, and continuing); Garden and Forest, New 
York (1888-1897); Nicholson's Illustrated Diction- 
ary of Gardening, London (1884-1887); Mottet's 
translation of Nicholson, Paris (1892-1899) ; Siebert 
and Vo88, Vilmorin's Blumengftrtneri (189G). 

HOW TO USE THE KEYS 

In order to facilitate the study of the plants, the 
species have been arranged systematically, under 
the genus, rather than alphabetically. However, 
in all genera which contain 15 or more species, an 
alphabetical index has been supplied for purposes 
of rapid reference. The grouping of the species 
is founded preferably on horticultural rather 



than on botanical characters, so that the ar- 
rangement does not always express botanical re- 
lationships. The grouping and the keys are 
arranged primarily to aid the gardener in making 
determinations of species. Every effort is made 
sharply to contrast the species rather than to de- 
scribe them. A word of explanation will facilitate 
the use of the keys. The species are arranged in 
coordinate groups of various ranks, and groups of 
equal rank are marked by the same letter. Thus, 
group A is coordinate with aa and with AAA, and 
B with BB and bbb. Moreover, whenever possible, 
the coordinate keys begin with the same catch- 
word : thus, if A begins ^flowers,'' so do aa and 
AAA ; and this catchword is not used for keys of 
other rank. As an example, refer to Acer, page 
12. Look first at a, beginning ^^ foliage;'' then at 
AA (p. 15), also beginning *^ foliage." Under A 
are the coordinate divisions B and bb, each with 
^yioom" for the catchword. Under B there are 
no subdivisions, but under BB there are divisions 
0, CO and ceo, each with "fls." for a catchword. 
Under o there are no subdivisions, but co has 
four coordinate divisions, D, dd, ddd, dddd, each 
with "ivs." for a catchword, and so on. In other 
words, if the plant in hand does not fall under A, 
the inquirer goes at once to aa. If it falls under 
A, then he determines whether it belongs to B or 
to BB, and so on. 

A diagrammatic display of a scheme would 
stand as follows: 

A. Leaves, etc. 

B. Flowers, etc. 
0. Fruits, etc. 
0. Fruits, etc. 
BB. Flowers, etc. 
AA. Leaves, etc. 

B. Roots, etc. 

0. Flowers, etc. 

D. Margins of leaves, etc. 
DD. Margins of leaves, etc. 
0. Flowers, etc. 
BB. Boots, etc. 
BBB. Boots, etc. 
AAA. Leaves, etc. 

PRONVNCIATION 

Accent marks are used to aid the reader in pro- 
nouncing the name. The accent designates (1) 
stress, or the emphatic syllable, and (2) the length 
of the emphatic vowel. Following the American 
custom, as established by Gray and others, a grave 
accent ( ^ ) is employed to designate a long vowel, 
and an acute accent (^ ) a short vowel. Thus, 
officinale is pronounced offici-na^-li ; microcdi-pua 
is pronounced microcarp'-us. Ordinarily in diph- 
thongs the mark is placed over the second letter. 
Thus, in alirea the au is meant to have its custo- 
mary long sound, as if written a%ce. Double vow- 
els take their customary English sounds, as ee and 



XVI 



EXPLANATIONS 



oo. ThnSf the oo in Hodkeri is to be pronounced 
as in hook. In most eases, the letters d (from the 
Greek, meaning like to) are to be pronounced sep- 
arately : if the i is the penultimate syllable (next 
to the last), it is long, as in yuecol-des; if the % is 
the antepenultimate syllable (third from the end) 
it is short, as in rhomhoi-dea. In dioicus and 
monoicuSf however, the oi is a true diphthong, as 
in moist* It should be remembered that the final 
e terminates a separate syllable, as eommh-nej 
vulgd-re, gran'-de. This final e takes the short 
sound of «, as in whip. 

These pronunciations follow, in general, the 
common English method of pronouncing Latin 
names. However, many of the Latinized forms 
of substantive and personal names are so unlike 
Latin in general construction that the pronuncia- 
tion of them cannot follow the rule. As a matter 
of fact, biological nomenclature is a language of 
itself thrown into a Latin form, and it should not 
be a source of regret if it does not closely follow 
classical rules in its pronunciation. It has seemed 
best to make an exception to the literary rules in 
the case of personal commemorative names in the 
genitive : we retain, so far as possible, the pro- 
nunciation of the original name. Thus, a plant 
named for Carey is called Cd-reyi, not Cardy-i; 
for Sprenger, Spr&ng-eri^ not Sprengdr-i, The 
original spelling ( as written by the author of the 
name ) of the masculine genitive ending is usually 
retained, whether i or ti, but the syllable is usually 
pronounced as if the % were single. Whether one 



• or two is used in the making of a masculine 
genitive, is largely a matter of euphony and per- 
sonal preference. 

It may be well to add what are understood to be 
the long and short sounds of the vowels : 



it as in eane. 
4 as in can, 
d as in mets. 
6 as in met, 
1 as in pitie, 
i as in pin, 

J is often used 



6 as in eone, 
6 as in eon. 
ft as in juts, 
4 as in jut. 



as a vowel instead of i. 



SPELLING 

The original spelling of generic and speoifio 
names is preferred. In some instances this origi- 
nal orthography does not conform to the etymology 
of the name, particularly if the name is made from 
that of a person. Such a case is JHervillaf named 
for Dierville. Ideally, the name should be spelled 
Diervilleaj but Toumefort and LinnsBus did not 
spell it so, and a name is a name, not primarily a 
monument to a man. 

In accordance with the best authorities, the di- 
graph <B is used in the words ceerulea, csBrul^scens, 
caespitosa, ceesia ; cs is used in ccBlestis and cce- 
lestinum. 

Digraphs <b and ce have been dropped from Latin - 
made names which have come into the vernacular. 
Thus, as a common or English name, SpirsBa be- 
comes spirea, PeBonia becomes peonia or peony, 
Bougainvill»a becomes bongainvillea. 



ABBREVIATIONS 



I. .OF OENEEAL EXPRESSIONS 

cult eultirated, eto. 

diam diameter 

E east. 

ft feet. 

m inches. 

N north. 

S sonth. 

trap tropics, tropical. 

W. west. 

//. OF BOTANICAL TERMS 

fl flower. 

fls flowers. 

/W flowered. 

fr fruit. 

h height. 

If. leaf. 

Ift leaflet. 

Ivs. . leaves. 

St, stem. 

sts stems. 

syn synonym. 

var variety. 

///. OF BOOKS AND PERIODICALS 

To aid the student in the verifioation of the 
work, and to introduce him to the literature of the 
various subjects, citations are made to the por- 
traits of plants in the leading periodicals to 
which the American is most likely to have access. 
These references to pictures have been verified as 
far as possible, both in the MS. and in the proof. 
A uniform method of citation is much to be de- 
sired, but is extremely difficult, because periodi- 
cals rarely agree in methods. With great reluc- 
tance it was decided to omit the year in most 
cases, because of the pressure for space, but the 
student who lacks access to the original volumes 
may generally ascertain the year by consulting the 
bibliographical notes below. 

An arbitrary and brief method of citation has 
been chosen. At the outset it seemed best to indi- 
cate whether the cited picture is colored or not. 
This accounts for the two ways of citing certain 
publications containing both kinds of pictures, 
as The Garden, Bevue Horticole, and Gartenflora. 



The figures g^ven below explain the method of 

citation, and incidentally give some hints as to 

the number of volumes to date, and of the number 

of pages or plates in one of the latest volumes. 

A few works of the greatest importance are 

mentioned elsewhere by way of acknowledgment 

(p. XV.)* The standard works on the bibliography 

of botany are Pritzel's Thesaurus and Jackson's 

Guide to the Literature of Botany; also, Jackson's 

Catalogue of the Library of the Royal Botanic 

Gardens, Eew. 

The American Florist. Chicago. A trade 
paper founded August 15, 1885. The vol- 
umes end with July. Many picturea re- 
peated in ^ Gng." ( 14 : 1524*bvo1. and page) . 

AmericanGardening. New York. Represeuta 
14 extinct horticultural periodicals, includ- 
ing The American Garden (1888-1890). 
Founded 1879f (20:896 —vol. and pacre.) 

The Botanist. Edited by Maund. No years 
on title pages. Founded 1839. 8 vols., 
50 colored plates in each vol. (8:400ea 
vol. and col. plate.) Cumulative index. 

Britton & Brown. An Illustrated Flora of 
the Northern U. S., eto. New York. 
1896-1898. ( 3 : 588 » vol. and page. ) 

La Belgique Horticole. Ghent. 35 vols. 
(1851-1885.) 

Curtis' Botanical Magaslne. London. 
Founded 1787. The oldest current peri- 
odical devoted to garden plants. The 
vol. for 1899 is vol. 125 of the whole 
work. Index to first 107 volumes by E. 
Tonks. London. ( 7690 » col. plate. ) 

Botanical Register (1815-1847). Vols. 1-14 
edited by Edwards: vols. 15-33 by Lind- 
ley. In vols. 1-23 the plates are num- 
bered from 1-2014. In vols. 24-33 thev 
are numbered independently in each vol. 
There are 688 plates in vols. 24-33. <*An 
Appendix to the First Twenty-three Vol- 
umes" (bound separately or with the 
25th vol.), contains an index to the first 
23 vols. An index to vols. 24-31 may be 
found in vol. 31. (33 :70 b vol. and col. 
plate. ) 

Dana. How to Know the Wild Flowers. 
New York. 1893. (298 » page.) 

Emerson, G. B. Trees and Shrubs of Mas- 
sachusetts. Boston. 2 vols. 149 plates. 

Floral Cabinet. Knowles & Westcott. Lon- 
don. 1837-1840. 3 vols., 4to. 

The Florists' Exchange. New York. A 
trade paper, whose pictures sometimes 
are repeated in '^A.G." Founded Dec. 8, 
1888. ( 11 : 1298 = vol. and page. ) 

Floral Magazine. London. Series I. 1861- 
1871, 8vo. Series II. 1872-1881, 4to. 
(1881 :450 = year and col. plate. ) 

Florists' Review. Chicago. A trade paper. 
Vol. 1, Dec. 2, 1897, to May 26, 1898. Two 
vols, a year. ( 4 : 660 s vol. and page. ) 



A. 


F. , . . 




B 


B. 


B. . . . 


B.H. . . . 
B.M. . . . 



B.R. 



D. . . 

Em. . 
F.C. . 
F.E. 



F.M. 
F.R. 



(xvli) 



XVUl 



ABBREVIATIONS 



F.S. . . . Flore de« Semt. Ghent. (1845-1880.) 
Inconsistent in numbering, but the plate 
numbers are always found on the plate 
itself or on the page opposite. Valuable 
but perplexing indexes in vols. 15 and 19. 
(23:2481 =B vol. and col. plate.) 

G. C. . . . The Gardeners' Chronicle. London. Se- 
ries I. (1841-1873) is cited by year and 
page. Series II. or **New Series" (1874- 
1886), is cited thus: II. 26: 824 = series, 
volume and page. Series III. is cited 
thus: 111.26:416. Two vols, a year, be- 
ginning 1874. A select index is scattered 
through 1879 and 1880. Consult II. 
12:viii (1879), and similar places in sub- 
sequent vols. 

Q. F. . . . (Hrden and Forest. New York. 1888-1897. 
(10:518 «Tol. and page.) 

G. M. . . . Gardeners' Magrazine. London. Ed. by 
Shirley Hibberd. Founded 1860. Vols. 
31-42 are cited. (42 :872 = vol. and page. ) 

Gn The Garden. London. Founded 1871. Two 

vols, a year. (56: 1254 =» vol. and col. 
plate. 56, p. 458 s vol. and page con- 
taining black figure.) An Index of the 
first 20 vols, was separately published. 
Complete Index of Colored Plates to end 
of 1888 in vol. 54, p. 334. 

Gng. . . . Gardening. Chicago. Founded Sept. 15, 
1892. Vols, end Sept. 1. (7:384 a vol. 
and page.) 

Gt Gartenflora. Berlin. Founded 1852. (Gt. 

48: 1470 a> vol. and col. plate. Gt. 48, p. 
670 b vol. and page containing black 
figure). 

G. W. F. . Goodale's Wild Flowers of America. Bos- 
ton, 1886. ( 50 a- col. plate. ) 

HBK. . . Humboldt, Bonpland A Etmth. Nova 
Genera et Species, etc. Paris. 1815-25. 
7 vols. Folio. 



I. H. 



J.H. 



L. B. C. . 

Lind. . . 
Lowe . . . 
M. . . . 
M.D.G. . 
Mn. . . . 



N. 



L'lllustration Horticole. Ghent. (1854-1896.) 
(43 : 72 s vol. and col. plate. ) The volumes 
were numbered continuously, but there 
were 6 series. Series I.» 1854-63. Se- 
ries II.s 1864-69. Series III.» 1870-80. 
Series IV. » 1881-^. Series V. « 1887- 
93. Series VI. ^^ 1894-96. The plates 
were numbered continuously in the first 
16 vols, from 1 to 614 : in vols. 17-33 
they run from 1 to 619: in series V. from 
1 to 190: in Series VI. they begin anew 
with each vol. Valuable indexes in vols. 
10 and 20. Series V. in 4to, the rest 8vo. 

Journal of Horticulture. London. Founded 
in 1848 as The Cottage Gardener. Series 
III. only is cited, beginning 1880. (III. 
39:504 s series, vol., page.) 

In vol. 1 of this work, sometimes means 
Lindenia, sometimes Lowe's Beautiful 
Leaved Plants . See ** Lind . " and " Lowe. " 

. The Botanical Cabinet. Loddiges. 1817- 
33. 100 plates in each vol. Complete 
index in last vol. (20: 2000 = vol. and 
col. plate.) 

Lindenia. Ghent. Founded 1885. Folio. 
Devoted to orchids. 

Beautiful Leaved Plants. E. J. Lowe and 
Howard. London. 1864. (60a col. plate.) 

A. B. Freeman-Mitford. The Bamboo Gar- 
den. London. 1896. (224 b page.) 

Mdller's Deutsche GUrtner-Zeitung. Erfurt. 
Founded 1886. ( 1897 :425 » year and page. ) 

Meehan's Monthly. Germantown, Phila- 
delphia. Founded 1891. (9: 192 = vol. 
and page opposite col. plate.) 

Nicholson. Dictionary of Gardening. Vols. 
1-4 (1884-1887). Vol. 5 in preparation. 



P. F. G. . . Lindley A Pazton. Flower Garden. Lon- 
don. 1851-53. 3 vols. 4to. 

P. G. . . . Popular (hardening. Buffalo. 1885-90. 
(5 : 270 a vol. and page. ) 

P. M. . . . Paxton's Magasine of Botany. London. 
1834-49. (16:376«voL and page oppo- 
site col. plate.) Vol. 15 has index of first 
15 vols. 

B Beiehenbachia. Ed. by Fred. Sander. Lon- 
don. Founded 1886. Folio. 

B. B. • . . . Bevue de THorticulture Beige et Etrang^re. 
Ghent. Founded 1875 f (23 : 288 » vol. and 
page opposite col. plate. ) In the first vol. of 
the Ctclopkdia '^B.B." sometimes means 
Belgique Horticole, but the confusion is 
corrected in later vols., where Belgique 
Horticole is abbreviated to '"B.H." 

B. H. . . . Revue Horticole. Dates from 1826, but 
is now considered to have been founded in 
1829. ( 1899 : 596 = year and page opposite 
col. plate. 1899, p. 596 » year and page 
opposite black figure. ) 

S Schneider. The Book of Choice Ferns. 

London. In 3 vols. Vol. 1, 1892. Vol. 2, 

1893. 
S. B.F.G. . Sweet British Flower Garden. London. 

Series I., 1823-29, 3 vols. Series U., 

1831-38, 4 vols. 
S. H. . . . Semaine Horticole. Ghent. Founded 1897. 

(3 : 548 a> year and page. ) 

S.^T. . . . Semaine Horticole. Erroneously cited in 
this fashion a few times in first vol. 

S. S. . . . Sargent. The Silva of North America. 
13 vols. Vol. 1, 1891. Vol. 12, 1898. 
(12:620 as vol. and plate, not colored.) 

S. Z. . . . Siebold & Zuccarini. Flora Japonica. Vol. 
1, 1835-44. Vol. 2 by Miquel, 1870. 
(2:150== vol. and plate.) 

V. orV.M. Viok's Magazine. Rochester, N. Y. Founded 
1878. Vols, numbered continuously 
through the 3 series. Vols, begin with 
Nov. (23:250ssvol. and page.) Some- 
times cited as ** Vlck." 

ir. OF AUTHORS OF PLANT NAMES 

By common consent, the Latin name of a plant, 
in order to be considered by botanists, must first be 
regularly published by a reputable author in a rep- 
utable book or periodical. As an index to this 
name, the name of its author is published with it 
whenever an accurate account of the species is 
given. Thus, Abelia Chinensis, B. Br., means that 
this name was made by Robert Brown. This cita- 
tion at once distinguishes Robert Brown's Abelia 
Chinensis from any other Abelia Chinensis; for it is 
possible that some other author may have given 
this name to some other plant, — in which case the 
older name must stand. Thus, the Abelia serrata of 
Siebold & Zuccarini is not the A, serrata of Nich- 
olson. In some cases, the fact that there are two 
plants passing under one name is indicated in the 
citation: Abelia rupestriSf Hort., not Lindl., means 
that the rupestris of horticulturists is not the rupes- 
tris of Lindley. ^^Hort." means that the particular 
name is one in use amongst horticulturists, — that 
it is a garden name. 

The citation of authorities gives a clue to the 
time and place of publication of the species. It is 



ABBREVIATIONS 



XIX 



an index to the literature of the subject. It is no 
part of the idea merely to give credit or honor to 
the man who made the name. It is held by some 
that the authority is an integral part of the name, 
and should always go with it; but common usage 
dictates otherwise, for the authority is never pro- 
nounced with the Latin words in common speech. 
The authority is a matter of bibliography, not of 
language. 

It remains to be said (as already explained un- 
der the discussion of Nomenclature, page xiv.) that 
the Editor holds that the name of a plant is of two 
coordinate words. Therefore, it is the habit of this 
work to cite the author who first made the combi- 
nation of the two, not the one who first invented 
the specific name. Thus, Linnasus called a certain 
plant Eupatorium ccelestinum ; De Candolle, however, 
prefers to put this plant in the genus Gonoclinium, 
and calls it Conoclinium ccelestinum. For the name 
in Eupatorium, LinnsBus is cited: for the name in 
Conoclinium, De Candolle is cited. 8ome writers 
would cite both authors under Conoclinium, thus: 
Conoclinium ccelestinum J (Linn.) DC. The authority 
in parentheses is the one who invented the specific 
name itself: the other is the one who made the 
particular combination. This double citation is 
bungling, particularly for a horticultural work. Its 
merit is the fact that it suggests the history of the 
name; but it is not complete in this respect, for 
the name may have been used in other combina- 
tions, of which the citation gives no hint. The full 
history of a name can appear only in the synonymy. 

Adans. Michael Adanson, 1727-1806. France. 

AiT. William Alton, 1731-1793. England. 

Arr. f. William Townsend Alton, the son, 1766-1849. 
England. 

All. Carlo Allioni, 1725-1804. Italy. 

Amdr. Henry C .Andrews , botanical artist and engraver, 
conducted The Botanists* Repository from 179^1811, 
and illastrated books on heaths, geraniums and roses. 

Andre. Edouard Andr6, once editor of Illustration 
Horticole, now editor-in-chief of Revue Horticole. 

AsN. George Arnold Walker Amott, 1799-1868. Scot- 
land. 

Baill. H. Baillon, author of the great natural history 
of plants in French. 

Baker. John Gilbert Baker, formerly keeper of the Her- 
barium of the Royal Gardens, Kew, England. 

Balt. Charles Baltet, frequent contributor to Revue 
Horticole. 

Bean. W. J. Bean, recent writer from Kew in Gurd. 
Chron. on bamboos. 

Bbauv. Ambroise Marie Francois Joseph Palisot de 
Beauvois, 1755-1820. France. 

Beissm. L. Beissner, Inspector of the Botanic Gardens 
at Bonn, and Instructor at Foppelsdorf, pub. Hand- 
buch der Nadelholzkunde. 

Benth. George Bentham, 1800-1884, one of England's 
most distinguished botanists. 



Benth. & Hook. George Bentham and J. D. Hooker, 

authors of Genera Plantarum. England. 
Bbrnh. Johann Jacob Bemhardi, 1774-1850. Germany. 
Bert. Carlo Giuseppe Bertero, 1789-1831. Died be- 
tween Tahiti and Chile. 

BiEB. Friedrich August Marschall von Bieberstein, 
1768-1826. German botanist; lived later in Russia. 

BiGEL. Jacob Bigelow, 1787-1879. Massachusetts. 

Bl. See Blume. 

Blume. Karl Ludwlg Blume, b. 1796 at Braun- 
schweig, d. 1862 at Leyden. Wrote much on Javan 
plants. 

Boiss. Edmond Boissier, 1810-1886. Switserland. 

BOJER. W. Bojer, 1800-1856, author of a Flora of Mau- 
ritius. Austria. 

Britton. Nathaniel Lord Britton, Director New York 
Botanic Garden, New York, N. Y. 

Bbongn. Adolphe Theodore Brongniart, 1801-1876. 
France. 

BuiiL. William Bull, plant merchant, London. 

Bull. Pierre Bulliard, 1742-1793, author of the great 
Herbier de la Francs in 12 folio vols., with 600 
plates. 

BuNOE. Alexander von Bunge, 1803-1890. Russia. 

BuRM. Johannes Burmann, 1706-1779, Prof, at Amster- 
dam, wrote on plants of Ceylon and Malabar. 

BuRM. f . Nickolaus Laurens Burmann, 1734-1793. Son 
of Johannes. 

Carr. Elie Abel Carridre, 1818-1896, distinguished 
French botanist and horticulturist, editor of Revue 
Horticole. 

Cass. Alexandre Henri Gabriel Cassini, Comte de, 
1781-1832. France. 

Cav. Antonio Jos^ CavaniUes, 1745-1804. Spain. 

Cerv. Vicente Cervantes, 1759 (f)-1829. Mexico. 

Chah. Adalbert von Chamisso, poet and naturalist, 
1781-1838. Germany. 

Chafm. Alvan Wentworth Chapman, 1809-1899, author 
of Flora of the Southern United States. 

Chois. Jacques Denys Choisy, 1799-1859. Switzerland. 

CuNN. Richard Cunningham, 1793-1835. Colonial bot- 
anist in Australia. 

CuNN., A. Allan Cunningham, b. 1791, Scotland, d. 
1839, Sidney, Australia. Brother of Richard. 

Curt. William Curtis, 1746-1799. England. Founder 
of the Botanical Magazine, now known as Curtis' 
Botnnical Magazine. 

Curtis. Moses Ashley Curtis, 1808-1873. North Carolina. 

DC. Augustin Pyramus De Candolle, 1778-1841, projec- 
tor of the Prodromus, and head of a distinguished 
family. Alphonse De Candolle, the son (1806-1893), 
and Casimir De Candolle, the grandson, are also 
quoted in this work. 

Decne. Joseph Decaisne, 1809-1882. France. 

Desf. Ren^ Louiche Desfontalnes, 1750-1833. France. 

Desv. Augustin Nicaise De^vauz, 1784-1856. France. 

DeVr. Willem Hendrik de Vriese, 1807-1862, Prof, 
of Botany at Leyden. Wrote on medical plants and 
plants of the Dutch East Indies. 

DiOKS. James Dickson, 1738-1822, Scotch writer on 
flowerless plants. 

DiFP. Dr. L. Dippel, of Darmstadt, Germany. Den- 
drologist; pub. Handbuch der Laubholzkunde. 



ABBREVIATIONS 



D. Don. Dayid Don, brother of Oeorge, 1800-1841. 
Scotland. 

Don. Qeorge Don, 179^1856. England. 

DoNN. James Donn, 1758-1813, aathor of Hortne Can- 
tabrigiensis. England. 

DouGiiAS. David Douglas, 1799-1834, collector in north- 
western America. Scotland. 

Dbuds. Prof. O. Dmde, of Dresden, Germany. 

DccHXSNB. Antoine Nicolas Duchesne, 1747-1827. 
France. 

DuMOBT. Barth^lemy Charles Dumortier, 1797-1878. 
Belgium. 

DuMAL. Michel Felix Dunal, 1789-1856. France. 

Dtsb. W. T. Thistleton-Dyer, Director of Kew Gar- 
dens, present editor of the Flora of Tropical Africa, 
etc. 

Eaton, A. Amos Eaton, 1776-1842, aathor of a Manual 
of Botany for North America, Ist ed. 1817, 8th ed. 
1841. 

Eaton, D. C. Daniel Cady Eaton, Prof, at Tale Col- 
lege, and writer on ferns. 

Ehbh. Friedrich Ehrhart, 1742-1796. Germany. 

Ell. Stephen Elliott, 1771-1830. South Carolina. 

Ellis. John Ellis, 1711-1776. England. 

Endl. Stephan Ladislaus Endlicher, 1804-1849, Prof. 
at Vienna. Numerous works. 

Enoblm. George Engelmann, 1809-1884. Missouri. 

Englbb. Prof. A. Engler, of Berlin, Joint author of 
Engler and Prantl's Natttrllchen Pflanzenfamilien. 

F. C. Lehm. See Lehm., F. C. 

Feb. Antoine Laurent Apollinaire F^, 1789-1874. 
France. 

FzsoH. Friedrich Ernst Ludwigvon Fischer, 1782-1854. 
Russia. 

FoBB. John Forbes, catalogued heaths, willows, coni- 
fers, and other plants at Wobum Abbey. 

FOBSK. Pehr Forskal, 1736-1768, collected in Egypt 
and Arabia. 

FoBST. Johann Beinhold Forster, 1729-1798. Germany. 
(Also Georg Forster, the son. ) 

Fbasbb. John Fraser, 1750-1811, traveled in America 
1785-96. Had a son of same name. 

FB(ZL. Joseph Aloys Froelich, 1766-1841. Germany. 

F. v. M. Ferdinand von Mueller, Boyal botanist of 
Australia, author of many works on economic 
plants. See Muell. 

Gaebtn. Joseph Gaertner, 1732-1791. Germany. 

Gaud. Charles Gaudichaud-Beaupr^, 1789-1864. 
France. 

Gawl. See Eer. 

GiCBL. Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin, 1743-1774. Russia. 

GoEPP. Heinrich Robert Goeppert, 1800-1884, Prof, at 
Breslau. Wrote much on fossil botany. 

GK)BD. Gtoorge Gordon, 1806-1879, author of the Plne- 
tum, London, 1858. 

Gbat. Asa Gray, 1810-1888, Harvard University, 
Massachusetts. America's most noted botanist. 

Gbbenm. J. M. Greenman, writes from Harvard Uni- 
versity on Mexican plants. 

Gbisbb., Gbis. Heinrich Rudolph August Grlsebach, 
1814-1879. Germany. 

Hassk. Justus Karl Hasskarl, 1811- . Germany. 

Hayne. Friedrich Gottlob Hayne, 1763-1832, Prof, at 
Berlin. Medicinal plants ; trees and shrubs. 



Haw. Adrian Hardy Haworth, 1772-1833. England. 

HBK. Friedrich Alexander von Humboldt, 1796-1859. 
Germany. Aim6 Bonpland, 1773-1858. France. Karl 
Sigismund Kunth, 1788-1850. Germany. Authors of 
a great work on plants of the New World. 

Hbicsl. W. Sotting Hemsley, Keeper at Kew, has 
written many reviews of genera of horticultural 
value in Gard. Chron. and elsewhere. 

Hbbb. William Herbert, 1778-1847. England. 

HocHST. Christian Friedrich Hoehstetter, 1787-1860, 
described many African plants. 

HoFTM. Georg Franz Hoffmann, 1761-1826. Germany. 

Hook. William Jackson Hooker, 1785-1865. England. 

Hook. f. Joseph Dalton Hooker, the son, 1817- 
England. 

HoBT. Hortorum, literally of th^ garden*. Placed af- 
ter names current among horticulturists, but not 
necessarily all horticulturists. Often used with less 
exactness than names of authors. Frequently in- 
dicates garden or unknown origin. Many of these 
plants have never been sufficiently described. 

Jacq. Nicolaus Joseph Jaoquln, 1727-1817. Austria. 

Juss. Antoine Laurent Jussieu, 1748-1836, the first to 
introduce the natural families of plants. France. 

Kabw. Wilhelm Karwinsky von Karwin, d. 1855, col- 
lector in Brazil. 

Kaulf. Georg Friedrich Kaulfoss, Prof, at Halle, d. 
1830. He described the ferns collected by Chamisso. 

Keb. John Bellenden Ker, 1765 (t)-1871, botanist, wit 
and man of fashion. First known as John Gawler. 
In 1793 was compelled to leave army because of sym- 
pathy with French Rev. His name was changed in 
1804 to John Ker Bellenden, but he was known to his 
friends as Bellenden Ker. First editor of Edwards' 
Botanical Register. 

Kebt-Gawl. See Ker. 

Klatt. Friedrich Wilhelm Klatt, a contemporaneous 
botanist. Germany. 

Klotzsch. Johann Friedrich Klotzsch, 1805-1860, cu- 
rator of Royal herbarium at Berlin, monographer of 
BegoniacesB. 

Koch. Karl Koch, 1809-1879. Germany. 

KoEHNE. Emil Koehne, Prof, at Berlin. Pub. Deutsche 
Dendrologie. 

KOTSCHY. Theodor Kotschy, Asst. curator at Vienna, 
1813-1866. Wrote on oriental plants. 

Kbanzl. F. Kr&nslin, Berlin, writes on orchids In The 
Gardeners' Chronicle. 

KuNTH. See HBK. 

Lag. Mariano Lagasca, 1776-1839, one of Spain's most 
distinguished botanists. 

Lam. Jean Baptiste Antoine Pierre Monnet Lamarck, 
1744-1829, author of the Lamarckian philosophy of 
organic evolution. France. 

Lanos. Georg Heinrich von Langsdorf, 1774-1852, 
Russian consul-general in Brazil. 

Lauth. Thomas Lauth, 1758-1826, Prof, of Anatomy 
at Strassburg, wrote a 40-page monograph on Acer 
in 1781. 

Lbcq. Henry Lecoq, b. 1802, once Prof, at Clermont- 
Ferrand, wrote an elementary botany, a dictionary 
of botanical terms, a book on hybridization, etc. 

LeConte. John Eaton LeConte, 1784-1860. Pennsyl- 
vania. 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Lbdkb. Karl Friedrieli yon Ledebonr, 1785-1851. 

RoBsia. 
Lbhx. Johaim Gtoorg Christian Lehmann, 1792-1860, 

Prof, at Hamburg, wrote seyeral monographs, and 

described many new plants. 
hsBM,,. F. C. F. C. Lehmann, liTing German collector 

in South America. 
Lkicht. Max LeichtUn, horticulturist, Baden-Baden, 

(Germany. 
Lem. Charles Lemaire, 1800-1871. Belgium. 
L'HsB. C. L. L'H^ritier de BruteUe, 1746-1800. 

France. 
LnsTD. A Rod. L. Linden and E. Bodigas, once adminis- 
trator and editor, respectirely, of L'lllustration Hor- 

ticole., 
LmnEK. J. Linden, 1817-1898. Belgium. For many 

years director of L'lllustration Horticole. 
LiND. , L. Lucien Linden, associated with J. Linden for 

some years on L'lllustration Horticole. 
LiNDL. John Lindley, 1799-1865, one of the most 

illustrious of English horticulturists. 
Lnnc. Heinrich Friedrich Link, 1767-1851. Germany. 
LiHN. Carolus Linnnus (Carl von Linn^), 1707-1778, 

the ** Father of Botany,** and author of binomial 

nomenclature. Sweden. 
Lmss. f . Carl von Linn^, the son, 1741-1783. Sweden. 
LoDD. Conrad Loddiges, nurseryman near London, 

conducted Loddiges* Botanical Cabinet from 1817-33, 

20 vols., 2,000 colored plates. 
LoisEL. Jean Louis Auguste Loiseleur-Deslongehamps, 

1774-1849. France. 
Loud. John Claudius Loudon, 1783-1843, an extremely 

prolific English writer. 
LouB. Juan Loureiro, 1715-1796, missionary in China. 

Portugal. 
Mabsh. Humphrey Marshall, 1722-1801. Pennsylvania. 
liABT. Karl Friedrich Philipp von Martins, 1794-1868, 

Prof, at Munich, monographer of palms, founder of 

the great Flora Brasiliensis, and author of many 

works. 
Mabt. Maxwell T. Masters, editor of The Gardeners' 

Chronicle, wherein he has described great numbers 

of new plants of garden value; author of Vegetable 

Teratology, etc. 
Max. or Maxim. Karl Johann Maximowics, 1827-1891, 

one of the most illustrious Russian systematic bota- 
nists; wrote much on Asian plants. 
Medic. Friedrich Casmir Medikus, 173^1808, director 

of the garden at Mannheim, wrote a book of 96 pages 

in German on North American plants in 1792. 
Meism. Karl Friedrich Meisner, 1800-1874. Switzer- 
land. 
IfETT. Georg Heinrich Mettenius, 1823-1866, Prof, at 

Leipzig, wrote on flowerless plants. 
Met. Ernst Heinrich Friedrich Meyer, 1791-1851. 

Prussia. 
Met., C. a. Carl Anton Meyer, 1795-1855, director 

botanic g^arden at St. Petersburg, wrote on Russian 

botany. 
MiCHX. Andr^ Michaux, 1746-1802. France, but for 

ten years a resident of North America. 
MiCHX. f . Francois Andr6 Michaux, the son, 1770-1855. 

France. 



Mux. Phillip Miller, 1691-1771, of Chelsea, England, 

author of a celebrated dictionary of gardening, 

which had many editions. 
Mi<). Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel, 1811-1871. 

Holland. 
MirroBD. A. B. Freeman-Mitford, English amateur, 

author of The Bamboo Garden. 
MoENOH. Konrad Moench, 1744-1805. Germany. 
MttNCH. See Moench. 
MooBB. Thomas Moore, 1821-1887, curator of Chelsea 

Botanic Garden, author of Index Filicum, and other 

well known works. 
MoQ. Alfred Moqutn-Tandon, 1804-1863. France. 
MoBBEN. Charles Jacques Edouard Morren, of Ghent. 

1833-1886. 
MoTT. S. Mottet, frequent contributor to Revue Hot* 

ticole, translator of Nicholson's Dictionary of 

Gardening. 
MuELL. Abg. Jean Mueller, of Aargau, wrote for 

De CandoUe's Prodromus, vol. 16. 
MuELL., C. Carl Mueller, 1817-1870, who edited vols. 

4-6 of Walpers' Annals. 
MuEUi., F. Ferdinand von Mueller, Royal botanist at 

Melbourne, has written much on Australian and 

economic botany. 
MuHL. Henry Ludwig Muhlenberg, 1756-1817. Penn- 
sylvania. 
MuBB. Johann Andreas Murray, 1740-1791. Germany. 
MuBB., A. Andrew Murray, 1812-1878, author of The 

Pines and Firs of Japan. London, 1863. 
Naud. Charles Naudin, 1815-1899, botanist, frequent 

contributor to Revue Horticole. 
Ndn. See Naud. 
N.E. Bb. N. E. Brown describes many new plants in 

Gardeners' Chronicle. 
Nee8. Christian Gottfried Nees von Esenbeck, 1776- 

1858. Prussia. 
NiOHOLS. G^rge Nicholson, Curator at Kew, author 

of The Dictionary of Gardening. 
NUTT. Thomas Nuttall, 1786-1859. Massachusetts. 
O'Bbien. James O'Brien, current writer on orchids in 

Gardeners' Chronicle. 
Ouv. Daniel Oliver, once Curator at Kew, and founder 

of the Flora of Tropical Africa. 
Obph. Theodor Georg Orphanides, Prof, of Botany at 

Athens. D. 1886. 
Obtega, Obt. Casimiro Gomez Ortega, 1740-1818. 

Spain. 
Otto. Friedrich Otto, 1782-1856. Germany. 
Pall. Peter Simon Pallas, 1741-1811, professor and 

explorer in Russia. Germany. 
Pax. Ferdinand Pax, German botanist. Breslau. 
Paxt. Joseph Paxton, 1802-1865. England. 
Pebs. Christian Hendrick Persoon, 1755-1837. Ger- 
many. 
Plamch. Jules £mile Planchon, professor at Mont- 

pellier. France. 
PoHL. Johann Emmanuel Pohl, 1782-1834, Prof, at 

Vienna, wrote a large book on travels in Brazil. 
PoiB. Jean Louis Marie Poiret, 1755-1834. France. 
Pbbsl. Karel Boriweg Presl, 1794-1852. Bohemia. 
PUBSH. Frederick T. Pursh (or Pursch), 1774-1820. 

Siberia, but for 12 years in the United StateSt 



zxu 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Raddi. Giuseppe Raddi, 1770-1829. Italy. 
Baf. Constantino Samuel Raflnesque-Schmaltz, 1784- 
1842. Prof, of Nat. Hist. Transylvania Univ., Lex- 
ington, Ey. 
K. Br. Robert Brown, b. Scotland, 1773, d. London, 

1858. Author of many important works. 
Reoel.. Eduard von Regel, 1815-1892, German, founder 

of Gartenflora; Dir. Bot. Garden at St. Petersburg. 
Rbich. Heinrich Gottlieb Ludwig Reichenbach, 179^ 

1879. Germany. 
Reich, f . Heinrich Gustav, 1823-1889, son of the pre- 
ceding. Orchids. 
Rich. John Richardson, 1787-1865. Scotland. [France. 
Richard. Louis Claucle Marie Richard, 1754-1821. 
RiDDELL. John Leonard Riddell, 1807-1865, Prof, of 

Chemistry in Cincinnaiti and New Orleans. 
Rob. Dr. B. L. Robinson, Director Gray Herbarium of 

Harvard Univ., is editii\g The Synoptical Flora of 

North America. \ 

Rod. Emile Rodigas, for solne years connected with 

L'Dlustration Horticole. \ 
RoEM. Johann Jacob Roemer, ,1763-1819. Switzerland. 

Also M. J. Roemer. 
RoscoE. William Roscoe, 1753-1831. England. 
Rose. J. N. Rose, Asst. Curaior, U. S. Nat. Herb., 

Smithsonian Institution. Mexican plants. 
Roth. Albrecht Wilhelm Roth, ,1757-1834, Physician at 

Vegesack, near Bremen. 
RoxBG. William Roxburgh, 1769-1815. India. 
RoYLE. John Forbes Royle, b. 1800 at Cawnpore, d. 

London, 1858. Prof, in London. Plants of India. 
Ruiz & Pay. Hipolito Ruiz Lopez, 1764-1815, and Jos6 

Pavon, authors of a Flora of Peru and Chile. Spain. 
RupR. Franz J. Ruprecht, 1814-1870. Russia. 
S. & Z. See Sieb. & Zucc. 

Sabine. Joseph Sabine, 1770-1837. England. [land. 
Sausb. Richard Anthony Salisbury, 1761-1829. Eng- 
SaLiM-Dyck. Joseph, Prince and High Count Salm- 

Reifferscheidt-Dyck, b. at Dyck, 1773, d. 1861. Wrote 

on Aloe, Cactus, Mesembryanthemum. 
Saro. Prof. Charles Sprague Sargent, Dir. Arnold 

Arboretum, author of Silva of North America. 
ScHEiDW. Michael Joseph Scheidweiler, 1799-1861, 

Prof, of Bot. and Hort. at Hort. Inst, of Ghent. 
ScHLECHT. Diedrich Franz Leonhard von Schlechten- 

dahl, 1794-1866. Prof, at Halle,wrote several memoirs 

in Latin and German. 
ScHLDL. See Schlecht. 
ScHOTT. Heinrich Wilhelm Schott, 1794-1865, wrote 

much on Aroids with Nyman and Kotschy. 
ScHRAD. Heinrich Adolph Schrader, 1767-1836. Ger- 
many. 
ScHW., ScHWEiN. Lewis David von Schwelnitz, 1780- 

1834. Pennsylvania. 
Sc'HWER. Graf Schwerin, German authority on Acer. 
Scop. Johann Anton Scopoli, 1723-1788. Italy. 
Seem. Berthold Seemann, Hanover, 1825-1872, wrote 

on palms, and botany of the voyage of the Herald. 
SiBTH. John Sibthorp, 1758-1796, author of a Flora of 

Greece. England. 
Sieb. & Zucc. Philipp Franz von Siebold, 1796-1866, 

and Joseph Gerhard Zuccarini, 1797-1848. Ger- 
many. 



SiXBXBT. A. Siebert, Dir. of the Palm Gard. at Frank- 
furt, joint author of Vilmorin*s Blumengartnerei. 

Socs. John Sims, 1792-1838. England, for many years 
editor of Curtis' Botanical Magazine. 

SiOTH. James Edward Smith, 1759-1828. England. 

Sol., Soland. Daniel Solander, 1736-1782. England. 

Spach. Eduard Spach, b. Strassburg. 1801, d. 1879. 
Author of Histoires Naturelle des Vegetaux. 

Spaeth. L. Spaeth, Berlin, nurseryman. 

Spbeng. Kurt Sprengel, 1766-1633. Germany. 

Steud. Ernst Gottlieb Steudel, 1783-1856. Germany. 

Stev. Christian Steven, 1781-1863. Russia. 

St. Hn>. Auguste de Saint Hilaire, 1779-1853. France. 

SwABTZ. Olof Swartz, 1760-1818. Sweden. 

Sweet. Robert Sweet, 1783-1835, author of many well 
known works, as GeraniaceaB, British Flower Garden. 

Swz. See Swartz. 

Thore. Jean Thore, 1762-1823, physician at Dax. 

Thunb. Carl Peter Thunberg, 1743-1822. Sweden. 

Tobb. John Torrey, 1796-1873. New York. [setts. 

TucKM. Edward Tuckerman, 1817-1886. Massachu- 

Undbew. Prof. Lucius M. Underwood, Columbia Univ., 
New York, N. Y., has written much on ferns, etc. 

Vahl. Martin Vahl, 1749-1804. Denmark. 

Van Houtte. Louis Van Houtte, 1810-1876, founder 
and publisher of Flore des Serres. 

Veftgh. John Gould Veitch, 1839-1867, and successors, 
horticulturists at Chelsea, England. 

Vent. Etienne Pierre Ventenat, 1757-1808. France. 

Vebjl. B. Verlot, contributor to Revue Horticole. 

Versch. Ambroise VerschaiTelt, 1825-1886, founder and 
publisher of L'lUustration Horticole at Ghent, Bel- 
gium. 

ViLL. Dominique Villars, 1745-1814. France. 

ViLic. Several generations of the family of Vilmorin, 
Paris, seedsmen and authors of many books and 
memoirs on botany and horticulture. Pierre Philippe 
Andr^ Leveque de Vilmorin, 1746-1804. Pierre Vil- 
morin, 1816-1860. Henry L. de Vilmorin, d. 1899. 

Vo88. A. Voss, author of botanical part of Vilmorin 's 
Blumeng&rtnerei. 

Wahl. Georg Wahlenberg, 1781-1851. Sweden. 

Wall. Nathanael Wallich, b. Copenhagen 1786, d. 
London 1854, wrote on plants of India and Asia. 

Walp. Wilhelm Gerhard Walpers, 1816-1853. 

Walt. Thomas Walter, about 1740-1788, author of 
Flora Caroliniana. South Carolina. 

Wang. Friedrich Adam Julius von Wangenheim, 1747- 
1800. Germany. 

Wats. Sereno Watson, 1826-1892. Harvard University. 

Wedd. H. a. Weddell, wrote for De Candolle's Pro- 
dromus, vol. 16, etc. 

Wendl., H. Hermann Wendland, Dir. Royal Bot. 
Garden at Herrenhausen, one of the chief writers on 
palms. 

WiLLD. Earl Ludwig Willdeuow, 1765-1812. Germany. 

With., Wither. William Withering, 1741-1799. Eng. 

Wittm. Max Earl Ludwig Wittmack, editor of Gar- 
tenflora. Prof, at Berlin. 

Wood. Alphonso Wood, 1810-1881. Of his Class-Book 
of Botany, 100,000 copies have been sold in Amer. 

Zucr. Joseph Gerhard Zuccarini, 1797-1848, Prof, at 
Munich. 



Cyclopedia of American Horticulture 



ABSLIA (kfterDr.ClKTkeAbel.d.lSSe). CaprifoUH- 
t*a. Small Bhrobi : Its. oppoBlte, amall, petloled and 
moatl; dentate: fls. tnbalir, Qneqaslly B-lobed, la axil' 



iatOTB 



iDBt 



miiiBl 



mlcll 



■yberr;, G.ABls,Hlnia1sy&9 and Mexico. 
Pree- flowering low shrabs for cool green houga or ootdoor 
ealtlvUion. Tbe Japanese and Chinese epeclea are the 
hardiest, but la tbenorlh require same protection during 
the winter, Tbe Mexican speclea are hardy only south. 
U potted,  aandy compost of peat and loam will aalt 
themi In theopeathe; grow best In aandy soillnaaanny 

Cisilion. Prop, by greenwood euttlngn Id sommer or by 
jers in spring. 

Chlnindi, R. Br. {A. mpitiri,, Llndt.). Lvs. ovate, 
rODnded at the base, serrate, bairy od tbe midrib beneath 
and tometlmes with scattered hairs above, declduons: 
flfl. in terminal panlelea, white, mn. long; sepalsQ; sta- 
mens eiserted. Snmmer. China. B.R. 32: 8. Gn. 27, 
p. 124. 

Doribtoda, Deealsne. Shrab, 4 ft.: Ivs. persistent, 
OTal,erenate-serrate, oUlate: peduncles axillary, I-3-fld. : 
eorollaroay purple, 2 in. long-; sepals B. Summer. Hex. 
B.M.13ie. F.S.2:5. B.B.23:1S7. 

KraadUUra, Hort. {A. ChiHiniimunifiira, A. mpit- 
IrU, Hort., not Llndl. A. rtipiitrii, var. grandijidra, 
Andr«. A. uniflira, Hort., not Tares.). Lva. ovate, 
rounded or atcennate at the base, serrate, shining above, 
nearly glabrous, halt-? vergreea : fls. In terminal panicles, 
whila flushed piolt, over ?iin. long; aepalsS-5; stamens 
not exserted. Of garden orlitin. Ot. 41 :1366.— One of 
tbe hardiestandmoat free -flowering Abeliasi it flowers 
amtlDuonsly from June to Nov. 

A, Mytdra. Turn. Lvi. aTats- lanceolate, bairr, eoaraeir ser- 
rate, drclduau : flB. whlui ■>i»]i4. Mancfauria. N. China. — 
A. Hrrala.Sleb. AZoec. Allied to A. blSora. Sel>s1ii3. Japan. 
82.1:14— J.tpoMufillii.Sisb.AZaee. AllledtoA.blflora. Lra. 
otbU: fli.oTe-lin.loni.whlUtiiiEPdnllowlDlbroat; »i»]s9. 
Japan. B.Z.l^M. B.U.tMl.—A.lrMra.'R.Br. Lva.perilitent. 
ia&rtolate. nearlr entire, hairy : na. irbitv, t^cwl with plnki 
Ioiii;liaiiT, Himal. P.F.Q.aiBl. R.H. 1870: all.— 

wh'Ve'wIlh jeilow in'ihroat: 
Alfbkd Rehdeb. 

AB>BIA{Ut.Aber). Bizinieea. The Kel Apple of the 
Cape o( Good Hope; a ■pinj' plant grown S. tor hedges, 
but killed Id Fla.by freeie of 18S3; is considered prom- 
fsiog tor S.Calit.and S.Fla. as a fruit pUnt. Int. 1891. 
Presb trait used as pickles. 

C<ItT«, Book. f. A Harv. Thorny, glabrous : Ivs. obo- 
vate, obtuse, euneale at base, entire: fls. dliecloDS, 
apetalous. 0.0.111.18:737. 

ABIS8 (derivation doubtful). Confftra. Tib. Tall, 
pyramidal trees ; Ira. lanceolate or oblaneeolate, entire, 
seaslle, persistent for many years; ou young plants and 
lower sterile branches flattened, usually deep green and 
Instroui above and silvery white below from (be pres- 
ence of many rows of stomata, rounded and variously 
notched at the apei, appearing E-ranked by a twist at 
their base; on upper fertile branches crowded, more or 
leas erect, often Incurved or falcate, thickened or quad- 
rangular, obtuae or acule : fls. axillary, appearing in 
early spring from bads formed the previous summer on 
branchlets of the year, surronaded by involucrea of the 
enlarged scales of the flower-buds; slaminate fls. pen- 
dent oa branches above the middle of the tree; plHtll- 
lale fls. globular, ovoid or oblong, erect on the topmost 
branches: fr. an erect, ovoid or oblong eyllDdrleal cone. 
Its scales longer or shorter than their bracts, separating 
atmatnrityfrom the stout, persistent axis. Northern and 
mcnntainotis regions ot the northern hemisphere, often 
gregarjons. Twenty-three species are distinguished; 
. . .. ....rf 'e Mountains ot Ore- 



ita.Nlchol.. 

taut, OTsta-laneeolste : fls. roa 
•epsla;. China. B.11.4»4. Go. 



gon, In the eonntriea adjaeenttotlieMedlterraneap, and 
In Japan. All the speclea produce soft, perishable wood, 
sometimes maautaetured into lumber, and balsamic exu- 
dations contained in the prominent resla vesicles in the 
bark characteristic of the genoa. Handaoma In cultiva- 
tion, but usually of short-lived beauty. Hoist, well- 
drained soil. Prop, by sowing and by grafts. Seeds are 
usually kept dry over winter and planted In frames or 
aeed-beds In spring. Young plants usually need shade. 
Host species can be grafted with comparative eaae; 
A. Pitta and A. balianta are commonly used tot 



1. Spanlah Pli.— Ablsa Pinaam. 

stocks. Many species which have been referred to Ablea 
are now Included In Plcea. S. S. 12. Helnrlch Mayr, 
Houograpble der Abietlneeu des Japanlscben Relcbes. 

Gn. 11, pp.280, 281. See <7oHi/*ri. 

The following speclea, in the American trade, are here 
described, tbe synonyms being in Italics: amabills. Nob. 
4,8; Apollinia,12i batsamea,G; braehyphyUa.n; Ceph- 
alonlea, 12; Cliiclca, 3; concolor, 9: Fraseri, 7; Gordoni- 
ana, 8; grandls, 8; bomolepis, 11; HudaonlB,6; Loiri- 
ona.S; magnlQca, 15; ncphrofupti, 10; nobllia,14; Nord- 
mannlatta, 2; PartoHilatm, 9; pectloata, 1; Picea, I; 
Pichla. 5 ; Pinsapo, 13 ; Shastensia. 16 ; SibiHca, B ; 
Veltchll, 10. See supplementary llet, p. 3, tor other 



mitlvB 



t aegregat 



n on the Caacai 






■tilt I 

B. J^af blunt. 
c. Foliagt iittnliallj/grttn. — lhe leavet gretn above and 
urhiHih oniy benealk. 
D. CoHft utually upwards of 4 in. long. 
1. FlgBa,LIndl.(.,4.f>fcttnd(a,DC.). SilvbkFir. Fig. 
2.C. Tree 100-200 ft. : trUDk6-Btt. indiam.: lvs.aat,dls- 
tlchously spreading, dark green and InBtroos above, all- 
very while below: cones slender, cylindrical, llgbtgreen 
to dark purple, 6-6 In. long ; bracts slightly longer than 
their scales. Mountainsof ceulraland southern Europe, 
often gregarious. — Wood esteemed and much used; 
yields Strasburg turpentine. Dwarf forms, with erect 
and pendulous and with much abbreviated branches, are 
common in gardens. 



2. VDrdmuuiUnA, Spach. Fig. 2, «. Tree 100-150 ft. : 
trank 4-6 It. in diam. : Ivb. au, crowded, duk greeD and 
very lastroaB above, sllTery white below: eoues oblong- 
cfllndric*lDrel11paaidil,dBrkarBn)ie-brawii,4-6la. long; 
bruts u long m or slightl; longer tbut tbelr acftles. 
HouDtsioBBOUCh and 9autiieMtottbeBlackSeii,Bnd west- 
ern spurs of the CaucMua. B.M.6993. Gnjt,6:51.-Very 
hardy; one of the most desirable Brs In northern states. 

3. Cilleiu, Carriire. Tree 45-60 ft. : trunk 2-3 ft. In 
dlun. : Its. nurow. flat, dark green aboT-e, silvery wblte 
below; conea stoat, cylindrical, orange-hrovn, 5-0 in. 
loag; bract! rather aborter than their scales. At bigh 
elevations on theADtl-Tauma of Asia Minor, and oathe 



'. Trees lold under this I 
i. baUam/a. 



le are nearly always fonni 



g. gTindia.LiDdl.|^.am(fbnij,Mnrr.,notForbes. A. 
OordonidM.Csrr.). Fig. 2,0. Tree200-300rt.,beeoinlng 
4It. indlam.: Its. thin and deilble, deeply RrooTed.verr 
dark green above and silvery wblie benealb: cones ey- 
llodrlcBl, 2-4 in. long, rounded or retuse at tbe apei, the 
broad scales someirbat squBrrose and Irregularly serrate 
and fumiHhed with a short point. Coast of nortbem Cali- 
fornia to Vancouver Island and to the western Blopes of 
tbe BockyHountaiDB of Montana. S,S.I2:612. On. 38, 
p. 291. R.H.IBM, p. 274. -Occasional specimens are seen 
in parks and choice grounds, but 



1. Abies or Fir. |„ long ; bracts 

™!;i.^:'^>'*'"™™.a,^' ^'"^' ""Fht'7 "' longer 
manniana; /. A. nia«»lBu. ^^.^ jg^^ ,^^,gg 

Eaalem North 
America from Labrador and the valley of tbe Athabasca 
to Iowa and tbe monntains of Virginia. S. S. 12:610. 
G.C. III. 17: 423, 425, 431. -Wood occasionally used for 
Inmber; Canadian Balsam, or Balm of Fir, Is obtained 
from bark ; in cult, loses Its beauty early, 

Var. Endfinla, Engeim. |.4. nudi6iiica, Hort.), is a 
dwarf form. 

T. TrUerl, Polr. Shi Bai.hau. Tree 30-50 or even 70 
ft.: tmnk reaching 2>4 ft. in diam, : Its. flat, obtusely 
short. pointed, twisted at the base so as to appear to be 
crowded on the upper side of the branches, dark green 
and lustrous: cones oblong-ovate or nearly oval, rounded 
■t the slightly narrower Bpei, 2i4 in. long and 1 In. thick, 
thescalesdark purple,twicens widaas longand at matu- 
rity nearly halt covered by palereflejed bracts or points. 
Mountains of Va., Teiin.,andN. C. S. S. 12: (MB. -Too 
much like tbe balsam flr to be prlied as an ornamental 



jit.Sieb.A Zuce.(.l. braekypk^lla.Wucixa.). 

ie 80-100 ft. : trunk S ft. in diam : upper branches long 
and vigorous, ultimately forming a broad ronnd-topped 
head; Ivs, elongated, sharp-pointed, dark green and very 
lustrous above, silvery white below: cones cylindrical, 
stout, dark purple, 3-3S in. long ; bracts much shorter 
than their scales. Mountains of central Japan, ulngly or 
in small groves. B.M.T114. — Very hardy, and in its j-oung 
stale one of tbe most desirable of tbe flr trees for the 

12, CaphaUnlea, Loud. Tree 60-70 ft.: trunk 2-4 ft. In 
diam.: Its. broail, rigid, sharp-pointed, standing out 
from the branches at right angles: cones cylindrical, 
slender, pointed, gray-brown, 5-6 in. long; bracts longer 
or rarely shorter than thelrscales. Mt.Enos, on the Island 
of Cephaionla. Qug. 6i49.-HBrdy as far N. as south- 
ern New York, 

Var. ApAlllnla, Bolsi. {A. Apdllinis, Link.), with nar- 
row and blunter leaves. Is remarkable in Its power to pro- 
duce vigorous shoots from adventitious bnds. Honntalni 
of Greece and Boumelia, often gregarioua : more hardy 
than tbe type in the northern states. 



ABIES 

13. Piaiipo, BoIbs. Spakisb Fib. F4g. I. Tree 70-80 
ft.: trunk 4-6 fr. In diam.: Irs. short, bread, riEid, 
sharp-pointed, bright green, spreading trom all aides ot 
the stiff branchleti ; cones cylindrical, slender, gra;- 
browD. 6H-6 in. long ; bracts shorter thitn their scales. 
Mountains ot oentr&l and sonthem Spain, often grega- 
Q.C. m. 21:«)T.-Na( very hardy north or the 



Middle states. 

A A. IfobilcM. Zeam 



I bliu 



, often glau 



rill bra 



Ion /en 



4-tidtd, t, 
 hrantXa 



ved and 



iDk6-8 



H. nAbllli, Lindl. RmdPib. Tree 150-250 ft. : to 
ft. Id diam. : Irt. on lower branches grooved 
rounded and eniarglnaCe at theapei: cones oblong-cylln- 
drieal, purplish aFolive-bR)wu,4-Giu. long; bracts much 
longer, tbin and covering the scales, strongly refleied, 
pale green. Cascade and Coast Mountains or Washington 
and Oregon .often gregarions. S.S, 12:617. 
Q.C. HI. 20:3T5.-TherelaaTar.fflaHea 
in tbe trade. 

IS. lucsmM, A. Mur 
2, /. Tree 200-250 tt. : 
diam.: Irs. quadrangulk 

cones oblong-eyllndrlcal 
6-9in.long; bracts mucl 
scales. Sierra Nevada ol 
garioas and forming gr 
12:818. On. 37,p.591.-V 
manufactured into turn 
in the eastern states tha 
Var. Bhorttaai*, Lem 
Oregon and northern ( 
somewhat smaller, with 
or longer than the scales 



ASUTA 3 

ABBOHA (from a. not, and broma, tood). BlereullA- 
rea. Oreenbonse evergreen trees. Prop, by seeds or by 
cuttingi' in spring (rom half- ripened wood under glass. 

A.aug}i4ta. Linn.f. LoirarlTs. cordate. 3-S-Iobed; npperl*i. 
OTSMlansAoUu. Trnp Ai. B,R.61g.-A./«MiiB. R.Br. Lower 
Ui. Bordgte. S-lobedi nppnr l»i. ovale: fls, dark mirpl*. Trap. 

ABBOVIA (from aAros, delicate, Tsf erring to Involu- 
cre). XyetaglnAeta , Trailing plsnls, with fragrant ver- 
beDS-Jike flowers suitable for baskets and rockeries; 
commonly treated as hardy annuals. Mostly tender 
perennials from Calif. Height G-IS in. For early and 
oontlnaoUB summer bloom, seeds may be sown In pots 
of sandy soli the previous autumn and wintered In a 
frame. Peel off thehuskbetoresowlngseed. Cf. Serene 
Watson, Bot, Calif. 2:3-6. 

A. Flowert gellotc. 
latUAlia, Esch. Fig. 3. Plant very vlacld-pnbeaeent: 
Irs. thick, broadly ovale or renf- 
form, obtuse, on distinct petioles: 






vi.lhlrkaiidTicld, 
reanurjltDdrl«i 




spinelesiKalH. Ve*IemU.S.OiiE.t:373.S.a.I2:ail.— J.mdcTD- 
<4>7<i,V»HT— PMudotntamaoTDearpa.-A. JUdri>i«il.^ait. 
SmiU tree with crowded bnuehes and short, dark foliage which 
r: eonealaTte.dsrkpDrple. N.Japan.— A. ir*rten- 

- ~- lahelerophilla. — A.ffumfdieo, Deljuinoy 

JJ>(n((n>uT8p>ch.,lsarormofA.WebbUDa. 

.erleavesainlsmallercaDfs. Himalajos,— A. Xepl- 
iM A.mMia—A. Oapbaloniea, *ar. Appollnli. — A. nUgiiia. 
Lindl. Uin(, slender, drooptni branches; In. allverj below: 
AWesSlD.loiiB. Hex. BM.61S3. — A.Satlmiia*mit.Uut. Tall 

andloni.sl*Dd.r,darliBrMn 

4,(u»alirlna.EDEelin.-Tiilo- 



ninOpUndl.- 

-A. Babomuls.— A J>(n((n>< 



rk. white > 



a'ba. AlrotHana 



^^ C. S. Sarqint. 

ABdBBA (Braiilian name). Cucurbilieea. Qreen- 
bonse climber,cult. for Its numerous small, showy fruits: 
grows rapidly, and maybe planted out in summer, Tbs 
niberouB roots are stored like dahlias. Prop, by seeds or 
rarely by soft oattings. 

TiridUUTk, Naadln. Height 10-15 tt.: Ivs. mncb di- 
vided: da. small, pale green, fragrant; tr. a scarlet guard. 
Braxil. B.H. 18^:111. 



bAgrani, Natt. hvi. larger than In A, vmbtllata, 
broader at tlie base and more tapering; fls. night-bloom- 
ing. B.M.55U. 

.tmkWIIa, Nicholson. Fls. idnkiih rose. -A. riiea.B 



.mbellsti 



W. M. 



ABBDB (from abrai, sort, referring to leaves). Ztgu- 
miaita. Deciduous greenhouse cllniber, or ased S. 
outdoors for screens. Roots have virtues tjf licorice. 
Needs strong beat lor indoor culture. Prop, by seeds 
or by cuttings uDdecglass in sand. 

pieoatdrlui.Llnn. CBaB's-ETiTiNE. Weathbb-plaht. 
Heightia-12 ft.; leaflets oblong, Innumerouspalrs; tis. 
varying from rose to white ; seeds bright scarlet, with a 
black spot, used by Buddhists for rosaries, and in India 
as standards of weight. Tropica. -Tbe absurd claims 
made (orlts weather-propheaying properties are exposed 
by Oliver In Kew Bull. Jon. 1890. 

ABOTA(nstlvename). MenitperoiAcia . Greenhouse 
evergreen climber. Prop, by cuttings under gloss with 
bottomheat.-A.ru/^icfm. Aubl. Lvs. ovate: fls. dark 
purple within, S.Am. Unimportant. 



4 ABUTILON 

ABOTILOIT (nuns of obncnre origin). Matvieaa. 
FUJWXBIHQ U«PLI. Attractive coolbanae ihmbi and 
window plan ta. Lva. loQg-atalked, often maple-like: As. 
with naked B-oleftealyi.S leparMe obovate petals, man; 
■tameiu united Id a colnnin about the muiy-braiiahed 






4. AbutUaaatiUtumfXKi. 

atyle. Of ver; eaiy culture in couditlons whicb are anlt- 
able for geruiiuniB or fachiiu. Usually grown In pota, 
but lometlmeB bedded out in BiiiiiiDer. Dwarf and com* 
pact varieties enltable forbeddlng are beeomlDK popular. 
Tbs tail varieties are adaptable to growing < 

the commonest 
typefortDa. Prop. 
by green w ood eut- 
tlDgn at any aea- 
BOD, preferably In 
iaie winter or 

early aprlng; also freely by seeds. Many 
hortiooltural varieties, some of them no 
doubt hybrids, are in common cultivation. 
Following ari_ 

nbam, red, (haded gold. Boule de Nelge, 
pure while, very free. - Eclipse, foliage 
marbled green and yellow: fls. of fair site ; 
Hepsls Bcarlet; petals orange-buff : suited 
for baskets and THses: aformof .1. mri/a- 
r Eclipse li 



ABUTILON 

lower ones lobed to the middle, the upper ones sballow- 
3-lobed: flu. 1-3 at a place, orange with blood-red veins. 
Bimiit. B.M. 591T.~Blooma In bolb winter and summer. 
Hnch hybridised with other species. A. grattdifiinim 
and A. eempdetum are garden forms ; aUo A. JMrfMn- 
ituM, Hort. , B. H. 1881 : 350. 
BB. Corolla motlly Umger a»d tonlravMt al tlu movth. 

■bittnm, Dicks. Flg.i. Qlabrous throughout: Ivs.tbin, 
deeply 6-labed, the lobes long-pointed, ratber closely ser- 
rate, sometlmessmall-apotted: fla. rather small and slen- 
der, banging on peiluncles 1-6 in. long, red or oiauge, 
With brown-red veins, the stamens scarcely or not at til 
ezserted. Braill. B.M.3840. P.M. T: Sa.-Oueot the har- 
diest species, blooming contlnnoasly. 

Thdrnpunl, Eort. Fig. G. OraoetuI but strong-growing 
plant:lvs.vine-like, mostly 3-lobed, the middlelobe long- 
pointed, thiD and usually glabrous, mottled with green 
and yellowish blotches: fls. medium aiie, yellow or 
orange with red veins, the column of stamens consplcu- 
ouslyeiflertedintheslngleforma. R.H. 1885: 324. G.W. 
70:133.- Blooms In summer and winter. An offshoot of 
ji.stn'afuM, or a hybrid with that species. Inthedoublc- 
fld. form, tfae fls. are open -spreading. Cions often convey 
the variegation to tbe stock. Common and valuable. 

vandmin, Lemalre. Very strong grower: Ivs. large, 
deeply palm ate -lobed and etronglytoothed: fls. large, 3 
in. long, on peduncles 10-12 in. long. Mei. B.U. 44fi3. 
—A showy species. 

AA.. Ltavtl not lobed, eordalt, btlt promituHlly toetked. 

tomttimf aneltd, 

n. Corolla mide-tpreadlng. 

InalKne, Plancfaon. [A. Igntum, Bort.). Lvs. medium 
slie, creuate-dentate, acuminate, villous pubescent un- 
derneath: fls. large, flaring- mouthed, white with very 
heavy and rich veining and markings of purple and red, 
onslendprbangingpednncles. New Granada. B.H. 4840. 
Qd. 18:263.— Very showy; common. 

lonfleAips, Hochst. White -can eseent shrub.wlth long- 
acuminate, broad -cordate and blunt-toothed long-stalked 
lvs., felt-like below: blue veiny wide-open fls. on mostly 
many-branched ailllary peduncles. Abyssinia. — Re- 
cently Introduced by 6. Cal. Acclimatising Assoc., from 
seed collected by Schwelufurth and distributed from 
Berlin in 1B93. 




no (amir 

Erects, pink orange- veined < 
 ",ell,  ....... 



den Bell, deep yellow, tree-flowering. Golden Fleece, 
pore yellow, free-flowerljig. Mary Miller, deep rose 
pendulous fls. Mrs. John Laing, purplish rose. Ross- 
flora, pinkish rose. Royal Scarlet, rich, shining scarlet. 
Santana, deep red. Savltzll, dwarf, with white-edged 
foliage: useful (or bedding. Snow Storm, semi-dwarf, 
pure white. Souvenir de Bonn, Iva. large, deep green, 
not mottled, but edged with a broad white margin: dis- 
tinct and striking: a useful bedding plant. Splendens, 
bright red. 

A. Ltavt) promlntntly lobtd, tHottly maple-like or 

B. Corolla tridtly open or ipreading, 

Oirwlnl, Hook. (. Strong pubescent shrub 3-5 ft.: 

lvs. velvety pubescent beneath, thicklsb, &-0-rlbbed, the 



acuminate, sharp -ser- 
rate : fls. 'i-3 In. long, 
on short droopinK 
stalks, the long calyi 
bright red, the pro- 
truding petals lemon- 
yellow, the column of 
"'" "ens conopiciTonsly 
proiruding, Trop. Am. 
B.H. 5T1T. On. 37: T45. J. H. 111. 18: 359. -A strikingly 
handsome species. Common la windows and baskets. 
There is a variegated -leaved variety. Oenerally mis- 
spelled meaapolamieum. 
.1 .arMriun. Sweat. LTi.eordata.tomentote: Hs.palajallaw. 



_., Klt.Ure 

Kewonsli. fSldilnlegiirrlm "  - - 



~2.twIdkMWK, Sweet, ind^. rdlsArvtn. Don.— PlK(luithui 
iraloh«llni. — A. »i(i/»Kiint. Prml. Lri. lobed : fli.wl(lo-«pre«il- 
'-E.I<lbtblBe(B>rbl1«-BDwendTu'.): plmotoneattliabiinllsat. 



CbUe. B.U.41 






L.H.I 



AC&CIA (ancient nmme). Ztgumindia, tribo Ximd- 
i«a. Sbnibs or trees: Its. tvlae-plnnate, of m&nf leaf- 
lets, or reduced to phyUodia or leaf -like petiolei, as in 
Figi. 8 and 9 {eicept the earlier 1th. of youDR seedlings, 
and occasionaUv choae on robust Bhoots) : fla. yellow or 
wbite, minute, in consplcuoua globular beads or cylin- 
drical spikes, axillary, Bolituy or fasciculate, or diflnsely 
panieulale at the ends of the branches ; stamens ven 
niaoj, exserted. Australia (chiefly) ; a few in K. and S. 
America, N. and S. Africa and Asia. Ours Australian 
miless otherwise stated. Prop, by seeds sown oader 
gtasB aa soon as ripe, or by cuttings of balf-rlpened 
wood taken with a heel, In summer; the seeds should 
Orat be placed In hot water and left to soak 21 hours. 
The bark of most of the Australian and of some other 
species (especially A.pyenantha, A. tMoHiiiima and A. 
dretimtu) abounds In tannins, which may eventually 
make their cuttlvation profltable In the southwest. For 
outdoor planting in Calif, and the S., keep In pots until 
lai^ enousb to place in pemument quarters, for they do 
net transplant well. Several African species yield the 
gum arable of commerce, especially A. Sentgat. Uono- 
Kraphed In part by Baron von MUller in his Iconography 
of Australian Acacian, cited hereasF.v '*' ' — 



Of aeTeralhundred k 



J. Bdbtt DiVT. 

n 50 are 

greenhouse culture, but theae few are gems. All 
of this most Important section thrive in a winter tem- 
perature ranging from *0° to 50°; In fact, little above 
the freeilng point is sutSclent. They do not lliie heat, 
and consequently are not adapted for forcing. If win- 
tered cool and allowed to come along naturally with the 
increasing heat and light of the spring, they will flower 
1q March and April, aaeasonwhen their graceful beauty 
Is uipreelated in the private conservatory or la valuable 
to the commercial florist. The prevailing color of all the 
Anstrallan species is yellow, varying from pale lemon to 
deep orange. The talf-growltig kiuds, or rather those in- 
clined to make long, straight shoota. make CTcellent sub- 
Jeeta for planting permanently against a glass partition 
of a cMmservBtory, or against a pillar. There is soarcely 



a more beautiful plant than A. puheiet**, vlth Ita 
slightly drooping, yellow racemes. It deserves a fa- 
vored place in every cool conservatory. TheAi 



turfy loam, of not too heavy texture, la all they wan 
with the addition of a fifth pari of leaf -mold or well- 
rotted ^nt hops. Few of our greenhouse pests trouble 



a dally syringing is necessary. Several of the species of 
bnaby habit are very largely grown aa pot-plants in Eu- 
rope, and are now largely Imported and sold for the east- 
em trade. A. armata and A. I}rummondii are good 
species for this purpose. We Ijelieve, with our hot aum- 
mera, the commercial man will do better to import than 
to attempt to grow them from cuttings. The Acacias 
need pruning, or tho^ will soon grow straagling and un- 
abapoly; mare especially is this true of those grown in 
pots. After flowering, cut back the leading shoots rather 
severely. Shift into a larger pot if roots demand It, and 
encourage growth by a genial heat and syringing, giving 
at same time abundance of light and air. They shanld 
be plunged out-of-doors as soon as danger of frost is 
past, and removed to the greenhouse before any danger 
of early fall troata. Cuttings root surely but not quioldy. 
The best material is the side shoots from a main stem 
In the condition that florists call half-ripened-that Is, 
not green and succulent as for a verbena, nor as Arm 
and hard as the wood of a hybrid perpetual rose in Nov. 
The wood or shoot will be in about the right condition 
In June. No bottom beat is needed, but the cuttlnga 
shoald be covered with a close frame and kept moder- 
ately molat and cool by shading. The following spring 
these young plants can be either planted out-of-doors, 
where there is a good chance to keep them well watered, 
or grown on in pots, as described above. A few of the 
finest apeciea are A.pubticem, suitable for training on 
pillars; A. Jiieeana makes a buab or can tie trained; 
A. tongifolia, an erect species, deserves a permanent 
positioa in the greenhonao border. Of all the species 
best adapted for medium -siied, compact pot-plants, A. 
artuala and A. DrumtnondU are the best. The former 
has amall, simple, dork green Ivs. and globular, pure yel- 
low fls. A.lhvmmondii has drooping, eyllndrical, pale 
lemon fls. As bath these flower In March without any 
forcing in our northern greenhouses, they are very val- 
uable acquisitions io our Easter plants. The Acacia 
has two distinctive charms : the foliage is either small, 
simple and glaucous, as in J., armata, or much divided, 
graceful and fem-like, as in A.pubeicenj. All the Aca- 
cias are among the freest-flowering of our hard-wooded 
plants. Cult, by William Soott. 

The species In the American trade are here described 
under the following numbers ; A. actnacea. T; aneura,38; 
angnatlfolla, 16; Arablca, 49; argyropbylla, 15; armata, 
6; Baileyana,16; brachybotrya, 15; calamifolla, 3 ; Cate- 
chu. 62; Cavenia, 48; celastrifolia, 16; cintrasceni, 39; 
cuKroia, 12; cultriformia, 12; cuspidata, I; cyanophylla, 
20; Cyclops, 32; dealbata, 43; decurrens, 41; dilTusa, 1; 
dodonteifoUa, 10; Dnirrmondil, 63; eitensa, 4; falcata, 
IT; falclformis, 18; Famealana,4T; fllicIna.eO; ff(iii(la- 
foiia, 1; glabra, 15; glaucescens, 39; glaucophyiia, 15; 
grandis, 46; Greggll, 51: harpophylla, 29 ; bispidisalma, 
46; holoaericea, 40; impjexa, 30; Juncifolia, 2; Latrobtl, 
7; teptophylla,*!; leucophylla, 40; linearis, 3T; lineata, 
6; llnifolia, 14 ; longif olia, 3G ; loneitiima,37; lunBU,lI; 
MelHSneri,g; melanoiylan,31; moIllBsimB,42; myrtlfolia, 
16; neriirolia,22; normallB,lG, 41; obliqua, 6; obtusata, 
21; oleafolia,U; Oawaldi, 27; oiycedrua, 33; pomdowt, 
B; pendula.28; penninerTis,IS; pentddra.i; pinifoU 



cbella 



lera, 25; rotuiuiKoiia, 
n,3G; suaveolens,26; t 



; Rice 



., 44; pul. 



o,5;Tertloi 



llgna. 19; 
ilQata,34. 



A. Iivi, timple : thai ii, reduted to pkyllodia [txeept 
the earlier ivg. of young seedlin^gf and oceaaionalljf 
thoee of robuit ihooii). Figa. 7,8 and 9. 
a, F!>, in globular hiadi. 
C, Phylt. terete, or only ilightly JlatUntd. 
1. diinia,Lindl.(.d.ji'(n>sevr#Ha,Link.}. A tall, gla- 
brous shrub; branches angular: phyll. %-l In. long. 



6 ACACIA 

I-IK lines wide, qiudrau^l>r-Iiiiekr, l-nerred: fl. hdi. 
toliten.DrSorStogetbeT; pednnclM >bort: fli. Tellow, 
Ha7. B.H.S117. B.B. 634. 

Yu. enipldito,BeDth. (J. cMplddta, CnnD.)' FIi;Il. 
% to nxtAj 2 in. loDg, slender, Dften not bnuder ttuui 
thick. 

Z. jonoUUla, Benth. {A.pinUblia, Benth.). TslI, glK- 
bniui ahrub : branchea slender, quiM terete : phyll. 3-6 Id. 
long, often nearlf telrs^nous, Unear-Bubulkte, with a 
■CBTcelf prominent nerve on e»ch side: fl. hds. ftolltwy 
orlnpairai psdnnclea ghort. F.T,M.Icon.2: 8. 

3. MklftmiUlim, Sweet. BboouWattu. Tall ahmb 6-10 
ft.; phyll. 3-4 Id. long, linear-auliulate, sllghtljr flattened, 
with 1 nerve promlneDt or indlstlDcti polatflne, recurved 
or Blmply oblfqne: fl. bds. 3 or 4, shortly racemed Id 
the oillB of the tetmlnal phjll. ; calyx shortly toothed or 
lobed. Feb. B.B, 839. 

4. aiMnu, Llndl. {A. ptntadra, RegelJ. Shrub: 
branches angular or eometloies winged: pbyll. 3-4 or 
even 8 Id. long, slender, lineu'-snl^ate, almost tetrago- 
noiis, with & promlDent nerve on each side: peduncles 
l-headed or rarely irregularly racemose in the ailla of 
the terminal pbyll. : calyx triangular, truncate. Mar. 

CO. Diytl. verticaUy flattened. 

». K«ltM 0/ phyll. I, or viry rarely t. 

a. FUiteadi tolitarytr in pairt or elutttTM. 

r. Length of phyll. 1 in. or Utt. 

Q. Stipule* periittent at tlender tpinet. 

E. UUftta, B. Br. [A. umluMfa, Willd. A. paradira, 

DC. Mimoia paradSxa, Polr.). Eanoiboo Thobh. 

P^. 7. Spreading shrub, G-IO ft. high; branches pubea- 

eent: phyll. 1 in. long, aemi-ovatc undnlii*. ohtnan. nr 

with a short, Ob"  " ' 



fli. fragrant. Veb. B.M.1653. F.E. 
9: 4D1, 431.- Good hedge shrub. 
Grown also for spring bloom. 
aa. Slipultt (null, dtcidwrnt, 

6. UlMita, Cunn. Bushy shmb: 
branches pubescent, terete: phyll. 
K-^ln. long, broadly linear; polot 
small, hooked : pedoncle solitary, 
axillary, very slender, eqaallng or 
eiceadlDgthe phyll., glabrous: fls. 
rich yellow. Mar. B.M.33ie. 

T. ulnAaea, Lindl. (A.Lalribei, 
HeissD.). Shrub; branches gla- 
brous, angular: phyll, K-Kln, long, 
about 3 linea wide, obliquely oblong 
or somewhat falcate, obtuse, with a 
small, recurred point : peduncles 
slender, about equaling the phyll. 
Mar. F,v,M. IcoD.4:T. 

8. obUqn*, Cunn. (A. rotmdi- 
filia. Book,). Shrub: branches 
glabreseent : phyll, K to nearly 
Hln. long, obliquely obovate or or- 
bieolar ; mid-nerve terminating In 
a minute, recurved point: peduncles 
very slender, mostly exceeding the 
phyll. Mar. B.U, 4041. 

9. llelHiieTi, Lehm. Toll shrub: 
jouDg brHDches glabrous, acutely 
angular : phyll. K-l In. long, 2-4 
lines broad. obovate-obloDg or ob- 

. *_-], luniaia Hquely cuneate, obtuse, or with a 
IV i^'i small, hooked point : peduncles 

*^'*'- shorter than the phyll.: fls.yellow. 

May. 
T7. Length Of phyll. IM-i in. 
ID, dodOnnlUll>,WllM. Toll shrub. very resinous, shin- 
ing ; phyll, 2-4 lines wide, oblong-linear or lanceolate, 
mostly obtuse, l-nerved, lateral veins prominent and 
itipules D: pedunclesBolitaryorlapairs, 
:. Mar. 



ACACIA 

ME. .PI. keadt in axillary raeemet (rarely rediieed to 

a solitary head]. 

r. Fltyll, t in, or Ittt long, hroad. 

a. Baeemet much exeeeding the phyll. 

11. IonAta,Sltib.[A.Dl«sQIid,Cnnn.). Glabrona shrub : 
phyll. less than 1 in. long, obliquely-lanceolate or elllptl- 
col-cuneate, obtuse, orwlthamlnute. oblique or recurved 
point: fls.yellow: pods lineor-elllptleal, Klines broad; 
■Beds placed close to the upper suture. Apr. B.B. 1353. 
—Without the fruit this may easily be mistaken tor A. 

12. (niltriUrmla,CuDD.(^.BuUrdta,AiL}. Tallshrub, 

glaucous with wax when young ; phyll. X-MIn, long, 
folcate-orata or almost triangular, mucronulate, with 



thickened margins and usually a marglnat gland a. ._. 
angle on the convex side : fl. heads in axillary racemes 
much exceeding the phyll. : pods flat, aboutS lines brood; 
seeds placed close totheupper suture. Mar. B.U. 1S96, 
p. 503. J.H, III. 34:131. 

13. praTlMlmft, F.v.U, Toll shrub orsmall tree; gla- 
brous: phyll. mostly 3-G lines long, obliquely talcatt- 
obovatfl, or almost trapezoid, recurved. Imperfectly 2- 
veined; marginal gland much below the angle on the 
convex side ; S. beads in handsome axillary racemes much 
exceeding the pbyll. : pods flat, about 3 lines brood ; 
seeds placed along the center of the pod, 

aa. Raetmei nol, or only tlightly, fzeeeding the phyll. 

14. liniUlio, WUld. Tallshrub: phvll. I-l^ln. long, 
linear to ilnear-lanoeolate, straight, rather thin; marginal 
gland small, near the base: fl. heads In slender, axil- 
lary racemes about equaling the phyll. : pods linear, very 
flat,4-6 llttes brood; seeds placed along the center. B.H. 
2163. See No. 11. 

Var. pTAmlnen*,'Hoore (A. pnJmiiHni.CuDn.}, Phyll. 
broader, llneor-ionceolate to oblong-falcate; marginal 
gland prominent, distant from the base. B.H, 3502. 

15. bTMhybMlTt, Benth. Toll shrub: phyll. S-l!^ln., 
rarely. In luxuriant specimens, 2 in, long, obliquely obO' 
vote or oblong, flrm, rather brood, obtuse or mucronu- 
late: fl. heads few, in short, axillary racemes, about 
equaling the phyll., or rarely reduced to 1 head: fls, 20- 
SO In o head : pods flat, linear to Dorrow.ell1ptlca]. 

Vor. aryyrvpliflla, Benth. (A. ar^yn^hilla. Hook.). 
Silvery-s ilk y, turning sometimes golden yellow: phyll. 
mostly K-l>(ln. long: fl, heads often solitary. B.H. 4384. 

Tar. fflMUOphJU*, Benth. Oloucons and more or less 

n'wsceDt: phyQ, mostly S-^la. long: fl. headi mostly 
, shortly racemose. 
Vor. Blibra, Benth. Quite globrous : phyll. small and 
narrow: fl. heads small. 



about Hia, long. 



h thici 

gins, and a marginal gland below the middle: fl. beads 
several. In short, oxlllory rocemes obout eqnolfng the 
phyll.: fls, 2-4 In a head, rather large: pods linear, 
thick, curved, with very thick morgins, 2-3 lines broad. 
B.H. 302. as Mimoia myrtifolia. 

Var. ««Ultrll6Ua, Benth. (A. etlailHfilia, Benth.). 
Phyll. mostly l!^-2 in. long and often 1 in. broad. B.M. 
4306. 

Var. normUll, Benth. Pbyll, mostly 1-2 in. long and 
about Sin. broad. 

rr. Phyll. t-6-lS in. lotig (eomeiimit only lH fn. f» 
A. otluealal 

Var. Ugnimtlla, Benth. Phyll. mostly 2-4 in. long, 
2-4 lines broad. 

a. The phyll, diltinctly penniveined. 

IT. lalc&ta, Wind. Tallshrub orsmall tree; glabrous: 
branches angular; phyll. 3 to above 6 In. long, lanceolate - 
falcate, acuminote, much narrowed to the base; margi 
nol gland close to the base or 0: sepals free, narrow: 
pods rather narrow; funlcte enclrallug the seed. 

18. ptnnlnirvll, Sleb, Tree; glabrous: branches anga- 
lor: phyll. 3 to above 6 in. long, oblong to lanoealaM- 
taleate, acuminate, much narrowed to the base; morgina 
nerve-like; gland distant from the base orO; pods broody 
funiole eoolrcllDK ibe seed. Mar. B.H, 2T54. 



ACACIA 



ACACIA 



Var. fftlettfexnis, Benth. {A, faleif6rmiSfDC.). Phyll. 
mostly larger and more falcate: young shoots and in- 
florescence minutely hoary or golden-pubescent : pod 
nearly i^in. broad. 

19. laliffaa, Wendl. Shrub &-10 ft. : branchlets angu- 
lar: phyll. 4-6 in. long, falcate-lanceolate or oblaneeolate, 
narrowed to the base, rather obtuse, glaucous and 
smooth, the lateral veins but little conspicuous : racemes 
short; peduncles short: fl. heads few, large. Mar. 

20. eyaaoph^llA, Lindl. Blcts-leaved Wattle. Tall 
shrub 18 ft.; stolonif erous : branches drooping: lower 
phyll. about 12 in. long; upper 6 in. or less and narrower, 
linear-oblong to lanceolate-falcate, much narrowed to- 
ward the base, glabrous and often glaucous : peduncles 
3^-Kin. long: fl. heads 3-^, large, golden yellow. Mar. 
On. 52, p. 99. 

21. obtuslita, Sieb. Tall, glabrous shrub: phyll. 1^-3 
in. long, oblong-linear,or almost 8patulate,usually almost 
straight, rather obtuse, point not curved, thick, rigid, 
with thickened, nerve-like margins; marginal gland 1, 
distant from the base, not prominent : racemes about 
Kin. long, with densely packed heads; fls. 30 or more. 



QQ. The phylL thick, visually with inconspicuous lateral 
veins {conspicuous in A, pycnanUha), 

22. aeriUdUa, Cunn. {A. re<{ndd«s, Sohlecfat. A,reti- 
mMm, var. >IoW&iinda, Hort.). Fig. 8. Tall, handsome 
shrub or small tree: branchlets slender: phyll. 3-5 in. 
long, 2-d lines wide, linear-lanceolate, falcate, much nar- 
rowed to the base: racemes 1-2 Kin. long ; peduncles 
about 2 lines long : fls. bright yellow. Mar. F.v.M.Icon. 
5 : 9. B.H. 1896, p. 505. A.F. 13 : 880. - Useful as a street 
tree in Calif. 

23. pyenintba, Benth. Golden Wattle. Small tree: 
phyll. ^S in. long, lanceolate to oblanceolate, or, on vig- 
orous shoots, even obovate-f alcate, obtuse or acutish, dis- 
tinctly penniveined, with a conspicuous marginal gland 
liear Uie base: fl. heads in axillary racemes, on short pe- 
duncles, large, fragrant: funicle scarcely folded. Feb. 
R.H. 1896, p. 504.— Very variable in shape and sise of 
phyU. 

24. ■aliclTia, Lindl. Small tree : branches drooping : 
foliage pale: phyll. 2-5 in. long, 2>^-6 lines wide, ob- 
long-linear or lanceolate, narrowed at base, thick, rigid, 
with a curved i>oint; midrib and marginal veins scarcely 
prominent: racemes short, often reduced to 2 or 3 heads, 
or even only 1: peduncles slender: fls. about 20 in the 
head: pods straight; funicle scarlet, folded under the 
seed. 

25. TtwtelUlera, Benth. Tall shrub, perhaps only a va- 
riety of A. saUcina, but, according to Bentham, different 
in aspect and the nerve of the phyll. much more promi- 
nent: phyll. linear-lanceolate, with an oblique or re- 
curved cidlous point. 

26. raaytelens, Willd. Shrub 3-6 ft. high, glabrous: 
branches acutely angled: phvU. 3-6 in. long, 2-4 lines 
wide, narrowly lanceolate to linear; margins thickened: 
racemes about Kin. long before opening, inclosed in 
large, imbricate bracts : fls. 6-10 in a head. Apr. 

DD. Veins of phyll. several {rarely only S), 

longitudinaL 

27. 68W«]di, F. V. M. Tall shrub: phyll. lK-2 in. long, 
falcate-oblong to linear, rigid, mostly mucronate, flnely 
striate, twisted, mostly 3 or 4 lines broad. F. v. M. Icon. 
6:10. 

28. pfodnla,Cunn. Weeping Mt all. Handsome small 
tree: branches pendulous: foliage pale or ash-colored, 
witii minute pubescence: phyll. l)>^-2>^in. long, nar- 
rowly lanceolate or almost linear-falcate, ending in a 
curved cusp; nerves few, indistinct: racemes very short, 
sometimes reduced to a solitary head; peduncles 5-^ 
lines long. F. v. M. Icon. 6 : 8. 

29. hanioph^lla, F. v.M. Tree : branchlets slightly an- 
gular: phyll. 6-8 in. long, lanceolate, very falcate, nar- 
rowed at the end but obtuse, much narrowed at the base, 
coriaceous, pale or glaucous ; nerves several, flne; reticu- 
late veins few and indistinct: peduncles slender, mostly 
clustered in the axils : funicle short. F. v. M. Icon. 
6:9. 



30. impMxa, Benth. Glabrous tree: branchlets nearly 
terete: phyll. 3-6 in. long, 2H-5 lines wide, lanceolate 
and very falcate-acuminate, with a short, hooked point, 
rather thin; reticulate veins numerous and distinct: pe- 
duncles few, in a very short raceme, long and slender: 
fls. pale yellow or dirty white: pods rather narrow, bi- 
convex, curved or twisted, slightly constricted between 
the seeds; funicle yellow, folded at the end of the seed 
but not encircling it. F. v. M. Icon. 8: 2. 




8. Acada nerllfoUa. narrow-leaved fonn. 



31. melan6z7lon,B. Br. Austbalian Blaokwood. Tall 
tree, usually pyramidal, glabrous: branchlets slightly 
angular: phyll. mostlv 3 or 4 in. long, }i-l in. wide, nar- 
rowly lanceolate to falcate-oblong, or even falcate-ob- 
lanceolate, much narrowed to the base, very obtuse, 
thick and stiff; reticulate veins numerous: racemes oc- 
casionally reduced to 1 or 2 heads ; peduncles short, 
stout : fls. pale yellow or dirty white ; petals connate 
above the middle : pods flat, 3-4 lines broad, often curved 
in a circle ; funicle bright red, doubly encircling the 
seed. Mar. B.M. 1659. 

32. C^elopi, Cunn. Shrub 6-10 ft. : branchlets angular: 
phyll. lH-3 in. long, nearly straight, narrow-oblong, ob- 
tuse, rigid: racemes short, occasionally reduced to 1 or 2 
heads : fls. yellow ; petals smooth, free : pods flat, 4-6 
lines wide, curved or twisted ; funicle richly colored, 
doubly encircling the seed. Apr. F. v. M. Icon. 8: 3. 

BB. Fls, in cylindrical, or rarely oblong, spikes. 
c. Phyll, narrow, pungent-pointed, yi-l in. long. 

33. oxyeMns, Sieb. Tall, spreading shrub : phyll. 
y^%, or rarely 1 in. long, narrowly lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, scattered, very rig^d, striate, with 3 or 4 prominent 
nerves on each side; stipules small, often spinescent: 
spikes often above 1 in. long. B.M. 2928. 

34. TertieilUta, Willd. {Mimosa veHieillhta,'L'ner. ). 
Bushy, spreading shrub : phyll. }i-%m. long, linear- 
subulate to lanceolate or oblong, mostly whorled, rigid, 
with 1 prominent central nerve; stipules minute : spikes 
>^-l in. long, dense ; fls. 'deep yellow. Apr. B. M. 110. 

35. Bioe&na, Hensl. Tall shrub or small tree, hand- 
some,dark green: phyll. K-%in. long, linear or subulate, 
sometimes very narrow and 1-1 Hin. long, scattered or 
whorled, 1-nerved; stipules minute: spikes interrupted, 
slender, often above 1 in. long ; fls. pale yellow. Apr. 
N. 1:7. 



glKbroni, or the yoang shooti slightly U 



avatot 






36. loBsUUU, WlUd. SvDtniT Oouwtr Wattu. Fig. 
9. Tall, huidBome Bhnib; pbyll. 4-6 In. long, oblong- 
laneeoUte, aemninste; longitudinal reiiu aevenl, pnnnl- 
nent: aplkea I in. long, loose, ucilliuy, moitly 



37. lin*tlll. 81nia. (^. longUiima, Wendl.). Shrub: 
phyll. 4-e In. lon^. Uneiir, vlth I prominent langitadlDBl 
nerve: Bpifcesl-21n. long, loone and Interrupted, elender: 
Ob. pole yellow or dirty wblte. B.U. 2156. B.B. 680.- 

VaJued aa » atreet tree in Calif. 



wide, 



irithou 



rigid: apikc 
icies: poda broad, flat, abort. F. t. M. Icon. 10: 8. 
Klanoteoani, Willd. (A.cintniiceiu, Sieb.). GUu- 
treo 50 ft. or more hlRh ; phyll. 4-6 In. long. 5-12 
broad at the middle, linear-lanceolate, narrowed at 
both ends, falcate, striata, and with 3-5 more prominent 
nervca, all tree from the lower margin: apllieg In paira. 
In. long : pods narrov-lluear, biconvex, irregularly 
ted. Mar. B.M. 31T4. 

I. hoIOMrfM*. Cunn. t A. itueophtlla, litail.). Shrub 

maU tree 10-20 ft., white, aUky : phyll. 4-6 in. long, 

1-3 In. brood, oblong -lanceolate, with 3 or 4 prominent 

iptkes mosEly In pairs, sessile, about '2 In. long. Har. 
AA. Lv: alt Mplnrutie. 
B. Fll. in globular Itradi. 

ilipuUi tmallorO. 
». Tree*: pinna in 8-IB pairs, fi.htadi panicled. 
41. deeAireni, Willd. Qrkkn Wattle. Bran ehleta with 
:iy prominent angles decurrent from the petloleH ; 



Unei long, narrow, rather distant ; 
Ab. whltlah yellow: pods mostly less than 4 lines wide, 
flat, more or less contracted between the seeds. Mar.- 
May. 

Var. normilli, Benth. Leaflets 3-1 lines long. 

42. molllnima, Willd. [A. deHrreii* var. m6llit, 
Llndl.). B1.ACK Waitle. Branehlete with decurrent an- 
gles only slightly prominent: foliage and branchleta pa- 
beseent, the young shoots of a yellowish or golden tinge; 
leaflets l^-3 lines long, narrow, crowded: Bs. fragrant: 
pods moatly less than 4 lines wide, flat, more or less con- 
tracted between the seeds. Dee.-Har. B.R. 371.— The 
names of this and of the next species are often inter- 
changed in gardens and even in herbaria. 

13. dealblta, Link. Sit. vhb Wattle. Branchleta with 
decurrent angles only slightly prominent : foliage and 
brancblets very glaucous or hoary, with a fine pnbea- 
oence, the young shoots whitlah; leafleta 2-3 lines long, 
narrow, crowded : pods mostly more than 4 lines wide, 
flat, hardly constricted between the aeeda. Har. A. P. 
13:880. R.H. 1896, p. S02. 

DD. BhmbM or Email treei: pinna tnoiily in g-S pain; 
fi. htad» ToetMtd. 

44. pnMMeu, R. Br. Haibt Wattle. Shmh S-10 ft: 
branchea and petlolea hlrauta: pinna mostly 3-8 pairs; 
leaflets 6-20 pairs, 1-2 lines long, crowded, linear, gla- 
hnma: racemes slender, longer ^an the tvs. Har. B.H. 
1263. P.B. 1:733. 

45. Baller^n^ F'.v.H. Smatt,hBndsometree: branches 
and foliage glabrons and glaucous: pinuie 2-3 pairs; 
leaflela ^ut 13 palra, \%-2% lines long, crowded, 
linear; racemes 3-4 in. long. Jan. F. v. M. Icon. 12: S. 
G.C. in. 15:37. 

red pednneltt: 

46. pnlohUla.R. Br. Elegantahrub: branches slender, 
glabroua or hirsute, usually armed with subulate axillary 
Bplnea : plnnw 1 pair ; leafleta 4-7 paira, t-2 lines long, 
obtuse: if. heads solitary; fls. yellow. Apr. 

Var. grindia. Hart. (A. pnfndia, Henfr.). Shnibeft., 

SlabrooB: leaflets S-ID pairs, longer: fls. yellow. Feb.- 
[ay. J.H. 111.3fi:369 (1897). 

Var. UipldiBitma, Hort. (A. \iipidU$ima, DC). 
Branches very hirsute, with long, spreading hairs : 
leafleta narrow: fls. white. B.U. 4588. 

47. runMUna,Wmd.(A.)«propA](I((i,DC.). Fopdiao. 
OpopanaX. Casbib. HuiBAOHE. Much branching shrub, 
6-10 ft.: Btlpntea straight, slender, sometimes mlnDt« 
spines; pinnn 5-S pairs; ieafieU moatly 10-25 prirs, 1-2 
lines long, narrow, linear, glabrous: peduncles 2 or 3 in 
the older aills: H. heada large, globular, deep yellow, 
very fragrant: pods almost terete, IndehiBcent, at length 
turgid and pulpy. Feb.-Mar. Tei., Mei., Asia, Afr. 
and Austral. Grown In S. France for perfumery. 

48. Cavinla. Bertero. Espiso. Cavam. Height 20 ft.; 
splnesstout: leaflets scabrous, scablouB-pubeacent. Oth- 

considerod amere variety. Chile. — A good hedge plant. 

49. Ar«blM,WiUd. Gdm Arabic Tan. Fig. 10. Small 
tree, with spiny stipules : plnnte 3-6 palni, each with 40 
or less very narrow leaflets : fls. white. In globular, pe- 
dunculate heads, which are usually in 3's. Arab, and Eu. 

50. mioina, Willd. Unarmed shrob: pinnn 2-IS pairs; 
leafleta 20-50 or more pairs (rarely 10-15). very small: 
fl. heads globular: pods linear, straight, flat, not pulpy. 
Tex. and Mei. 

BB. Fit. in et/lindHcal tpiktt. 
61. Ot«ck11, Gray. Small tree 10-30 ft., pubescent, 
often with scattered, short, stout, hooked prickles : 
pinnn 2-1 pairs, >i-l in. long ; leaflets 3-5 pairs, 2 or 3 
fines long, oblong or ohlong-obovale, thick, and with 2 or 
3 straight nerves ; peduncles S-1 in. long. Apr. 
Tex., S.Calif, and Mex. 



log 



52. Citechn, Willd. Tree: plnnn S-lOpalrs, each bear- 
_ .„„ ,. . J linear, pubescent leaflets : fls. yellow ; 
iiHea solidary or in 2'sor 3'b. E.Ind.— Yields Calechn, 
valuable tannin. 



ACACIA 



ACACIA 



53. DrAmaunidii, Benth. Bush or small tree: pinnie 
2-4 pairs, each with 4-10 linear, yery obtuse glabrous 
leaflets: fls. pale lemon-yellow, in dense, solitary, droop- 
ing spikes I-IH in* long. Austral. B.M. 5191.— Hand- 
some, and popular for spring bloom, as at Easter. 

In the following supplementary list, the heights given are 
those attained by the plants under glass in N. Europe ; in the 
open air in the southwest U. S. they often grow mnoh taller, 
and sometimes flower 2 months earlier. Bxoept when other- 
wise stated, the flowers are yellow. Those marked (*) are con- 
sidered moat desirable. Those marked** stove" need hothouse 
treatment: the others can be grown in a ooolhouse, or in the 
open in California. A, abietina, Willd.—Unifolia.— A. oean- 
iSoedrpa, Willd.— Mimosa aeanthocarpa. — A. AeapuMruria, 
Kunth.«>Ly8ilomaAcapuloensi8.— J.. ocMuZdru, "Needle-leaved 
Aeaeia,''4ft.— iL.a#lnu, Sweet.— dealbata.— A. o^d^a. R.Br.,6 
fUMay. B.R. 806.— A.amoma, Wendl.. 3 ft. May. Neartohet- 
erophyUa.— A. angvidta. Desv.—disoolor.- A. anau»t\fblia, 
Lodd.=longifolia, var. floribunda.— A. arayroph^lla^ Hook.-> 
braehybotnra, var. argyrophylla.— A. dtpera, Lindl. (A. Aus- 
feldii, Begel. A.densifolia,Beuth.). 4 ft. May.- A. Ai^/^Idu, 
Begel.— aspera.— A. Bcmeroftidna, Bert.-^Caasalpinia bijuga.— 
A. Bartheridna, Hort.—Berteriana?— A. BerlandUri, Benth. 
FIs.f Mexico.— A^erterCdna, Balb.— Pithecolobium fragrans.— 
^.5i^dra.B.Br. 3 ft. May.— A. Wnervdta, DC. 8 ft. May.— ^1. 
braekt/aedntha, Humb. A Bonpl.«=Mimosa acauthocarpa.— A. 
brevifblia, Lodd.«-lunata.— A. brivipet, Cunn.»melanozylon.— 
A.BumuMnnidna,l>0, Fls.f 6 ft. Ceylon. Stove.— A.buxifb- 
lia, Cnnn. 4 ft Apr. Hook.Icon.lM.— A. MBsia, Wight A Am. 
(A. Intsia. Willd.). 20 ft. E. Indies. Stove.— J.. eeUutrifhUa, 
Benth.»myrtifolia,var.cela8trifolia.— A. eentroip^i^tto, DC. 20 
ft; white. Jamaica. Stove.— A. Oerat^ia, Willd.—Mimosa Cera- 
tonia.— A. ehrytdttachyB^ Hort.—Piptadentaehrysostaehys.— A. 
cUidta^ R. Br.—strigosa.- A. dnerdMceiu^ Sieb.—^^uoescens.— 
A.wddedriM, Wendl. 4ft. Apr. to May.— A. ecneinna,I>G. 20 
ft.; fls. white. E.Indies. Stove.— A. CoiMordidna, Loud.— Pithe- 
eolobinm umbellatum.— A. confMa^ Cunn. Apr.— A. eorddto, a 
trade name, probably belongs to some other species.— A. eori- 
desa, DC. 5 ft. May.— A. comigeTa^ Willd.—spadicigera.— A. 
conmUUtf^lia, Desf. 10 ft. N. Africa. Stove.— A. erctuio&rpa, 
Cunn. 6 ft. May.— A. euZtrdto, Hort.— cultTiformls.— A. eun&- 
dta, Benth. Apr.— A. eutpiddtat Cunn.—difPusa, var. ouspidata. 
— A.cyendrum, Hook.—obscura.- A. davienc^liOt Cunn. 6 ft. 
Jane.— A. dedpienM^ ytiT,pram6raa, Hort.* 3 ft. May. B.M. 8244. 
—A. dtairrenM, var. mdUitt Benth.— moUissima.— A. densi/blia^ 
Benth.— aBpera.—A. den^Mna, Benth. Apr. B.M. 4032.— A. <U- 
ptnden»t Cunn.— longlfolia,var.mucronata.— A.<Utiii«?t«, Bureh. 
SfLMay.S. Afr.— A. dUptera, Willd.— Prosopis juliflora.— A. 
d^ptera, Lindl. Shrub : fls. f — A. dtotera, var. eri^tera, Gra- 
ham. Sept. B.M. 8930.— A. diteolor, Willd. (A. angulata, Desv.). 
10 ft. May.— A. dtoariedto, Willd.— Lysiloma Seniedeana.— A. 
Jkmktidarii is a trade name.— Mimosaf — A . doraUkcuUmt* " Cur- 
rawang," a beautiful small tree: fls. golden yellow.— A. dumdxa, 
Wightft Am.— latronum.- A.e&am#a, Willd. 5ft. E.Ind. Stove. 
—A.eeMnuia, DC.— Junlperina.— A. MulittHxunh. A Bonpl.— 
Fa rae s l ana.— A. eldto, — *, ** Pepper-tree Wattle."— A. eUmgtUa, 
Sieb.^eft. May. B.M. 8337. Especially suitable for damp, sandy 
land.— A. emanKndta, Wendl.— stricta.— A. erioeldda, Benth. 
June.— A. J?«f0rAd2ia, Mackay. 4 ft. May.— A. faleifdrmU, 
DC.— penninervis, var. falelformis. — A. ferrvginea, DC. E. 
Indies. Fls.f Stove.— A. JUxieaiait, Benth.— Pitheoolobium 
fleiicaule. Coulter.— A. jCori^ilnda. Willd.— longifolia, var. florl- 
liiiinda.- A. /l^n'iMada.Mort.—neriifolia.— A. /ormdsa, Kunth. 
— CaUiandra f ormosa.— A . frondbta^ Willd.— Leueiena glauca.— 
A. fnttiedta. Mart.— Piptadenia latifolia.— A. genUU^lia, 
Unk.— diffnsa.-A. girdffee, Willd. « Camel-thom." 40ft. S. 
Afr. Fls. f Stove.— A.i^IaAea, Mcench.- Leucssna glauca.— A. 
gtaAea^ Hort.— A. glauceacens.— A.i^rdadtf, Henfr.— pulchella, 
var. grandis.— A. grdta^ Willd.— Piptadenia macrocaxpa.— 
A. grav^UuMt Cunn.— vemiciflua.— A. OuayoQuiUnsit, Desf. 
— ifimosa Ouayaquilensis.— A. Qtdaningitf Willd.- Stzyph- 
nodendron Guianense.- A. gumm(ferat Willd. 80 ft. 
Guinea. Fls.f — A. fomoediEyZon, Willd. 20ft Fls. yellow or 
white. S. Afr. Stove.— A. luutuUUa, Sm. 4 ft May. B.M. 
3341.— A. lieteracdfKAa. Burch. 15ft.: fls.f S. Afr.— A. Aet^ro- 
pk^lla, Willd. 5 ft. May. Masoarene Isls.— A. hUpida, Hort. 
— Robinia hispida.— A. hiwidUnma^ DC— A. pulchella, var. 
faispidissima.- A. homdU^h^Ua,* **Tarran."— A. homomdlla^ 
WendL— glaueesoens.— A.^tMff^ltl, Benth.* Pale yellow. Feb.— 
A. Mim^f^a, Cunn. Austral.— A. hjfbrida^ Lodd.=armata.— 
A. <ntermMui,Cunn.— longifolia.var.floribunda.— A. interUxta, 
Sieb.— longifolia.— A. Inttia, Willd.— ciesia.— A. JulibrisHn, 
Willd.— Albizzia Julibrissin.— A. itinuMrlna, Willd.* (A. echl- 
nnla, DC.}. 6 ft: near to verticillata.— A. Kalkbra, G. Don.— 
Albizzia Julibrissin.— A. Kba, Grur. Fls. f Hawaiian Isla. 
Stove.— A. LamberUdna, D. Don.— Calliandra Lambertiana.— 
A. Umigera, Cunn. 6ft Apr. B.M. 2022.— A. latiHUqtM, Willd.— 
LysUoma latisUiqua.— A. LatrbbH^ Meissn.— acinacea.— A. la- 
frdniim, Willd. (A. dnmosa, Wight A Am.). 20 ft; fls. f E. In- 
dies. Stove.— A. laurimia, Willd. 4 ft May. Pacific Islands. 
Btove.- A. Libbeek, Willd.— Albizzia Lebbek.-A. leiophilla, 
Benth.— saligna.— A. ImtUdJblia^ Desf. 20 ft Fls. f Mexico. 
Stove.— A. leprbga, Sieb.* May. B.R. 1441. *< Graceful, linear 
leaves, and habit of a willow.**— i4 . I<prdffa,var. tenuifblia, Benth. 
Stove.— A. {eptoedfpa, Cunn. Oft. A\>T.—A.leptonexira,'Benih. 
«ft Apr. B.M. 4350.»A. {<p(«!pA]^{to, DC.— Famesiana.— A. 



leucophlcea,WUld. 12 ft; pale yellow. Tropica] Asia. Stove.— 
A. leueopK^Ua, Colvill.— holosericea.— A. UgtUiUa^ Cunn.— sail- 
cina.— A. longifbUa, var. Jloribimda, F. v. M. (A. floribunda, 
WUld. A. intermedia, Cunn.). 6 ft Apr. B.M.3203.— A. I<m«p<- 
JbHa^ var. muerondta, F. v. M. (A. dependens, Cunn. A. 
mueronata, F.v. M.). Mar. B.M. 2747.— A. UmgUHma, Wendl. 
—linearis.— A. lophdntha, Willd.— Albizzia lophantha.— A. 
lophdrUha^ var. giganUa, Hort.— Albizzia lophantha, var. gigan- 
tea. — A. ZAcuto, Baill.— Albizzia lucida.— A. Mdngium^ 
Willd. 10 ft Molucca Isls. Stove.-A. microphyUa, Willd.— 
Piptadeniaperegrina.— A. mdllit, WaU.— Albizzia Julibrissin.— 
A.Nimu, Willd.— Albizzia Julibrissin.- A. neurocdrpa, Cunn. 
—holosericea.— A. n^rieant, R. Br. 6 ft Apr. B.M. 2188.— A. 
nudi/ldra, Willd. (A.Rohriana,DC.). 30ft: white. W.Indies. 
Stove.— A.o5jeti(ra, A.DC. (A.cyonorum, Hook.). 2>ift B.M. 
4653.— A. odoratissima, Willd.— Albizzia odoratissima.— A. oI«s- 
fblia, Cunn.— lunata.— A. oligeph^lla^ Hoffmgg. 4 ft Habitatf 
Stove.-A. wmdta is a name in the trade, probably of some well- 
known species.— A. panidJiaai DC— armata.— A. pentadtnia, 
Lindl. 10 ft May. B.R. 1521.-A.jnn</d{ia, Benth.— juncifolia. 
—A. pinndta. Link.— tamarindifolia.— A. plaiyphiUa^ Sweet. 
10 ft June.— A. plumlbsa, Lowe. 20 ft Brazil. B.M. 3366. A 
stove climber.— A. podaZyrM^Iia. Cunn.* Tall shrub. G.C. HE. 
15. p.30.— A. poZy&dtrya, Benth.* A beautiful pinnate-leaved spe- 
cies.— A. Portorieintia, Willd.— Calliandra Portoricensls.- 
A.pri«mdtiea,HoffmgK. Oft Habitatf Stove.— A. prdfmn«n«. 
Cunn.— linifolia, var. prominens.— A. Pttudaedeia, Hort.— Ro- 
binia Pseudaeacia.—A.puJeA^rrtma, Willd.— Str3i>hnodendron 
floribundum.— A. quadrungvldrU^ Link.— Calliandra tetragona. 
—A. reHnddea, Schlecht.— neriifolia.— A. ripdria, HBK. (A. 
sarmentosa, Griseb.). 10 ft W. Indies. A stove climber.— A. 
A»And7»a,DC.—nudiflora.— A. r6««a, Hort.— Robinia hispida.— 
A. rtueifblia, Cunn.— verticillata, var. latifolia.— A. sarmiTUbtat 
Griseb.— riparia.— A. «ednd«n«. WUld.— Entada seandens.— il. 
aemieorddta, Roxb. 40 ft: fls. f E. Indies. Stove.-A. Shtegal^ 
Willd. 30 ft; fls. white. Tropical W. Afr. Stove.— A. seriedta, 
Cunn. Apr.— A. Simsii, Cunn. Apr.— A. SophbrcBt R. Br.— 
longifolia. var. Sophone.— A. sptidieigera^ Ch. A Schl. (A. cor- 
nigera, Willd.). 15 ft; pale yellow. Jamaica. B.M. 7305. 
Stove.— A. tp^eibta, Willd.— Albizzia Lebbek.-A. apeetdbiUs, 
Cunn.* Apr. B.R. 1843: 46. Remarkably beautiful.— A. Sjkni, 
Balb. 15 ft; red and yellow. Guadeloupe Isl. Stove.— A.STua- 
mdta, Lindl. Apr. Hook. Icon. Plant.367.— A.st^M!pA]^2to, Cunn. 
Mar.-A. atiptOdta, DC— Albizzia stipulaU.-A. atrieta, WiUd. 
(A. emarginata. Wendl.). 2 ft. Mar. B.M. 1121.— A. atrigbaa. 
Link. (A. ciliata, R. Br.). 4 ft— A. HrombtUifara, Willd.— 
Prosopis strombulifera.— A. aubuldta^ Bonpl. 4 ft May.— A. 
stOedto, R.Br. 2ft July. B.R. 028.— A. iSiima, Gurz. 10 ft.; 
fls. f E. Indies. Stove.-A. tamarindijifia, Willd. (A. pinnata). 
4 ft.: white. S.Amer. Stove.— A. too^dlia, Lodd.—Riceana.— 
A. tomtTUbaa, Willd. 20 ft: fls.f E. Indies. Stove.— A. tri- 
ehbdea, Willd.— Leucaena trichodes.— A. trinarvdta, Sieb. 6 ft 
Apr.— A. triaUa, Graham— armata.— A. vmbeUdta, Cunn. Apr. 
—A.uneindtat Lodd.— unduliefolia.- A. undula^lia (A. unci- 
naU, Lodd). 4 ft. May. B.M. 8304.- A. uropA^Ua, Benth. Pale 







10. Acacia Arablca. 

yellow. Apr. B.M.4573.— A.ndaa. Willd. 40 ft. t white. Brazil. 
Stove.— A. ventUto. Willd. —Calliandra Portoricensls.— A. o^a, 
Willd.— Arabica.— A. vemicifliM, Cunn. (A. graveolens, Cunn. 
A.virgata,Lodd.). Oft. Apr. B.M. 3266.3270.- A. verticitJdto.var. 
ani^iteta, Hort. 10ft Apr.— A. vertieilldta^vtkT.UUi/blia.'Benth. 
(A. mscifoUa, Conn. A.moesta. Lindl.). 10 ft Apr. B.M 3105. 
B.R. 1846: 67.— A. veaAta, Ker-GawL* 6 ft. June. B.R. 608.— A. 
vimindlia. Ait. Apr.— A. mr^Mn*. DC. 20 ft. S. Amer. Stove.— 
A. virgdta, Lodd.— vemiciflua.— A. riridirdmi*, Burch.—Xero- 
dadia Zeyheri. — A. viaeidula, Cunn. 6 ft. Feb. Gt. 1100. 
A. viaodaa, Sehrad. — dodonieifolia.- A. vomerifdrmia, Cunn. 
Apr.— A. WallieMdrui, DC— Catechu. j, BUBTT Davt. 



10 ACACU. FALSE 

ACACIA, rAL». BeeiCDbiHia 
ACACIA, BOSK. See Sobinia hiipida. 
AC^BA {from aiaina, thorn). Beiitea. Dwuf, 



^hldsuid 

bog pUuM. Prop, by eutlings, creeping rootlets, divl- 
aions uid seetis, Monogr. by T. Clteme, In R«vue dea 
Scleueea Naturellen de I'Ouest, 1871, Noa. 1,2,3. 

Ulcrophfllai, Hook, f. Lvb. BYBTgrMn, pale, pinnal*, 
■emte : iipinei sttntctive nil eummer uiij Mitumn. N. 
Ze»l,-arows well in either wet or dry soila. 

otbUUIU, Ruii & Pbt. Lvs. ft little larger than the 
Utter; leaflets obloikg,SDbeuiieate. Chile. On. 62, p. 46. 

A. areiiitta, Rnli £ Par. Lyb. lilmy. CIilleHi Andea.— J. 
(HlMiiHlnw.Viihl. Anttnl.— ^, Duiudta.Hoak. AAni..li>KDad 
apeelH Booordlne to some, bnt nuu — A. Kric«ii. HkovIUti.— A. 
mUltfilia. NLrhalion. Pmlt not In (lobular hudi. Hab. I— 
A.mvrupUlIa, Lindl. FemUke. ChUe. Oa.37. d. 1TT.-.1. 
"' - '• " T.Klrk. Uood ipectln NMirdliii to aoms, but 
lyllft,— A. orlnd, A. Cann. Amtral,— -1. jnn- 
Pai. ChUF.— A. patiMHa, KlFtaolton. Lti. 



oak. A Am. Chile. 



J. B. EELL.EB. 

ACALfFHA (k name given by Hippo«nit«s U) t, net- 
tle). EtxphorbiAeta. Tender foliage plants much used 
for greeobnuse omameoC, and eBpeeially fur beddlng- 
oat. For the latter pnrpoae itladeairable to have strong, 
irell hardened plants in 5-ln. pots, which should be set 
oat the last week la Hay, and grown in a rieh soil with- 
out check. Prop, by cuttiiiKB> chiefly in three ways: 
(1) in fall from outdoor bedded plants; (2) from plants 
lifted Id fait, cut back, and kept for spring stock ; 
(3) from stock plants in pota reserved from the 
prevloaa season. The well ripened wood o( these 
last Is a great advantage, and gives cuttings that may 



I. Acalyiilia IfVllke^ana. * 



.ix>,). 



be taken with a heel. A tnatare item will furnish sev- 
eral beside the top one. This la the beat method for gen. 
eral purpoaea. Cuttings are taken below joints, and re- 
quire mild bottom heat. For greenhouse ornament In fall 
and winter, excellent specimens may be secnred from 
CDttlngS made in iommer from stich stock plants. 

Cult, by BOBBBT SUOBI. 



y mottled 



ACANTHOMINTBA 



MUll. Arg. {A. trUolor, Hort. c 
Lvs. ovate-acnminate, broniy green, variously mot 
with r«d: fls. incuuspicnous. 8. Sea Islands. Var. 1 
alabw, Hort. Fig. 11. Lvs. red, marked with crimson 
and brDDie. Perhaps the commonest variety, R.H, 
1882:288. Vor. mai^rinita, Hort. Lvs. with a crimson 
margin. F.M. 1875; 156. Gn. 7,p. 621. Var, mntUMk. 
Hort. LcB green, with orange and rod markings. Var. 
obovtta, Hort. Lvs. obovate, green, edged white when 
young, changingtobroniy green with rosy pink margins. 
Var. trifimphani, Hort. I A. triUmpfiant, Llnd. A Rod.). 
Lvs. large, spotted wiUi crlmaon, green, and brown. 
I. H. 35:56 (18SB). 

QodMmina, Hast. Lvs, ovate or ovate-Isnceolatf, 
Kreen. with croamv margin ; fls. unknown. O.C. Ut. 
F.E. 10:55i. A.F. 13:1286. 

_. . n. f. (.4. Sdmttri, N. E. Brown). Fig. 

12. Cult, chiefly for Ite long red, amarantus-Ilke spikes 
of flowers: lvs. given . E. Ind. Bunn. PI. Ind., p.303, 

G.c!in.'23:'24k Gl. 47: 276.' Gn, B4':1186. Gng.eisTs! 
—The leading novelty of IS99. Catted by various names, 
as Chenille Plant, Philippine Uedusa, and others. 

A. coloriia. Sprenf.~A. lnt«srifo1lH.— A. CcHnntTSDnUrw. 
Balll,— A. IntecrUulLa.— A. mauropl^lla. Hort., not HBK,— A. 
WUkesiana, var. macmphjlla.— A. nuryindCa. Hort.. not 
Bprenc,— A. WUkeilsna, var. marilnBta.— A .abotiUa. Hort, , not 
Benth,— A. WUkesiana, var, obotata.~A. iniegrHiUa WUld. 
' "" ' (.thick, glsbron»,ob1oii«,BreBosbovo,eolored b(' ~ 



. Qng. 6 



lN3),i 






1. Wrto. 



W. H, 

of the tlow- 

), E.lBd. A 
rlu 



AOAKPB {named from the brittle nature 
era). Orthidirrif. Greenhouse epiphyte. 

A, ImoifMia. Llndl. (Vkoda locflfolla, Lladl. 
■peclBS of little deoorallve valae, said to be sold b] 

ACASTHSPHIPPIU II (meaning unknown). Often 
spelled Acantliophippiiim. Orcltidieea, Terrestrial 
slove omfaids. Fls. rather larg«, racemose, few ; sepals 
combined to form a broad pitcher. They do best in a 
compost of loam and leaf-mold. Being natives of the 
hottest, moist, densely shaded jungles, they require much 
heat and moisture during the growing period. Good 
drainage la essential. Prop, by dividing the pseudobulbs 
as soon as growth tiegins. Cult, by E, O. Obpst. 

Javinieum, Blume. Fls. yellow and red, with dli- 
tlnct longitudinal stripes. Java. B. H. 4192. 



A . Mulor, LindL Fls.porplf 



Tellow 



f, Fls, manv colared. blitlnEOlBhBd by the flvs keals W 
the side ladilB, MaluArch. O.C.H, ZS l1«,— A. ,8vU*> 
Llndl. Fla. whits, much spotted. Himalayas. 

ACASTHdOnni. See Blepkarts. 

ACAHTHOLtXOa (ofcanUas, spine, and limon, sea 
lavender). Syn.,A™i««osf™m. Plnmbagindcea. Hardy 
evergreen perennials ; dwarf, tufted, with sharp -pointed, 
rigid leaves; leas common than Slatice and Anneria. An 
oriental genus of slow-growingand eun-loving plants for 
rockeries, Prop.byseeda (whicli germinate slowly) aown 
carefully on a warm but somewhat shaded border, and 
transplsnted when plants are large enough to handle; by 
cuttings made in late smmnR'and wintered in a frsme; 
by very carefullv made divisions. Boisaier describes 74 
species in the (hora Orientalln, See A, Bunge, Die Gat- 
tung Acantbolimon, St. PeterHburg, 1873. 

Klumfcotam, Bolss. Height 6 in, : lvs, green : fls. 
small, rose, on one-sided, aplcaCe racemes, 6-9 In each 
abort, dense spikelet. July-Sept. Armenia. P. S. 7: 677. 
On. 31:592. B. H. 1891, p. 489. 

TsnAitmn, Bolss. (Armeridilrum dlantXirdliuM, O. 
Kuntse). About81n.: lvs. grcv-green, very stiff : fls. 
larger than the last, rose, 12-20 in eacb long, loose spike- 
let, Jul}'-Sept, AslaHinor. R.H. 1806: 460. Go. 13: 117. 
B. H. 7506. Gn. 53, r "" 



J. B. KEIJ.KB I 



d W. H. 



ACASTHOXlBTHA. Labiita. Thobnt Hint. Ten- 
der annual, with the habit of Laminm. Its cbief inter- 
est is l>otanlcal. the nearest relative of the genus being 
the Brazilian genua Glechon. Only two species known. 
Prop, by seeds in spring under glass. 



ACANTHOMINTHA 



k any. Height 6 in.: Its. petJoled, ovate, 

bltmtlr MoUied ; fla. 3-8 in > wbotl, eblettj purple, with 
jellow and white m&rki. Calif. B.H. 6T50. Int. 1891. 
— LeM deaimbie than Laminm. which eee. 

AGABTHOPAflAX (a thorny Panax-like plant). Ara- 
liieta. Hardv ornameDtal trees and shrubs: Its. alter- 
DMe, loDg-petioIed, lobed or digitate, declduons : 111. In- 




I. Ulg. A]Um1 b 
pentBDlilUaiii. Lvi. otUiD >parinclj apprMiad-setDM above : 
pedunelu iborter than petlolca ; il^les 2. leparate. China. 
Alfbid REaDIB. 

AOAVTHOFEIPPnni. See AeanOupkippium. 

AGAFTHOPHIEHIX (akantXa, thorn, and p\anur, a 
datepalm). Palmitca, tribe Aricea. Tallpalins. splnj', 
with the Blout trunk ringed ; Its. terminal, equally pin- 
natlaect, more or Iubs armed with long slender spines, the 
Darraw segnient.'i linear-lanceolate, acumimite, scaly be- 
low, midrib and nerves prominent, the thickened margins 
recurved at the base, rachls somewhat 3-slded, sheaEli 
long, smooth or spiny: spadli twice branched, pendent, 
wlu a short, thick peduncle, glabrous or tomentoie, 
■mooth or spiny, the branches slender or thick and 
twisted: spatbes 2, oompresBed.deeiduouB : fls. red or 
orange: (r. black, scarcely longer than a grain of wheat. 
Species 3 or 4. Uadagasc&r. 

They need a temperature of T0°--90° F. ; never less than 
B0°. The rooting medium should be somewhat light, with 
aquantityof crushedoharooal. Drainage should be very 
carefully arranged, as they demand on abundance of 
moisture. Prop, only by seeds, which may remain two or 
three years In the seed-pan before germloating. For gen- 
eral cult., see Falmi and Artea. 

Crlnlta.H.Wendl. (ArJeai?riiilea,Bor7). Trunk60-60 
ft.: Ivs. 7-13 [t. long ; petloledenselytomentose,4-8 in. 
long; teaf-sbeath ZK-lHft- long, thickly covered with 
short brown bristles and spines; segments silvery white 
beneath. Maurltins. F.S. 16:1706. F. K. 2 : 201. - Young 
planta have pale, yellowish green Ivs. 



H. Acalvpha hispida (A. Sanderil. 

emupienoiis. In umbels ; petals and slomens G : fr. a 
black 2-6-seeded berry. Cent.AslaandUimaiayas. Prop, 
by seeds or by root-onttings ; A. ptntapliyUun also by 
hardwood cuttings. 

A. Ia-i. limple, palmalel]/ lobed, 
1, Seem. [Aritia Maximiwictii,UoTt. Kalo- 
I ricimMIiHM, Mlq.l. Tree.SOft.: branches with 
numerous stout prickles: Ivs. deeply &-T-Iobed, 9-li in. 
In diam.. downy beneath when young; lobas oblong- 
lanceolate, serrate : InBorescense terminal, large, com- 
poond. Japan. F.S, 26: 2067.-A very omamental tree 
Of striking subtropical effect. A new form from Japan 
bos the Ivs. less downy beneath and with short, broad 
"•*"■ *A. if.. digiMt. 

MMUUUntB, Seem. [Patuix tenUifldntm, Rupr. A 
Max.). Shrub, 12 ft.: branches with only fewprickles: 
leafleta mostly 3, obovate-laneoolate or oblong- lanceo- 
late, cnneate. acuminate, 1-7 in. long, Irre'gulorly cre- 
nate-semte. nearly smooth ; fis. dull purplish, sessile. In 
dobnUr heads on stout, downy peduncles. Uanchuria, 
N.China. 0.0.111.22:339. Qt. ll:369.-The freely pro- 
duced heads of black berries are decorative. 

pmit^hfllum, Harsb. (A. ipinittum, Hort., not Hiq. 
ilrdliapeH/apAylia, Thunb.). Shrub, 5-10 ft. : branches 
long and slender, with few compressed , straight prickles: 
teaileta&-7.oblong-ubovaleoroblong-IanoeolBte,cuneBte, 
acute, ^-l>41n. long, crenate-serrate, smooth: ds. green, 
in long and slend er-ped uncled umbels ; styles 5, connate. 
Japan.— A graceful shrub, with arching branches and 



petiole fli 



«nedorc 



I. Spinj shrub; leaflets S-S. ihortlj »ti- 



sheath 2ii-*l4tt. long, thickly covered with long brown- 
black spines; plncD slightly glaucous beneath: fr. glo- 
bose, S-^ln. In dlam., with a prominent ridge extending 
from the stigma to the base. Mauritius and Is). Bour- 
bon.— Young plants have dark green Ivs, with red veins. 
Jabed Q. Smith and O. W. OuvxB. 
AOAVTHOSHtZA {akaniha, thorn, and rhita, root). 
Palmicia, tribe Coripkar. Spineless palm, with arather 
robust caudei. densely clothed with the bases of the dead 
sheaths; roots splnescent at the base: Its. terminal, the 
orbicular blade deeply cut into 3- to many-parted cunei- 

is below, without any rachfs ; 

I above, smooth on the margins ; 

peduncleandspreadingtblckened branches whit«: bracts 
and spathes elongated toward the base of the brviches, 
coriaceous, deciduous; broctleta bristly, deciduons. Spe- 
cies 2 or 3. Cent. Amer. About one-fourth of the soil 
given tbem should be vegetable mold. Prop, by seeds in 

MoMtai, H.Wendl. (Cfiamteropi itaMratd»i\a,Sort.). 
St. spiny at base : Ivs. orbicular, with a narrow sinus 
at the base, whitish beneath. Uex. I.H.ae:36T. B.H. 
7302.— Succeeds in an intermediate hoDse. 

ChAso, Drade {Thrinax CAiieo, Hart.). St. smooth, 
about 30 ft. high, 9-10 in. in dlam., slender, flexuoDs: Ivs. 
orbicular, with a narrow sinus at the base; petioles slen- 
der, 3-6 ft. long, smooth ; blade 6 ft, in diom. , divided to 
or beyond the middle i segments 16-20, lanceolate, acute, 
1-2 in. wide, dark green above, paler and glandular be- 



Jared G. Smith and O. W. Olivbb. 
ACADTEDB (nluintka), thorn), AeanHiieetE. Bbab's 
Bbzech, Hostty hardy herbaceous perennials of vigorous 
growth and brood foUage, suitable for backgrounds of 
Lvs. edged white. borders and subtropical effects. The acanthus leaf is one 
of the commonest of art forms. The ornamentation of 
the Corinthian column Is tiid to have been suggested 
by A. tpinvtu*. Height »-4(t: splkea 1-lHft. long ; 



Alllelto 



fli. dnU white t 



tdaoilandmuchsnngblne. KueiBlje molitnre 
ipeetill; In winter and spring 
stock ^ould Klwkye be prilteet«d (or the 



NTHUS ACEB 

pnrpllRh. HoMlr MMlthen (1880). ^le mtplea are unong our n . 

vBlu»bls trees for Mrk and street pluitliiK. Ke*rt7 

*ll assume • splendid color In autamn, especlalljr the 
Bpeclea of N. Amer. and E. Asia, which snrpsBa by [ar 
the Europeiui maples. Hany at them are valuable tim- 
ber tree*, and Rome Amerlcaa species, especially A. 
taccharum, prodnre sugar. For purposes of shade, 
the oommon sugar maple is best and most popular. 
The Norway maple makes a very dense and round bead, 
and Is eicellent for lawns, but it is too low-headed for 
the streets. Tbe silver maple, A. taccharinum and its 
vara., is abo popular where qulok-growlng trees are de- 
sired. Tbe Japanese maples are among ^e most strik- 
ing and showy eiotlo small trees, and are adapted for 
Dne grounds and for growing In pots. Prop, by seeds 
sown In autumn, or atratified and sown In spring. The 
early ripening species, like A. taetharinum and A. ni- 
brun, must be sown soon after maturity; the varieties 
and rare species may be budded In sommer on the 
typical forms or allied oommon kinds; some shrubby 
species, as A. palmatuni, also A. ciiiifolium and A. 
lirtiim, var. nibrum, may be propagated by layers or 
balf-ripened greenwood cuttings in summer. Fancy 



a imported stocks of A , patmi 
UoDOgmph of tbe garden forms and varieties by Qraf 
Srhwerln In Ot., 1833; see, also, O.C. 11. 16;T6. About 



litter or evergreen bcogha, even whereestablished plants 
are hardy. Fn>p. bj divialon in spring or early autumn, 
and by seeds. Colt. by J. B. Eku-ik. 



I. dark 

^ . „ ifreqnei , 

IT glabrescent : spines o( the braota 



M, Linn. Lvs. lanceolate, ptnnatlBd, pubescent; 

spines short, whitish: tia. smaller than tnthe last; som- 
mer; spikes dense, slightly villous. B. H. 1B08. Qa. 
8: IIT. 

AA. JAii. not aping. 

m4IIli, Iiinn. Pig. U. Lrs. 2 z 1 ft., cordate, slnnately 
pinnatifld, mostly radical: fla. summer; spikes loose, pu- 
bescent. On. B2,p.Z39.-Alsorscommeni1edasawlndow 
plant. Var.l>tlUllnl,Hort.(J.bi»»li«i>.Hort. A.Lu*l- 
Mnieuj, Hort.) is larger and hardier. On. l,p.303. 

longlUUna, Polr. Lvs. radical, longer and namnver 
than In A. MoIKs, bright green: fls. June.-Tbough said 
to be a stove species In Ea., It la the hardltst of all at 
Cambridge, Mass. 

A. OdToti-AlaAndri.'BMiAn. >-lSln. Lv>. few, nullral, in 
Blairo>ett«,lBn«oIal«,iililit!; splkedsiue. Qrm«.-A.«irdu<- 
MfitM. Uim.— Dlepharis cardsitolls,-^. ilici/i(iu4 <DI11>aria 
lUcKolla, Joss,), gmoatli EreenliDiin inb-shnb with leavet re- 
sembUnB Tiei aqnltoUnm, the En. Hollr. Prop, liy cniilnci 
nnderila^. K.Aila.— A. numUnui.T. Anders. Lvt. pinnatifld 
orsbiuaU-aplnaie. W.Ab. B.U. SSM. Btovespscln. 

ACEB (classical Latin name). BapindAeea. Hapi.e. 
Trees, rarely shrubs : lvs. opposite, long petloled, simple 
and mostly palmatcly lobed, or 3-&-foliolate, declduone: 
fls, small. In racemes or corymbs; petals generally 6; 
atamens i-13, mostly B : fr. oompoond of. two long, 
winged nntlets called samaras. Asia, especially E. Ab" 



X In Euf 



B Bot. 



■e UBuallT w 
onograph ol 
iwerln I 

Tbe following species of maple are colt. In this coun- 
try: campestre. No. 8; carplnlfollum, 28; circlnatum, 
15; claalfoUum, 30; dasycarpum, 1; Florldanum, 6; 
Oinnala, 24 ; glabmm, 14 ; grandldentatum, 6 ; Hel- 
drelchi, 20; Inslgne, 22; Italum, 7; Japonicum, IT; In- 
tum, 12; macrophyllnm, IS; Monqpessulannm, 9; Ne- 
gnndo, 31; nigrum, 4; Nlkocnse, 29; palmatum (poly- 
morpham), 16; Pennsylvanlcum, 27; pictom, II; pla- 
tanoldes. 13; Pseudo-plan tanus, 19;mbnim,2; ruflnerve, 
S6; saccharinum, 1; Bsceharum, 3; splcatum, 25; Ta- 
tarlcuni, 23; Trautvetterl, 21; truncatum, 10. 
i. Foliage of tinptt, tnotllg palmatt let. {ocdutonallf 

S-Miolatt in iVo. 14); fit. polygomout or monaeioui. 
B. Bloom appearing longbifort the Ivi. indtnie lateral 

eluatere; Ive, S-tobid: fr. riptning in Hag »r Junt. 
1. Moobmilnnm, Linn. {A, daefedrpvtn, Erhr. A. 
arioedrpum, Michi,). BiLViB MiiiJt. Fig, 15, Large 
tree, 120 ft.: Its. deeply 5-lobed to 5-cleft, 4-6 In. long, 
green above, silvery white beneath; lobes deeply and 
doubly serrate: fls, greenish yellow, apetalous: fr. pu- 
bencent when young. G. N. Amer. S.S, 2:93, O.C. II. 
1:137, Em, 556. -Ornamental tree, with wide-spread- 
ing, slender branches, growing beat in rich and moist 
soil, but succeeds almost anywhere. Lvs. turn clear 
yellow in fall. Many garden forms; Var, Tttll, Schwer. 
(var. FFi>ri laeixiadtiH. Hort.), Branches pendulous: 
Iva. deeply cleft, with dissected lobes. A graceful va- 
riety, remarkable for Its drooping branches and finely 
divided foliage. Var. hstarophjUom. Hort. {var, hrltr^i- 
phylliim lacinialum, Hort.). Upright: lvs. deeply cut 
or lobed. Var. trlpMrtttOM, Hort, Upright: Ivb, 3- 
parted. Var, Inttsoans, Hort. Lvs. yellow, bronKC.col- 
orrd when unfolding. Var. albo-varlegitnm, Hort. 
(var. JUhlkei, Hort.). Lva, spotted with white or rosy 
pink. Var, oritinun, Hort. Lvs. deeply cut and crimped. 
— 'Linonus evidently aupposed this Hpecles to be tbe 
sugar maple, and named It accordingly. Be did not 
know the true sugar msple, 

L'. rtbmm, LIdn. Red or Scablet Haple, Tig. 16. 
Larire tree, 120 ft. : lvs. 3-5-lobed, 3-4 In. long, green 
above, pale or glaucous beneath; lobes unequally and 
crenately serrate: fl», red or scarlet, rarely yellovlsb; 
petalsS: fr. glabrous. E. N, Amer. S.S. 2:94. Em. 557. 
G.C. II. l:I73.-VerT valuable tree for street and park 
planting; attractive at every season from Its excellent 
habit, earllness of tbe scarlet He., bright red fruits In 
late ripring, and the beautiful fotloge, which turns bright 
Bcarlet or orange In autumn. Var. ColQmn&r«, Rehd. 
Of upright, columnar bablt. Var. slobAtna, Hort. 
DwArf, compact; lvs. glaucous beneath : fls. bright scar- 
let. Var. DrAnunondi, Sarg. tA. Drummondi, Hook, ft 
Arn.). Lvs. large, mostly 3-lobed. tomentose beneath 
fr. bright scarlet. 8, states. S,S, 2:95. Vac. tomsntu 



ACEB 



13 



ma, Arb.HuM. (A. lomeHlinm.Dett. A.ribrum.viiT. 
ttilgtm, Hort.l- 0( modarste growth: Its. G-lobed, 
pubeaeent beiuiatb: fl>. bright red. 



c. FU. en long, ptnduUmi, moill]/ hairy ptdictli, in 
aimoil laiile corymbi, appearing vilk the Ivl., 
apelaUmi; ttpala eoHHate. 

3. tieohinun, Uonh. (A, (aeeAorlttum, Wuigh., not 
LIud. a. barbalum, Hlchx.). Suqab or Rocs Mapli. 
Fig. 17. Lftrge tree, 120 ft., with gny bftrk ; lTe.3-6- 
lobed, conl>t«, 3-6 In. long, with nurow and deep st- 
nDB«: lobes kcumiiiBte, Bparlngly dentate, usuftlljigtaa- 
eoQS and glabrous beneath : fr. with little spreading 
wings. E. N. Amer., 8.8.2:90. Em. 65S.-ADeicelleDt 
street and shade tree' of upright, dense growth, turnlDg 
brigbt fellow and scarlet io autumn. It does well In 
almost eyery soil. Var. BaciU (.1. Ituglli, Par., A. 
4jfe*amiit, var. (wr6d(um, Trel.|. Lvs. 3-lobed, gener- 
ally broader than long, 2-5 is. serosa, pale green or glau- 
eoos beneotb, and at length mostly glabrous, coriaceous; 
lobes nearly entire. Centr. states. 8.8. 2: 91, as vor. 
nigrnm. 

4. nlgniB, Hlchx. lA. laccAorlnum, var. nljrrum, 
Torr. & Oray. A. tiecharvn, var. nlfirum, Britt.). 
Buck Uapli. Fig. 18. lATge tree. 120 ft., with black 
bark: Its. cordate, with the sinus mostly closed, gener- 
ally 3-lobed. with broad sinuses, the sides of the blade 
mostly drooping, greeu and pubescent beneath ; lobes 
■onte, entire or obtusely toothed : tr. with divergiog 
wings. Centr. states. — Similar to A.taftharum, but of 
duller appearance and less dense habit. Var. nonnmen- 
tila {A. taceharinum Tar. mDHumcnfdIi, Temple). Of 
nprl^t, columnar habit. 

6. Floridinum, Chapm. (A. barbdlitm, tot. Flaridi- 
mm, Sorg.). Tree, rarely 50 ft. : Its. mostly truncate at 
tfaebwe,3'lobed,1H-3 in. across, glaucous beneath and 
mostly tomentose ; lobes obtuse, entire or slightly 3- 
lobed. GuK states. B.lj.2:91. Q.F. 4:14fi. 

4. KDUuUdmtitiim, Nutt. Tree, 40 ft.: petioles com- 
puatiTely short -, Its. slightly cordate, 3^-lobed, with 
bioad sinuses, 2-3 in. across, pubescent beneath, coria- 
eoons \ lobes acute or obtuse, entire or slightly 3-lobed ; 
mbs few-flowered, short-stalked. Bocky Uts. S.S. 



floninbs 



somewhat drooping : fr. wltli slightly spreading wlogt. 
3. En., Orient.— A variable species, similar to a small- 
leaved sycamore maple. Vts. HTninnm, Pax. (A, 
Bgrcinuin,F.&,1i. A.Tailrieum.Son. A.tritobdlum, 
Hort., not Lam.). Petioles very slender, red, 2-4 in. 
long; aegmenta of the Ivs. 3-Iobed, with strolgbt margin*. 




oo. FU. i« diMlinellfi peduntled eort/mbi or ihorf hm- 
btllaU mcnnct, majfly tnci, with pttali and 
diilinet itpati. 



7. ItUani,Lauth. Small tree, 30 ft.: Ivs. 5-lobed, 3-6 
in. long, glaucous beneath and at length glabrous i lobes 
obtaseTy dentate, the middle ones often 3-lobed: corymbs 



.. _ ,._. ., n. Shrnb or tree, occasionally 50 ft., 
with corky branchea : Ivs. 3-5-lobed, lS-3Kin. long, 
green and pnbescenl beneath or nearly glabrous; lobes 
entire or the middle onea -slightly 3-lobed : corymbs 
erect, hairy : fr. with horizontally spreading wings. 
Eu., W. Asia. — Shrub or tree of moderate, dense grow^, 
with dull green foliage, valuable for planting as under' 
growth and on dry ground. Many varieties and garden 
forms : Var. srgtntM-vulegttiim, Hort. Lvs. with 
large white blotches. Var. p^veroltntum. Hort. Lvs, 
sprinkled with white. Var. AottilaatUQ, DC. Usually a 
tree : lvs. 5-lobed, with acute, nearly entire lobes. VoT. 
TaArlenm, Booth. Shrub: lvs. 5-lobed; small, lobes 3- 
lobed. Var. hsbeoHipiim, DC. Fr. and generally the lvs. 
beneath pubeacent. 

9. Ilonjpwwiltnnni, Linn. (A. IrilobAlum, Lam.). 
Shrub or small tree, 25 ft.: lvs. 3-lqbed, coriaceous, 1-3 
In. across, shining above; glaucous and glabrons be- 
neath ; lobes entire or with few «tbnitie' teeth : corymbs 
eredt: fr, with slightly sprfcadlng winga. S. Eu., N. 
Afr., W. Asia.-8hrub or small tree of slow growth, with 
a dense, rounded head and In temperate regions nearly 
evergreen foliage, thriving well in dry situations, Var. 
IbtrTonm, Koch. (A. fbiritum, Bleb.), Lvs. larger, the 
Inner lobes usually slightly 3-labed, obtuae, 

DD. Lv*. S- or 7-Iobtd. gretn on both tidti; lobttpoinUd. 
entire or vtiih few pointed teeth.- ovary jrtilbrDuI.- 
K-inter-budi with nveral outtr lealee, 

10. tronoitum, Bonge. Tree: Iva. deeply G-lobed and 
mostly truncate at the base, 2H-i in. acroas, glabrous; 
lobes acuminate, setosely pointed, sometimes the middle 
onea 3-lobed : fr, with short, diverging yellow wings, 
N. Chlna,-Hardy tree, with handsome, dense foliage. 

11. plotnm, Thunb. Tree, 60 ft.; Ivs. 5- or 7-lobed, 3-7 
in. across, usually pubescent heneolh when young ; 
lobes entire, acuminate, sometimes very brood and short: 
fls, yellow ; wings of the fr. upright, brown or brownish 
yellow, hardly twice as long OS the nutlets, Manchuria, 
Japan. Handsome tree, with bright green foliage. Var. 
HAdo, Maxim. Lvs. mora cordate : wings of the fr. 

13. liatnm, C. A. Mey, Tree, 50 ft.: lvs, 5-7-lobod, 
mostly cordate, 3-0 in. across, glabrous; lobes entire, 
acuminate : f\a. greenish yellow : wings 2-3 times at 
long OB the nutlets. Orient, Himalayas. -Much resem- 
bling A. pictum, but Ivs. lighter green and of more 
membraneous texture. Var. rdbnmi. Hart. [A. CSIchi- 
cum, var, ruArun, Hort.). Lvs. dark blood-red nhen 



aprinkled with niij pink wbeo Toiuig. Th«ae two beau- 
tital fornu luiuJIf rem^ ahrubbf . 

13. plKtmmldM, Linn. Nobwat HAP!.!. Pig. 19. 
Large tree, lOO ft. : ]tb. G-lobed, cordate, 4-7 In. acroiiB, 
glabrous; lobea potnted, remotely uirate; On. j'ellowiah 
ereen : tr. with Jioriiontklly spreading wings. Eu., 
Chucm as. —Large, handaome tree, with round, spread- 
ing head, resembling somewhat A. lateharut*. The 
Ivs. turn pale yellow in antninn. Many garden forms, 
HODie of whiph are here arruiged in two groups: the 
first being chieB; remarkable for the mamier in which 
the IvB. are cat ; the second lieing chiefly remarkable 
far their coloring. 

[D Var. mumlUtom, Nlebols. Lts. Irrognlarly and 
shortly lobed, crimpied, light green. Var. dliafetnB, 
Jaeq. Sinillarto Tar. i«*«rBi, but with darker foliage 
and of slower growth. Var. Elobtoam, Hort. Forming 
a globose head. Var. UdnUtnin, Alt. LTi.Irregularlv 
divided, the dlTlslons bending downwards ; growth 
upright. Var. L6rb«i«l, Van Houtte. Lvs. dJTided 
nearly to the base, dirlsions deeply lobed. 

(2) Yar. Ubo-TarleEUom, Mchols. Lvs. with large 
white biotehes. Var. afir«o-aiargtiUtiim, Pax. Lva. 
with yellow margin, somewhat Irregularly lobed. Var. 



IT. Camnxm Susu Maplo.- 

Bdtanbiahl, Nichols. Lvg. greenish red when unfold- 
ing, turning dark blood-red in late snmmer. Var. 
BshwMleri, Eoch. Lvs. bright red when young, 
changing to dark green. 
DDD. Lri. SS-lobed or S-tolielatt, doubly terralei win- 
Itr-init «mal[, wiM tvalvatt lealtt. 
U. grlUnm, Torr. {A. Doiglati, Hook.). Shrnb or 
■mail tree, 25 ft., qnlte glabrous : petioles bright red ; 
1*R. deeply 3-S-lobed or 3-part«d, 1-5 in. across, dark 
green and shining above, pale or glaucous beneath ; 
lobes doubly serrate. W. N. Amer. S.S. 2; 89, -Hand- 
some shrubby maple, with gntceful, shining foliage, 

often rose-colored. Var. triputltnm, Pai. {A. iriparl\- 
lum, Nutt.). Lvs. small, uauaily 3-foiioiate. 



oles and peduncles glabrous ; lvs, 7-9-1 
across, glabrous ; lobes acute, doubly serrate : fls. in 
drooping corymbs, with purple sepals. W, N. Amer. 
S.S. 3; a7.-Haiidaome, round-headed tree or shrub, beau- 
tiful with its dellrate tight groeo foliatre, red fls., rose- 
colored fr., and lis orange and scarlet tall coloring. 

16, palmitTim. Tbunb. [A. polymdrphum, S. & Z.). 
Japan Uaflc. Shrub or small tree, 20 ft.; petioles and 
peduncles glabrous | lvs. 5~9-lobed or divided, 2-4 in. 

rate or incised; corymbs few-flowered, erect, with " 



. again in autumn, when the 1' . .._ 
Bume the most striking tints. Some of the more vigor- 
ous-growing varieties, like alropurpurtum, ditllttum, 
oma'um. and the typical forms, are hardy even in New 
England, while the most variegated forms are more ten- 
der. Tliey grow best in partly shaded situations and in 
well drained, rich soil. There are many varieties, mostly 
introduced from Japanese gardens, of which the follow- 



ing ai 



roups, repr* 



:e of tl 



anting variou 



(1) A. pftlmitam, var. ThOntMrgl, Pax. (A. palmi- 
lum,Tbunb.). Lvs. deeply 5-9-lDbedorcleft; lobes oh- 
long-lMiceolate, coarsely and doubly serrate or incised. 
Var. atropnrp to mim.Van Houtte. Fig. 20, c. Lvs. dark 
purple, pjjarsely doubly serrate. F.8. 13: 1273. Vat. 
MUtgolnanm, Hort, , is brighter, and var. nlgmm, Hort. , 
darker red than var. alropurpurtum. Var. bloolor, 
Koch, (var. atmpurpiireum variegilum, Hort.). Lvs. 
dark purple, with large carmine blotches, the lobes 
ball purple and half carmine, Var. aflrsnm, Nichols. 
Lvs. yellow. Var. T«rtl«olor, Van Houtte. Lvs. bright 
green, with large white spots. P.S. 1(: U98. Var. 
iteM-nurglnUum, Van Houtte. 
Lts. small, deeply cut, with nar- 
row pink margin, Var. oiispnm, 
Andr^. Fig. 20, e. Lvs. small, with 
Involute margins; of distinctly up- 
right grawth. I. H. 13:43, 

( 3 ) Var, MpUmlobmn, Eoch 
{A. leptimlobum, Thunb,). Lvs. 
mostly 7-lobed ; lobes broad, equal- 
Iv doubly serrate, Var, rtbnim, 
Bchwer. Lvs, large, deep red when 
young, becoming almost green later. 
Var. ratdoslitum, Andt^. Fig. 20, 
a. Lvs. greenish yellow,with green 
margin end dark green veins. I.H. 
13: IK. Var, trloolmr, Hort. Lvs. 
with red, pink and white apots. 
(3) Var. UnearllDbnm, S. & Z. 
Hort.). 



lobes linear 



notely i 






Japanese 



' ui nearly entire, Var, atrolinsftre, 

^'' Schwer, (var. liuiartlobum airo' 

purpitrevm, Nichols., var. pinnali- 
fiU<tmairtipurpirtuiH,KoT\.). Lvs. dark red. 

<4) Var, dlMiotam, Eoch [A. polffmirphum, var. 
decomp6silum,S.&Z.). Fiff.SO,/. Lvs. divided to the 
base la 6-9 pinnatlfld lobes. 8.Z. 1:110. Var. ornitDB, 
Carr,(var.di«Si(«(umo(ropurp'l"iom,HDrt.). Fig.M.d. 
Lvs. deeply cut, deep red. Var. Fradariel-QuiUlmi, 
Carr, (var. pinnatl/idum ritto-plclum, Lem.). Lvs. 
flnelv out, green, with white and pink spots. I.H. 
14:e23. B.H, 1867:391. 

(5) Var. teMUUtllnm, Maxim. Lrs.deeplycnt,with 
very short petioles. G,C, II. 16. Of little decorative 

17. JapAnionin, Thunb. Flg.2D,b. Small tree or shrub : 
petioles aod peduncles downy when young; lva. 7-11- 
lobed, cordate, 3-6 In. acioss, light green, with silky hairs 
when unfolding; lobes ovate, doubly serrate: Ss, large, 

Burple. Japan. S.Z. 1:144. Var, maoropltfUnm, Van 
loutte. Lvs. large, light preen. Var, aftrenm, Hort. Lva. 
yellow. Var. P&rHnlt, Veitch. (var. nHci/dliuni, Hort.). 
Lvs, large, divided nearly to the base in 6-11 plnnatlsect 
segments. 
Ccc. Fit. in elongaltd, diitinellg ptduneltd raeemi) or 

D. Lva. diitintlly S-lobed, laryt. 

18, maOTDph}llnm,Punih.I>AROB-L£AX-BDMAPLB.Tree, 

100 feet high; lvs. cordate, deeply 3-5-lobed or cleft, pu- 
bescent when young, pale green beneath, 8-12 in. across, 
middle lobe mosllv 3- lobed : racemes pendulous : fr. with 
yellow.brisHyhairs, largely winged. W.N. Amer, 8.S. 
2; 86, 87.— Handsome round-headed tree, remarkable for 
its large foliage; not hardy in the North. 



ACER 



15 



19. PMftdo-pUteall*, Linn. Sycahokk Hapuc. Tree, 
70 ft. high: Iva. E-lobed, Muraely orenate-serrale, 3M-7 
Id. Bcroas, deep green ftbove. gt&acous aod mostly gla- 
bnins benskth ; racemes pendulous ; fr. glabrous. Eu., 
CaocaauB. — Large tree of vigorous Browtb, with large, 
BpreadiDgbead; ihrives well even Ineipoaed situMlonn. 
Uan; vaiiBtles Bud garden fanuB: 

Var. vlllAaam, Pnl. Lvs. chartd- 
pnbeacent beneath. Var. 

reum an<t atroputpuretim, Hort.], 
Lvs. purplish nvi beneath : of ro- 
bast invn-th. Yar.HkDdjtryl.Spath. 
(nr-Priiu Bandjrry.TSort.). Lva. 
purplish beneaih, bright red when 
unfolding. Var.WOrlwi, Hort. (tar. 
lul^serni, Hort.). Lts. yellow. Var, 
AlbD-Tariagitnm, Hort. Lvs. with 
wb ite blotches and spots. Var. tri- 
color. Hort. Lts. spotted with red, 
changing to white. 

20. Eildreiehi, Orph. Tree: Its. 
5-lobeit, the middle Incisions reteh- 
Ing nearly to, the onler half way io 
the boae, 3-6 in. across, glabrous, 
daric green and shining above, 
glaucous beneath ; lobes coarsely 
and doubly serrate : panicle erect, 
long-stalked, ovate. S. E. Eu. Qt. 
34:1185. G.C.I!.10:141. • " 

21. TrmtltT«tt«Ti, Medw. (A. veliltiHum, Hort., not 
Bolss.). Lvs. slightly conUte, deeply B-lobed, 5-7 M^ 
across, glancons beneath and pubescent wheiyjpung^ 
lobes coarsely crenale- serrate; panicleerect. frat^v^Cau- 
easDs. Qt. 40, pp. 2l>l-266. B.M. G697.- Similar to .a. 
<«*ijfiH, bat hardier and with smaller leaves. 

23. InllKne, Boiss. & Buhse. Largstree: Its. E-lobed, 
deeply cordate, 5-10 in. across, bright green above, glau- 
cous beneath ; loties hroad, coarsely crenate-serrate : 
panicles large, erect. Caucasus, N. Persia. OTC. III. 
10: tS9.— Ri^markable far its large, ba^ntme foliagej 



glabroDB, drooping. E. N. Amer. 8.S. 2 :84, 85. tUchx. 
Hist. Arb, 2:17. Em. G6S. — Handsome mediam-alied 
tree of upright, dense habit, with bright green, large 
foliage, turning clear yellow In autumn, and attraettve 
even in winter from its smoDtb, greenish bark, striped 
with white. 



ifiiD. Jjvi.not lobed,ptnnintm4,d<>iibIjf ttrraU, 

28. MT^nlUllnm, S. A Z. Hoshbkau Hapls. Tree, 
30 ft.: lvs. oblong-ovata^sfuminate, sharply and doubly 
serrate, nearly glabron»7B-6 in. long : raceme few.fld. 
S.Z. 2:142. Q.C. II. 15: fi64.-Verv distinct, hardy spe- 
cies; the lvs. are almost exactly like those of Carpinns. 
AA. Foliaji at Ssktiolale Ivi. (ef. Ifo. 14): fi: 
diaeiovi, ■-,-"'> 

B. PtIioUt and j/oung branehii w{(* a rutoui, villoui 



ties: 



ardy in t] 



Nortl 



varie- 
 It.). 



voliittnnm, '. 

I/vt, notlli/ S-lobed or vilhottl lobei, gnen btneatX. 
Shrub or small tree, 20 ft. : lvs. 
btong, cordate, sometimes slightly 



larsely serrate, 2-5 in. long, 
villous -pubescent beneath: fr. balry, with large wings. 
Japan. Q.F. 6: lS5.-Very distinct; lvs. turning brll- 
iiaiit scarlet Id autumn. 



doubly serrate, nearly glab 
panicles, white. S. B. Eu., Orient. 
aall tree, growing best in somewhat 



lobed, 2-4 in. lor 

in long pedunct 

moist soil. 

24. eiDDUa. Mai. (A. Tatdrieum, var. GinaAla, 
Hort.l. Fig.2I. Shrub or small tree, 20 ft.: lvs. 3-lobed, 
ll^-Skin. long glabrous, the terminal lobe elongated, 
doubly serrate : fls. in long peduncled panicles, yel- 
kiwish, fragrant. Manchuria, N. China. Japan. Qt. 
1S7T: 308.- Gracefol shrub, with handsome foliage, turn- 
iDg bright red in antumn; may be used as a substitnte 
for the Japanese maples where these ife not hardy. 
Var. BemeuAvl, Pai. (A. Senenbvl, Regel.). Shrub: 
Its. smaller, deeply 3- or nearly E-lobed. Turkestan. 

25. aplcitiim. Lam. Moui.taih Mapi.1. Shmb or 
small tree, rarely 30 ft.: lvs. 3- or slightly G-lobed, 
coarsely serrate, pubescent beneath, 2H-4K in. long: 
racemes rather denao, long, upright: fr. with diverging 
wingK. bright red in summer. E.N.Am. S. 8.2:82.83. 
— Valuable as undergrowth; lvs. turn yellow and scarlet 
in fait. 

36. raSntlra, S. & Z. Tree with striped bark : 
branches glaucous when young : Its. rounded at the 
base, 3-lobed, 3-5 In. long, doubly serrate, ferrugine- 
ously pubescent beneath when young : racemes terru- 
bescent. Japan. S. 2.2:148. Var. Ubo-lim- 
. Lts. edged with white. B.M. 5793, 

27. PeDnaylTtiiicQm,Linn.(^.ilndrum,DDr). StbIPID 
ILutiE. MixiBKwooD. Tree, mrely 40 f t. : bark^greenish, 
striped with whita lines: Its. s I ighttv cordate, roundish- 
obovate, 3-lobed at the apex. 6-S in. long, finely serrate, 
(erraglneonsly pnboscent beneath when young: racemes 



BE. FttioUt and branthei imooth or prlvetif pubtsetnt: 

fit. in limg laleral raetmet: ttiiUer-bada Kith I 

or 4 Bvler tealtt. 

30. tiMilAUlUU. Koch. [IftfiAitdo ciiiifdlium, S. tc Z.}. 

Small tree: leaflets 3, long-stalked, ovate or elliptic, 

cnneate, coarsely serrate, clilate, 2){H1 in. long: fls. in 



long, upright n 

round-headed ti 

gTKoefal brlgbt green (oUtge, tarnlng onnge-jellow and 

■earlet in katomn; hard^. 

31. MtgiaJb),ljtim.lJreffindefraxinimitim,Vatt,. If. 
tteerolda,1S6acb.). AsH-LSATCD Maplb. Box Eldbk. 
liWge tree, 70 ft.; Ivs. 



S-6-lobad, mlMMoit wbim jtmns. Ji] 
Pn>babL7 brbrid, A. UoqapQuiuiuiqi 
fdntimtm^ Dletr.— A. Nfiffundo. var. Ce 
nim»m. Hort.— A-Nenaao, var. vloliww 



1. H-2 in. 1' 
i.'Spvli.). 



Jipui.— A. B64dt. Spuh. 



Tntt. A. polymorpha 
iligbtl; :i 



J baaejn»qiud]y k . ,_ 

li»7. HiJdy.— J. Crtttcum, Linn.— A. 
orlenUla,'-A.<MtJeu«.Tntt.— A.corlwwam.Tccb.— A.iIiaMIt- 
nim.Blnma. Tree, 30 ft.: I>i. 5-1abed,3-B In. vtnu. «uw1t 
dnktalc. green beneatb and pab««ceiiC when jQiuic; di.greenlBh, 
Japan. S.C. 11. 15:S3a.-A.i>ticjti,Fai. Probably A.TobeUX 
pUtanoldes.— A. ditiietum. Thimb,— A. palmatnm. iv. dluea- 
nun.-A, di»««ium, 8. * Z._ Tree:_ ' " ■- ' 



Dalalati. Hook.- 



Uonapeanlamun K PB«ido.p]atanru 
A. danrcAnnun.— A . fllmlcum, Ue 
luUr^imiiim. WlUd.-A. orientalr 
<n ft : lv». fDrdalB-abloim, wrrat- 
China.— A. Hurednum.F.ii M.—i 
A.kabriaum.BcB'^h. Probabjy ' 



Q.C.lI.lS:tM.—A. 

tdi. Hook. -A. 

. ProbiblT A. 

rearjntni, Hlobi.— 



ItalnmXPim 



r. Ibirlcim.— A. 

— . Jli entire, atleno 

Death. HlmaUru,— A . latigitam, 1 
A.lauH/^um. DoD.^A. oblonawn. — 
Plortdanom. var. ammlnatiun.Trel.). 

larlj' antlro ! ogmnhe" Jlibrinu.' ~N. C.', Ala.— A . 



ntbfoealhi 



Allied u 
Mariednu 



Dilly undnlnl' 






doubly aerrste. Eb 

besr«nt and pale gr^^t 
lobed. Japan. G.V. 3: 
—A , KraPQUtd nu in . Ten 



lobei Incised and 



. -, — Bmail. i _. 

Tree.Wft.: branchw oorkr: 1ti. B-S-lobed.^pn- 



AllledtD 
abort, n 
Alt, -A. 



ndod! pedun 



Ions ; lobea allchtlr 

^tLHBtam. — A. ntffUH^m. Lanse. 

a, auile ^abronj, ^anconi be- 
-A, oMiudlum, Waldit. A Kit. 
iTi, lomentoH beneath!; lobe* 
ry, H.Eo-.N. Afr.— A. O^ltu, 



._.j, Linn. (A, 
heteroiAiyllnm, ^ 

turn, WaU.' Ti« 
lobe elongated, i.. .._ 
|»fvnuii7>Aunl, S.&Z. 



rl«ln.long, gUbron^ 
Accbamra. — A , ptetind- 
i]r i>erTa1«, the middle 
I. GO. II. 15:365.— A. 



T. Roffell. — A , fOocAdi 
[orlnum, Wangb,— A-aai 
>, Torr. * Gra7-A. nl 
iir«. Temple,— A. nlgnu 



2: 18.— Lurge, mpid-groiTliig tr«e of Spreading habit, 
ihrlrlng tiest In niolat and rich aoil. Huch prised in the 
W., where It vithatanda cold and dryness. Largely used 
for shelter belts and for planting timber-claims. See 
picture, under .Sor Eldtr. Var. CalilAmienin, Sorg. I A. 
Valif6rrticum, Dietr. Xegiytdo Califimicum, Torr. & 
Gray). Branches pubescent when young ; ieatleCs 3, 
densely pnbeacent beneath. W, N. Amer. S.S. 2:97. 
Nutt. N. Am. Sylv. 2:Ti. Var. vioUoenm, Arb, Muse. 
{A. CalirSmicum, Hort.]. A vigorously growing [orm; 
brancbes purplish with glaucous bloom or finely pubes- 
cent when young. Var. argtnteo-TariegituiD. Hart. Lvs. 
with broad white margin. Probably the roost effective 
of all variegated hardy trees. F.S. 17:1781. Var. afireo- 
maanUtiun, Hort. Lvs. spotted with yellow. Var.aAreo- 
maiginitiim, Hort. Lva. with yellaw margin. Var. 
aurfctum, SpKth. Lvs. yellow. Var, oilmam, O. Don. 
Leaflets curled. These horticultural varieties may be 
grafted on common Box Elder seedtinge. Box Elder 
hIho grows from hardwood cuttings, like the grape, 

A. aaiminAtum. -Wall. (A. candBlnm, Wall, A. lievlgBtnm, 
Kort.,not Wall.l. Tree: lva. 6.|obe<l, deeply donbly urrale. 
HlmaUyas. G.C. n. 15i3W.-A. arffiUum, Max, Small tr«: 
Iti. ■mall.»-7.1obed, doobl; serrate, nearly dabmag. Japan, 
O.C, II. IB: 725, Hardy and erac----' ■--   '- 



irdate.nblDnj|, Hliffblly a.lobed or i 



entale. — A. ticcha- 



1 to A. Jnponlcam, Lvh, 



eoriaeeoui. HlmalayaB 



A. r(«dri(utB,var. iMinidinm.Regel.-A. Oil 
(Tim, Hort.-A, Ilalum.var. Hyreanum or / 
Taurlcum.- A. tramcjiUitKm. Max. Allied ti 
cum. Ly>. 3-4 in. long, (iabrona beneath ; 
•mall. Manpburin. Q.C. II. 15: 7S.— A. trt/uji 



HymDnm.—A, IWpanUuTn. Kut' 
turn.— A. TichonitHi, Mai. Smul 
2-3t.iln, long, glabrona; lobpH ini'Li 



Hort.-A. Ilalum, var. 
L, fflabmni, var. irlparti. 
*: lvs. 5-7.1obed. rordate. 






srbdtum, Mlchi.- 



var. Telatlnnm,-A, ncliUinum, Hort.-A! 
lUmm. Wall. TaU tree: In. Mobed, eor- 

um,'Mill.— A.daaycarpnm.- A. Zatthtnti, 
**'«'■ AUBBD BiHDBB. 



ACERAXTHU3 

ABKBASTRVB (> ao-wer witbimt horns). Berbtri- 
ddeta. Slender, hardy, herbaceous peieonial. 

A. dtphtllta. Morr. A Dwdb. (EplmMlnm dlphTllnm. liodd.). 
Ptuit rhlBomatoiu : loUletH DbliqaetT flH<dal«, giv«a above, 

xlancons bvDHtli : Ai.uBal], blolsh while. Japan. B.M.SiiS. 
tB.C. 19; UU. 

ACEAHA. See Malvaviaeut. 

ACHIIXtA (Its virtnea said U> have been diaeovered 
by Achilles). Comp6»ita. Inolndes Plannfcd. H»rd; 
herbaeeoQs border and alpine planta of eaay culture. 
Dwarf klods m&ke earpetH In dry, snnny places. Large 
kinds suitable forwild gardeoB. Ltb. aiinple, eomponnd 
DT temate; Q.-heads smalJ, corymbose.— Prop. In spring 
by division, ontlln^ and seeds ; chiefly by the first 
method. 

A. Bai/i abimt f, txttpt in doubh tormi, lialf at loitg at 
Ike ovate-oblong involum; fU. akitt, rtd, or 

'""~- .. «..«»«, „™,. 

MUlaUUnm, Lino. Mmon~ Yabbow. Height 1-3 tt.: 
Iva. bi-plunaMly parted, segmeDtB linesr, 3-S eleftf lis. Id 
flat corymbs. Jone-Oct. £a., Asia, Amer. CoininoD In 

Ktures. D. es.- Less commonly cult, than vars. m- 
■• and TOimm, with red or purple fls. 

TonnwUrUl, DC. {A.^g^pfuica, Linn.). Height 12- 
18 Id. ; Ira. plnnatisect ; segmontB roandish, coarsely 
toothed ; fls. pale yellow. June-Oct. Greece. 

tHipoidnlliia, Lam. [A. SupBlirivm, Bleb.). Height 
4-S ti. : stent erect, furrowed, almost hairy: fls. in dense, 
convex compound corymbs, often 5 In. acroas. June- 
Sept. Orient.- Needs staking. 

tomantiaa, Linn. A woolly, carpet-like plant for rock- 
erle*. HelRibt 8-10 la. Eu., Orient, N. Am. B.M. 498. 
On. 63, p. 421. 

AA. Baft 6-tO, at long at or longer than t\e rotund 

or eampanulale involurrt ; fit. whitt. 

D. Lm, not divided. 

PMmioa, Linn. Sneezcwort. Height 1-2 ft.: Its. 
■enate : fls. In loose corymbs ; all summer. N. Temp. 



8ibtlle>. Ledeb. (.4. Mongiliea, Flseh. A. ptarmi- 
eoldei, Haiim.). Denser than the last, more erect and 
rigid : height lH-2 ft. : fls. larger and In more com- 
pact corymbs. July-Sept. 

BB. £t«. deeply dii-ided. 

maenphylla. Llun. Height 3 ft.: Its. long, broad. 
July. Alps. 0D.S2, p. 421.- Better aoited to shrubbery 
than herbaceous border. 



Reg.— Its (nil-doable Tar., the Pearl, Fig. 22, is much 
used for ent-flower* and in cemeteries, and Is one of 
the most popnlar o( all hardy herbaceona plants. There 
are other Tarletiea. 



ClATfnn, Linn. (Commonly spelled A, Clavennit. A. 
argintta, Hort., not Lam.). Dwarf, tufted, hoary fclplne 
plant: height 10 In.: Its. dentate at apei ; aegmenta 
obtuse; fls. spring and summer. Eu. B.M, 1287. Gn. 
62, p. 421.-TfiHTeB In Band. 

A. Aferdfum.LlliD. FIb./bUow. En. — A. IWAU<i<&'ia. Beuth. 
A Hook. lAnthemls Alioon). Tufted. WD0II7, illTer; Eny : fls. 
while. May-June- QTeree.—A, aiiA-na. Llnn. Lvs. pFniiaUfld: 
flj. white. Haj-Jnne. AIjh. — A. atplenifblia^ Vent. Ltb. pin- 

— A.'a(r«a. Linn. Dwarf, tufl<>d. aromatic; radicnl Its. petlo- 
late; unllne lT>.Tiliintti>«ft: Sa. vhlte. Alps.— A. dtcotdrnns. 
Scbrad, Lvn.nndlvWed; fls.poleyellow. July. En.~A, ifiriw- 
rtCa.All. Dwarf, tstted. aromatic, alpine: lvs. undivided, ser- 
rate: Ah. white, M&y-Jtine.^— A.i^iijftca.Ail. LvB.plnnBtifld: 
fls.wliile. Eu.,Orient.— A. mojcAdla. Jacq. Lvs. Bmootli, pin- 

Dwsrf.haliy 'woolly, aromstin'i Ivi. plnnatlwot : fls.'whlle.' 
SprlnE- Kn. IJied In maklui Chartreuse.— A. odarAla, Linn. 
Lvs. pinnatlHct; lobeecnt: fls- white.— A. jweiiiid'a. Willd. 
FlB.pale yellow.— A. ru;;«j(Kf. Hnler. Lvs. H in- loDE.Unear- 
spatulata. nitire. H. Italy. B.M.aOOS.- A. tantalijuAilft. Lac. 
1 ft,: lvs, pinnatlMict, hairr-woolly : Hi. white. July. Spain.— 

— A.umftfiMM, Blbth'"^e'"wool'lT'™kplant,T-5i'n.: Ivi. ptn- 
natifld ! ]ohe» ohloni, blnnltsh, entire or wmile : Ha. while. 
Jmie. Greece. — A. VoJeHoca.Steiu. Lvi, plnnately parted: Or. 
while. JnnH-Aii«. En. W M 

ACHDISBKH (Greek, e»*iiiio(tio, to BUfterfromcold). 
6e»nrriefa. Ureesboiue herbs, allied to gloxinias, na- 
tlTe to tropical Amer. FIb. ailUary; the S caij-i lobes 
narrow and short ; the corolla tube cylindrical and limb 
spreading; anthers 4, connlyent In the corolla tube, and 
a rudiment of a fifth stamen; style long, usually ex- 
eerted, the stigma dilated or obscurely 2-lobed. 

The rhlsomes of Achimenes should be potted about 
the flret of April, In soil which has Iwen made loose and 
open by the addition of about one-third leaf-mold. Six 
or seveu of these in a 5-Inch pot, or nine or ten in a 
6-lnch one, make npeclmena of ^e most couTenient 
else. The young growth appears In about eighteen days, 
and from that time onward great pains should be taken 
to keep the soil moist, for a single seTere drying will 
ruin the plants. Liquid manure should be glreii twlso 



18 



ACHIHEKES 



> WMk Kfter Bowerlng btglui, I.e., toirard th« 'end of 
H>y. Ilie plkute aza generall; tied up to slender sop- 

Krta M gToirtb »dvBiieM,uid,sotreMed,ii]ake snrpiis- 
S\f effective speelmena. They mmy also be sllowed 
to ^row natundly, when the^ will droop over the lidei 
of the pota and floner profueely. StilE another wav [a 
to plDcb off the tops of the (rrowiiig pimta when utey 
are 4 or SS inches high. Ab this produce! a branching 
growth, a smaller number of rhiiomes sboald be allowed 
to each pot. The flowers of Achimenes are produced for 
eeveral months without eessatloii, I.e., until Oct., and 
sometimes still Inter U the small-Bowered kinds are 
used. As soon as blossoming comes to an end, the plants 
should be cut oil level with the tops of the pots, which 
should then be stored away, putting a reversed pot on 
the top of each one th»t stands on it8 base, for otherwise 
mice may destroy all the roots. Acblmenes are propa- 
gated usually b; means of the natural increase of the 
rbisomes, but all kinds may be grown from cuttings. 
Another w«y, which produces many though weak plants. 
Is t« mb off the scales and sow Uiem as If they were 
seeds. The roots should be separated from the aoL dur- 
ing the winter, and care should be token that they do 
not decay from getting too wet In the moist air of green- 
home or cellar. Some of the best species are A. laiigi- 
/lora, purplish blue; A, longitlora vor. alba maxima, 
the liest wbite kind; A, paUni var. major, a large flowev 
of purplish rose; A. ptduMcutala, orange; A, htUrv- 

£kylla,tubalar, a fiery orange at one end and biasing yel- 
w at the other. Some of the best varieties are Am- 
brolse Verscheffelt, white, with a network of violet lines; 
Chlrita, deep, intense violet-blue with white throat; 
Daasle, small, vivid scarlet, and late -blooming ; Lady 
Littleton, rieh crimson; Hosterpiere, rosy violet with 
yihite throat ; Mauve Qneen, a very large and substantial 
Tuiety of A. lengiflora, pole purple; Rose Queen, rich, 
rosy Uke; NIslda, lavender, shading to wbite; Trivi- 
mna ntta, like Dasile, ex- 
cept in color.For other points 
In the culture of Achimenes, 
see G.P. 7: *56, *77, 508, 
Gig; S: 16. In the grandlflora 
gronp the tubers or bulbs 
are olnstered ; in the longi- 
flora group the tubers ora 
pear-shaped bodies, growing 
on the ends of root-like rhi- 
iomes. The ooccinea and 
. blrauta groups (Pig. 23) ore 

Cult, by W. E. Ebdicott. 
The garden Achimenes ore 
much confused by bybridi- 
Edtion, and it is doubtful If 
any of the pure species are 
in general cultivation in this 
country. Years ago, the small 
red-flowered types (of the 

qnent, but modern evolution 
has proceeded from the 
broad-flowered purple spe- 
cies. Tbe following first 
six speeleB seem to have 
contributed most largely to 
the present garden forms. 
A., rii.catored.tht lube utualty not more than tvice 
tXe length onhe limb. 
B. Bltii*omi imatl, red or learlel. 
OOelUta, Hook. Roots small and tuberous : st. 1-2 
ft.: IvB. rich green above and purple beneath, ovate, 
strongly serrate, with conspicuous purplish petioles : 
fls. small, 1 in. long, broad-tubed, spotted with black and 
yellow, the lobes short and obtuse and well separated, 
drooping an reddish peduncles. Panama. B.M. 4359.- 
Fine (or foliage. 

OWdDU, Pers. Height, 1-2 ft. : St. reddish ; Ivs. 3- 
whorled or opposite, green, ovate -acuminate, serrate: 
fie. small, scarlet the corolla twice longer than tbe erect 
lanceolate parted, calyi on short peduncles. Minute Ivs. 
often borne in the ailis. Blooms late. Jamaica.- One 
of the older types. See Fig. 23, 



ACHIHEHES 



hairy: Ivs. ovate'acumlnate, stalked, ser- 
rate, the two of each pair usually unequal in size; fls. 
solitary, on pednncles somewhat longer than the leaf- 
stalks, long-tubular and slightly curved, with a narrow, 
nearly equal fiaring limb, rich scarlet, yellow within. 
Mei. B.M. 4871. -This species has tubers Uke those of 
the grandifiora section. 

padtmoiilita, Benth. St. l>i-2 ft., balry, reddish: Ivs. 
opposite, small, ovate, sharply serrate, green, hairy, on 
short reddish stalks : Bs. medium site, drooping and di- 
lated upwards, yeltow-red with dark markings and a 
yellow throat, the limb comparatively short ; on long 
(4-fi In.) bracted stems. Guatemala. B.M. 1077.-Stem 
produces tubers. 

BB. Bloiion large, vitk vide limb, blue, violet 
or purple. 

ionsllkm, DC. Pig. 24. The root-like rhiiomes pro- 
ducing pear-shaped tubers at their ends : St. 1-Z ft.. 



M. Achlmenas loDolflota {X K). 

hairy: Ivs. opposite or 3-t-whorled, ovale-oblong, ser- 
rate, hairy, sometimes colored beneath: fls. solitary, tbe 
corolla salver-shaped, with a long and graceful tube; the 
limb very large and widely spreading, violet-blue and 
wbitlsb beneath, tbe lowest segment sometimes divided. 
Guatemala. B.M. 39S0. P.M. 9: 151. — A popular type. 

gnndUlAn, DC. Ijvt. mostly larger than It) last, 
rusty below, often oblique at base: lis. very large, dis- 
tinctly red-tinged. Mei. B.M. 4012. -Popular type. 

p4t«M,Benth. Height, 1-lS «.: Ivs. unequal, ovale- 
acumlnat«, hispid and serrate : fls. vlolct-blue, with 
downy calyx, tube shorter than spreading crenate limb. 



opposite obloDg-aeuminate, crenate, short-petiolnd Its.: 

downy, the pedicels opposite and 2 In. long. Argentina. 
B.M. 3971. -Tubers solid, much like a potato. 

A.amibilit, Decne.— NieieliB nmltlflgn.— .4. Blmtanfutwi, 
Lindl,— A. foltoss.— J. tdjidida. Lladl.— DlcyrU eandlds.— ^. 
tupredia. Hook.-Kpl«pi»=iipr™t..— J, falilua. Morr. Ln. for- 
ds te, onniaal; B>. crimson, with asccBte tnt>e I^ln.loDE, with 
nanow limb, Gutemsls.— J.. Bloxinicrflira. ForkeL— Oloilnta 
BlBbraU.— A.Hrrtlo. DC. Loose erower: it. bnJblfenms i fls. 
ratber lorffe. with swoQen tnbe find oblique limb. rose, with yel- 
low and spotted throat. Oui.t<>msla. B,a. 4144, P.M. 12: 7. 
Onoe popnlBT.— A. Jaureiruia.Wftrnci.— A. ioarl&on.— A, SUH. 
Post. Dwarf: fls. pink -Dumlo. P.M. 18; 2*9, Form of A, lonel- 
flonif— A.mulWIAra. Qardn. Hairy: Iva. broad 4vate: fis.blue. 
fringed. BtmII. B.M, aMS,— i,p«rta, Bonlb.-Tydisa pIcU.— 

and hybrids ore Etcherii. ftorifnlnda. iiUfrmtdia. Jdi/ii. Jfflinf- 
fdrdii. naoilMdei. adna. ventUla IF.M. Ib-.va). Vertclia/Hua. 
L. H. B. 



ACHLYS 



ACONITUM 



19 



AOHLTB (the goddess of obscurity). Berberidiieea, 
Hardy herbaceous perennial. Fls. minute, numerous, 
8pieat«, on a slender scape. 

triphtUa, DC. Root-stock terminated by a strong-, 
scaly winter-bud : Its. 1 or 2 ; leaflets 3, fan-shaped, 
sinuate-dentate, 2H z5 in.: scape 1 ft. long: spike 1 in. 
long. Spring. W. N. Amer.— An interesting and deli- 
cate plant. Int. 1881. 

ACHSA8. See Sapodillo. 



. See Iresine. 

ACIBAHTHi&A (pointed anthers). Iriddeea. Ten- 
der herbaceous perennials, intermediate between Gladio- 
lus and Ixia. Lvs. many, linear ensiform, 1-1 Hft. long: 
spikes 2^-flowered, simple, lax : fls. long-tubed, some- 
what pendulous: corms roundish, flattened, covered wiUi 
a matted fiber.— Prop, by seed or by the numerous corms. 

hieolor, Hochst. St. 15-18 in.: fls. creamy white, 
blotched chocolate brown within, fragrant : corms K-1 
in. in diam. Abyssinia. G.F. 1:486, 487. Gn. 47:1014. 
G.C. III. 20:393. Mn. 8: 11.— Requires a somewhat 
stUirer soil than the tender species of Gladiolus. May be 
grown in a tub outdoors during summer, and flowered 
within during Oct. Several corms in a large pot give 
good results. Corms should be dried as soon as li^d, 
to prevent rot. 

A, OQuinoetidiitt Baker. St. 8^ ft., stont, stiffly erect: Ivs. 
strongly ribbed: fls. white, blotched crimson or purple within: 
eorms large. Sierra Leone. B.M. 7303. May oe a stronger 
crowtnc and more tropieal form of the above. 

W. E. Endicott and W. M. 

AOIH&TA ( immovable, the lip being jointless ) . Orchi- 
dAcea. Stout epiphytes with interesting pendent scapes. 
Pseudobulbs conspicuously furrowed, slightly com- 
pressed : leaf-blades smooth, conspicuously veined, 
plaited and pliable : fls. globose. As a genus it is too 
near to Peiisteria and Stanhopea. The species are 
nunelv seen, as thev are less conspicuous in their color- 
ing than many orchids. They require a warm house and 
plenty of moisture during tne growing season, with a 
decided rest, to make them flower. Use baskets, not pots, 
as the flower-spikes are produced from the base of the 
bulbs, as in Stanhopea, and should have free egress or 
they wiU be lost. Cult, by E. O. Obpbt. 

BAikni, Lindl. {Perist^ria Bdrkeri, Bat^m.). Pseu- 
dobulbs sub-conic, about 5 in. : leaf -blades longer than 
in A. ffumboldtii: fls. 12 or more, in pendent racemes, 
golden vellow spotted with brown. Mex. B.M. 4203. I.H. 
2:44. 6n. 54, p. 332. P.M. 14:145. 

Htbnboldtii, Lindl. Pseudobulbs ovate, about 3 in.: 
leaf -blades about 1 ft. long, lanceolate, acute: scapes 
pendent, 2 ft. long ; fls. 6 or more, chocolate colored, 
about 2 in. in diam. Ecuador, high elevations. Gn. 
3:11. 

A. ekry§6nthat Lindl. Racemes pendent ; fls. colden yellow, 
with whitish labeUnm and crimson or purplish column; label- 
lam foraished with a lone, blunt. papUlose horn. Mex. — A. 
dinsa, LindL (A Warseewiesii, Klotzsoh). Fls. subi^lobose, fra- 
grant, pale yellow, spotted externally with reddish brown ; label- 
mm y«Uow, spotted with reddish brown. Costa Rica. — A.Hru- 
bvSbuit Reiehb. f. Fls. ivory white, in loose racemes ; lip spotted 
purple, with erect side lobes. New Grenada.— A .«uIediCa,Keichb.f . 
Bimilar to A. HnmboldtU. Fls. yellow. Oakbs Amis. 

ACOKAa tu&RA (mucronate anthers). ApoeynSieeiB. 
Tender shrubs, cult, in g^reenhouses North, and outdoors 
in Fla. and Calif. Fls. "^th the odor of jasmine, lasting. 

qweUibilii, G. Don. {Toxieophiosa speetdbilis, Sond. 
T. TkHnbergii, Hort., not Harv.). Lvs. 3-5 in. long, 
short petiolate, leathery, elliptic, acute, shining above: 
fls. numerous, in dense axillary, branched, short cymes, 
pure white, very sweet scented. Natal. B.M. 6359. R.H. 
1879:270. G.F. 6:185. G.C. 1872:363.- Poisonous. The 
plants cult, under this name are said by trade catalogues 
to have pink or violet flowers. 

▼aneii&ta, G. Don. {ToxicophlcBa ceatroideSf DC. T, 
Tkunbergii, Harv., not Hort. ) . Fls. white or rose. Dif- 
fers from the above in the well marked venation of the 
leaves, its flowers a third smaller, its calyx not pubescent, 
and its coroUa-limb less widely spreading. 

ACOHITX, WIVTEB. See EranthU. 



ACOHtTDH. Banuneuliie6€B, Aconite. Monkshood. 
WoLFSBAMB. A gouus of hardy ornamental, perennial 
herbs, much used in borders, etc. Manv species are 
planted in European gardens, but only nine have been 
much used in America. The number of species varies 
from 18 to 80, with dilFerent botanists. Native in moun- 
tain regions of Europe, temperate Asia, and flve in N. 
Amer. Root tuberous, turnip-shaped, or thick flbrous: 
St. tall or long, erect, ascending or trailing : lvs. psJ- 
mately divided or cleft and cut-lobed : fls. large, irregu- 
lar, showy ; sepals 5, the large upper sepal in Ishape of a 
hood or helmet; petals 2-5, small; stamens numerous; 
carpels 3-6, sessile, many-ovuled, forming follicles when 
ripened. The following species do well in any garden 
soil, but rich preferred ; they thrive in open sun, but 
flowers last longer in shaded places. Aconites should 
never be planted in or too near the kitchen garden or 
the children's garden, as the roots and some of the 
flowers have a deadly poison. Prop, easily bv division. 
Reichenbach Monographia Generis Aconiti, Leipsic, 
1820, 2 vols., folio. Reichenbach Ulustratio Specierum 
Aconiti, Leipsic, 1822-7, folio. 

A. Roots glohular-tuherous, 

B. Lvs, deeply cut, hut not to the haae, 

Fiseheii, Relchb. (A, Columhidnumf Nutt. A, Cali- 
f&mieum, Hort.). Stems 4-6 ft.: lvs. large, smooth, 3- 
parted, attractive: segments much cut and divided: fls. 
numerous, pale blue, panided, pedicels pubescent; hel- 
mets heniispherico-conical. Autumn. N. Amer. and 
Asia. Int. 1889. B.M. 7130. 

CammlUrnm, Linn. {A, decorum, Relchb. ) . St. 3-4 ft. : 
lvs. with short, bluntish lobes: fls. purple or blue; pani- 
cles or loose spikes few-flowered ; helmet hemispheri- 
cal, closed. July-Sept. Hungaiy. Int. 1889. A, Storkid- 
num, Relchb., is a dwarf form of this, with fewer flowers 
and somewhat flbrous roots. 

nnolnlktam, Linn. Wuld Monkshood. St. slender, 
3-5 ft., inclined to climb: lvs. thick, deeply cut into 3-6 
cut-toothed lobes : fls. loosely panicled, but crowded at 
the apex ; blue, pubescent, 1 inch broad ; helmet erect, 
nearly as broad as long, obtusely conical : follicles 3. 
June-Sept. Low grounds of Penn. S. and W., Japan. 
Mn. 4: 81.— Much planted now. 

BB. Lvs. divided to the base. 

Tariegiitiim, Linn. Erect, 1-6 ft.: lvs. variously di- 
vided into usually broad lobes and cut divisions ; lower 
petioles long, others short or none: fls. in a loose pani- 
cle or raceme, blue, varying to whitish, rather smooth ; 
helmet higher than wide, top curved forward ; visor 
pointed, horizontal or ascending. July. Europe. A, 
album t Ait., is a pure white-flowered form of this, with 
rather flbrous roots. 

▲A. Moots long-tuberous, 

B. Carpels usually 6, 

Jap6nieQ]n, Decne. St. erect, 3-4 ft., smooth : lvs. 
dark gpreen, shining, petioled; lobes 2-3 times cut, the 
parts blunt and deeply toothed : fls. large, deep blue or 
violet, tinged with red, on loose panicles with ascending 
branches ; helmet conical ; beak abruptlypointed : fol- 
licles 5. July-Sept. Japan. Int. 1889. R.H. 1851, p. 475. 
Var. ooBtUeiu, Hort. Fls. very abundant ; panicles 
shortened. 

BB. Carpels 8 or 4, 

Vap611iu, Linn.(J.. Ta^rieum, Jacq. A. pyramiddle, 
Mill. ) . True Monkshood. Officinal Aconite. Fig. 25. 
The best known and most poisonous species, and used 
in medicine. Sts. erect, 3-4 ft.: lvs. divided to the 
base, and cleft 2-^ times Into linear lobes : fls. blue, in a 
raceme; peduncles erect, pubescent; helmet broad and 
low, gaping, smoothish: fr. 3-4-ceIled. June-July. Gn. 
12, p. 362.— Very many varieties, differing in shade of 
flowers, often mottled or lined with white. Var. Album 
is nearly white. Var. bioolor and var. yertioolor, much 
used in gardens for the large blue and white flowers. 
Reichenlmch has divided this species into 20-^0 species. 

AAA. Boots in the form of a sealy, elongated bulb, or 

somewhat fibrous. 

B. Sepals deciduous. 

autmnnile, Relchb. Autumn Aconite. Fig. 26. St. 
3-5 ft. : lvs. pedately 5-lobed : fls. in a simple spike, be- 



ACONITDM 



>r irhitlshi helmet closed. 



;hed elongated cone ; middle 

lie nsDally beaided : fr. nan- 

3-celled. Juno-Sept. En., 

erU. B.M. 2ST0. G.U. 3i: 124. 

BB. Bepalt ptniiUnt. 

ii.tiliT%,IAiai.(A.PyTtniieiim, 

[.]. Bt. l-2ft,: Ivs. parted »1- 

it to the bue, ptu-tB deeply 

and lobed, more or less hU- 

beneath, sDioothlsh above : 

loles long : fls. In lateral and 

nlnal racemes, pale yellow, 

in large ; racemes or panjolea 

erally pubescent ; Bpnr bent 

back or hooked ; helmet 

arched, but cylindrical at 

base: folliclesB. Jnne-Jaly. 

S.E11. B.M. 26M.-SeTeral 

TBrietieB. 

A. CMniiut, sub, Dcspblne 
spike of fli. tiom the axil of 
eyerT Iwt ; foliace bold and 
handKiue. B.M. 3§£2. P.M. 
i:i. — A. delpMnMtiutit, DO. 
Alllodto A. KBp«Ung.-A. I<tt- 
eropHfUum. Wall. Fls. yellow 



Nopeboradntf. Qrttj. Pruhablj "^A 






t. Lain. (A. loiieuui , Rfiich 
imiddli, MUl. Fon 

tepUnlrxondU. var 



N'apelliu 



B,'(Vb^81( 



ACBOSTICHUM 

Havairinali, Hort. A slow-growing, thorny plant, of 
which little ts known. Trade name. 

Jaskd G. Swth and G. W. Ouveb. 

ACKOPtEA. See Oongom. 

AOSOFHtXLDII (Greek, top and leaf). Saxirragi- 
tta. One Australian evergreen shmb, A, TenAmni, 
Benth. lA. veHicMiUum, Book.), exceUent for spring 
flowering in tbe coolhonse. Prop, by cuttings in early 
■ommer. Liet the plant rest during summer. Do not 
expose to frost. It produces many pinkish fls. in dense 
spleate whorls near the top of the branches. Lvs. In 
3 s. sessile, dentate: fls. with S petals and 10 atunens. 
4-4 ft. B.H. 4050. 

ACSOBTICHITK (derivation obsenre). Felgpodlieta. 
Greenhouse ferns. Includes plants of great diversl^ of 
foliage, Which are often referred to many genera. 8ori 
spread in a layer over the entire under surface of the 
leaf or of certain of tbe npper pinnte, rarely over both 
surfaces. Foliage rather coarse, the leaves simple or 
pinnate, rarely forked. All the 140 species are plants at 
tropical regions, two species growing in 8. Fla, Soma 
kinds are adapted to covering walin, cnlumnH, tmnks of 
bee ferns, eto. The kinds with long tronds are excellent 
for banging baskets. As all kinds reqnlre an abundance 
at water M tlie roots, the compost should be very porous. 



I. worth 

fc)rtiiamm,"wmd."OnMlii~Udia tSelniae: oPt now f oiuid. ~' 
E. C. Davis. 
ACOBITB (ancient name o( unknown meaning). 
Aroldea. Hardy, herbaceous water-loving plants. Lvs. 
sword-shaped, erect; spadii appearing lateral, with no 
true npatbe: Hs. inconspicuous. They thrive best in 
moist soil, and may be grown In shallow water or on dry 
land. Prop, easily in spring or autumn by division. 

Oilamni, Linn. Swebt Fiao. Height 2 ft. : root- 
stock horliontal, pungent, ammatle. Fla. early summer. 
N. Amer.,Ea. Var.niriegiltai, Hon. Lvs. striped deep 
yellow when young, fading 1« a paler color later in sum- 
mer. Eu. — Commoner in cult. Uian the type. 

grMUlnmi, Soland. Height S-12 in. Uuch smaller 
' " ' in, formingcompact, grassy tufts. Japan. 



&0BOCLl>IUK. 81m Selipttmm. 

ACBOCdlUA (name means a tuft of leavia at the lop), 
Palmieea, tribe Coeointa. Spiny tropical American 
palms: caudez erect, solitary, ringed and swollen at the 
middle, densely spiny: lvs. terminal, plnuately cut; seg- 
ments narrowly linear-lanceolate, long, obliquely acumi- 
nate, the naked margins recurved at tbe base ; midnerves, 
rachls and petiole with long spines: fr. globose or ob- 
long, glabrous or prickly; black or brown. Species 8, 
mostly dlffloult to distinguish; silled to Cocos. They 
need a rich, sandy loam. The chief danger with young 
plants Is overpotting, as few leaves are on a plant at a 
time, and the roots are not abundant. 

■Olsrooiipm, Mart. {A.acultita, Lodd.). Height 30- 
45 ft.: trunk cylindrical, about 1 ft. thick, with black 
spines 2-1 in. long: lvs. )2~15 ft. long; segments In ir- 
regular groups of 2 or 3, 2-3 ft. long, J4-1 in, wide, 
smooth and shining above, whitish, ap pressed -pi lose be- 
low, entirely free of spines, eicept along the. midrib. 
Bras. toW. Ind. I.H. 15:&4J.-Not hardy at On*co, Fla. 
Cult. inCallf. ''Oru-gru"and"coroio"are natlvensmes. 



K. Acsnitum aDCumnala (X K)- 

A mixture of two parts flbrons peat, one 
sphagnum, and one ot coarse silver sand 
mended. For general culture, see Ferti 

Tbe foltowing species " '- " 

No. 15; anreom, IT; cer 



ACROSTICHUM 

; gorgonenm, 11; lomarioldag, 1S| 
mnteosum, 3; DicoliuierolluDi. 16; oamundaceum, 19; 
peltBtom, 20; plloaum, S; retlcQUtuin, 10; BC&ndens, J" 
■Implex, 6; Borbifoliiun, 13; Bquamoaum. 2; Tllloaum, 

A. Ixt. limpU, left (*an 1 in. wide; ceint free. 

{Elap\oiiie»iura. ) 

B. Surtaee of Ive. dentelg lealj/ throughout. 

0. Texture thin, flaeeid. 

1. TllUnim, SiTi. Fig. 37. Sterile Ivs. 6-9 In. long; 
fertile 1th. acucely more thon half as luge, 1>oth with 
abunduit Blender, duk-brown scKles. Hex. and W. Ind. 
-Dwarf, Tuisble. 

cc. Texture (ftiefc, leathery. 

2. MilULiikAlIUU. Sw». Ltb. 6-12 In. long, the fertile 
narrower, on longer stems ; both surfacea matted with 
bright reddish brown linear or lanceolate Bcalea. Tropics 
of both hemiaphcreB. 

3. mniOtMlia, Swi. Sterile ivs. 6-12 in. long, fertUe 
much ahorter ; apper sartace allghtly scaly, the lower 
densely matted with ovate, rusty scales. Tropics of 
both hemispheres. S. 1:211. -Very distinct In habit. 

BB. Sur/aee ot Ivi. ilightlg »caly. 

4. tImArub, Swi. Sterile Its. 6~13 In. long, narrowed 
gradually at the base ; the fertile shorter, on longer 
Blema ; tecture leathery, the aarfaces somewhat Tlscld. 
Tropics of both hemiapherea. 

5. piUtltm, BBE. Lts. flemouB, 6-8 In. long. ^in. 
wide, wllb tnfta of star-like acalea beneath ; texture her- 
baceooB. Hex. to Columbia.— Chiefly of botanical In- 

BBB. Stirfate of IvM, not tcalp,- texture leathery. 
I>. Margint ot tve. Ihiei, eariilaginoni. 

6. ■iBplM.Swz. sterile Its. 4-12 in. long, with a rery 
acute point, the lower portion gradually narrowed Into a 
■hart, aomewhat margined stem. W. Ind. to BrazU. 

T. eonUrmt, Swi. Sterile Ivs. 2-9 In. long, with a 
blontlah point and wedge-shaped or spatalate base ; fer- 
tile Its. narrower. Tropica of both hemlapbereB. 
DD. Margint of leavet not thickened. 

8. lUeotdiim, ¥ie. Sterile Its. S-12 in. long, with very 
acute point, the lower portion gradually narrowed to the 
short stem; fertile Its. on astern 3-4 in. long. S.Ajner. 
—Of botanical lnt«reBt only. 

AA. Lot. tinple; veins uniting to lorn a nettcarli. 
B. Burtact ot Ivt. deniely clothed with narrow eealee. 



(Bym. 



"■I 



IJlepli 
W. Lai 



Id. to 



ACBOSTICHUU 21 

. long. [OUereia.) Max. and Cnba t« 



B upper pinnB decurrent, and the lower 
or OTen Incised ; fertile Itb. atnaller, wiia nai 
inte, the upper decurrent. Cuba and Hex. 1 



l.Llnn. EiiBphaht-eabPekn. Lvs.lO-lSln. 
long, 4-8 In, wide, on denselyscaly stems ; fertile Its. 
smaller, on shorter stems. W.Indies. F.S. 9:936. as 
S. eHaittmi.— Omit sand in potting, and aToid over- 



. Surface ol Ivt. nottly imooth, S-IS in. long. 

10. retiimUtnm, Kaulf. Lvs. on distinct stems, wiUi 
wedge-shaped bases. \% in. wide; veins forming eoplons 
meahea. {Chryiodiurn.) Hawaiian Islands.— Of botani- 
cal interest only. 

11. Kdrvinumn, Eaolf . Lts. tapering gradually down- 
ward to the short stem, 2-3 In, wide ; Teina forming 
meshes only near the margin. [Aconiopterit.) Hawaiian 
lsl.~Of little decorative Talue. 

AAA. Lvi, pinnate. 
B. Ferns etimbinfi viith narrow, fertile pinna. 

12. witndwil, J. Smith. Bootstock widely climbing : 
Its. 1-3 ft. long, with pinnc 4-8 In. long ; fertile plnnm 
■lender, 6-12 in. long; textare leathery. (Stenochlana.) 
India. S. 1:224.— A Tigoroos grower and coarae feeder, 
much nsed in cooler houses of large ferneries. 

13. UTbiUllnm, Linn. Rootstock climbing, often prick- 
ly; Its. lS-18 la. long, 6-12 in. *ride, with close Toins; fer- 
"'- -' — B 2-4 in. long, narrow. {Lomariepiit.) E, and 



IT. aAnOffl, Ijinn. Lva.fertileonly Inthenpperplnne, 
3-6 ft. long, with plmiE 6-10 In. long, short stalked, 
corlaceoDS. Fla. to Bras, and in the tropics of the old 
world. S. 1:187.- Strong-growing, One of the best- 
Should be treated as an aquatic. 

18. lomarioldM, Jenman, Sterile and fertile Its. dis- 
tinct, the sterile shorter and spreading, the fertile taller 
erect In the center of the cluster; plnnn 9-U 



{, almost sessile. 
A, £i.'S. bipit 



oBrai. 

r bipinnate ; 



pimus 4-B In. long, 1 



{Polyboira 
. . . . Hook. Rootstock wide, climbing, 

with long, linear scales ; sterile Itb. 2-3 ft. long, tbe 
lower pinns B-10 in. long, with numerous slightly 
Btalked segments; fertile Its. triplnnate, with tbe lower 
pinniB 1-2 ft. long, 4r-8 In. wide, with narrow, cylindrlo 
segments lii-K in. long. W. Ind, to Bras.- nobably 
the handsomest of tbe cUmblng kinds. 

AAAAA. Z/vi. palmate trom creeptna roolitotkt: 
plants email. 
20. pdtitnm, Swi. Ltb, 1-2 In. each way on Blender 
Btema, repeatedly forked into very narrow dlTlalone; 
fertile Its, %-H in. wide, circular, or somewhat 2-lobed. 
(Shipidopterit.) Hex. andW. Ind. to Brai.-Adelicata 
and distinct plant, needing moisture all the year round. 



ACROSTICnnM 



Hum. Hook., aU from 8. 



■Impte, IK-^lo.loiw. a. A 
I>le.»-tgln.loii«. Aillodto. 
dfttum, WUld. Allied to A, 
:. Allied to A. flacellltc 



^H<wV^°Alll«d to A. pciutun! 
ory^ LvB, Blmpl«^ AlllBd to A. ilni' 
, hettrvjHirvhumt Klotuch. Lti. 



muiMun. 



ACT1N0UER18 

AOTUIlDIA (ntfin, r*7; referring to the ndUt* 

styles). Tenttlramiieca. Hard; climbing decidaona 
■braba. stning-growlng and eieellent for covering ar- 
bors, screens, trellises, walla and low baildings. Re- 
markably free from Insects and fungi. Lvs. alternate, 
loug'petioled, serrate: fls. axillary, single or in corymbs, 
polygamous, white, cup-sbaped. K-^in. in diam. ; sepals 
antl petals 5; stamens and stigmas nnmennis: berry 
many-seeded, aboat I in. long, edible. K. Asia, Hima- 
layaa. Prop, by seeds, by greenwood cuttings In sum- 
mer, or by hardwood cntUngs; also by Layers. Uono- 
grapb by Mailmowlci In Dltga. Plant. As. Nov. 6 : 122. 

A. Lvi. dark green, thininn, efiartateoui. 
arKftta, Miq. {A. polfgama, Hort., not Hiq. A. voli- 
MIi>, Hart., not Hlq.). Pig. 29. Petioles mostly setose: 
lvs. 4-S in. long, broad -elliptic, euneate to snbcordate at 
the base, abruptly acuminate, smooth except the setose 
midrib beneath, setnlosely appreaaed serrate: fls. 3 or 



Hanchnria. A.0. 1 

AA. Lvi. brishi green, gull, mtmbranaeeimi, lomttimet 
becoming in tie lummer kandiamelg variegated 
abovt tke niddit; fit. fragrant: not elimbing high. 

boUkub*, Hlq. Lvs. 3-1 In. long, broad-ovate or ovate- 
oblong, cuneste to sabcordate at the base, appreased- 
serrate, mostly setose at the nerves on both sides: fls. 
1-3, !^in. in diam.; atigmas on a short, thick style ; fr- 
yellaw. July. Japan, Saghalin, Manchuria. B.H. T19T. 
-The plant attracts cats like valerian. 

Kolomlkta, Haiim. Petioles not setose ; lvs. downy 
beneath wben young, 4-6 in. long, ovate-oblong, rounded 
or cordate at the base, unequally setutoseiy aerrate, 
sparsely setose beneath: fls. 1-3, >tin. In diam.: stigmas 
sessUe. July. Japan, Saghalin, Manchuria. R. 5.1398:36. 
I. Allied to A. areata. Lvi. moatlr aenle at 



Linnnns). RanuneMlieea. Native bardy herbaceons 
nials. with showy spikes of small Qs. and hand- 
berries in autumn. Leaflets of the 



t.: Iva 



rated : 



bothai 






ACTS A (anolent n 
Linnreaa) — 
perennlBli 

s. ovate, shaipiy deft, and ci 
toothed. They like rich woods and shade. Usefnl f 
rockery and wild garden. Prop, by seeds and by roi 
diviaian in spring. 



t, teeth and points abarper; plant smoother: fls, 
white, in an oblong raceme, and a week or two later: 
pedicels in fr. very thick, turning red : berries white, 
ovate-oblong, often purplish at the end. N. states, D. 5.^. 

I, Linn. CkmoBn. Hkbb-Christophkb. Plant 



ACTUrdLZPia (Oreek. a tealeUke ray). Ci>mp6iila. 
Hardy aimnals bom Calif. ; freely branching, and 
mostly yellow-flowered. 



bluish, In ovate raceme.s : berries purplish black, oblong. 
Apr.-June. Eu., Jap. —Less cult.than the red-fruil«d var. 
Var. Tbbra, Alt. (^. riiftni, Willd.|. Bed Bahibebbt. 
Bather taller than A. alba: lvs. bi- or tritemate, ser- 
rated : fl. clnster white, larger than in A. ipieala: ber- 
ries bright red, very handsome. Apr.-Jnne. Northern 
■'*"'*■ K. C. Davis. 

ACTnr<LLA(Qreek, smatt-ruyed). Compttita. Har- 
dy perennials from W. N. Amer., for cult, in alpine gar- 
dens. Height G-I2 In.: fls. yellow, summer. Of easy 
colt, in light soil. Prop, by division or by seeds. 

gimndlllira, Torr. & Gray. Plant densely woolly: lower 
IvB. pinnalely or bipinnately parted, with margined peti- 
oles from broad, st^arious base.t; upper caullne lvs. sim- 
ple or sparingly divided: fls. 2-3 in. wide, summer.— A 
pretty aJpine plant. 

tOBpdaa, N'utt. Plant tIIIous : Ivb. radical, llnear-spat- 
nlate, 3-3 in. long, punrtate, entire : fls. tin. wide; scapes 
single, ieaSesB, l-fld., 3-9 in. long. 

A. londM. Pursh.— EriophjUnm cietpltoBnm. 

J. B. KiLLiB and W. M. 




3D, 31. Lvs. oppOF 
upper ones, " '" 



in. I 



iply pinnatiBd ; lobea 6-7, 
iiBLanc, linear, entire. B.H. 3828, 
ts Hymtn6xyt CalU6miea.—Orin 
•f the prettiest of annual flow- 
irs, and deserving of greater pop- 
ilarity. Eicellent foredging. An 
everlasting. 



)1. Actinolapla eoiooaria. 
Known to th* trad* *« 
Shortla Galifoniea. 



ACTIBOIIEBIS (from Or«ek aktii, ray, and mtrit, 
part, alluding to the Irregularity of the rays). (7om- 
pdiita. Native hardy herbaceous perennials suitable for 
wild gardens and slirubberv. Tall, branching. Cult. 
like Hellanthus. Prop, by division. 

sqnaRtw, Nutt. Height 4-8 fl. : lvs. lance-oblong, 
acuminate, subpetiolste, tapering (o both ends: fls. nn- 
merouB,coryrobed, yellow; raysi-lO, irregular. Autumn. 

A. beluinlliioUet. Nntt. Lvs. alikj-viUDn 



id., ii ooij a taJJsr form of A, si 



«:!».— 



ACTINOPTEEIS 

ACnVA?nSIS (aUtn, nj, and pterit; ibe bonds 
radlatelf cut}. Bjn., Aetiniopttrii. PotjfpodiAcea. 
Qreeiiiioase (enu from India, resembUiig minlatare fan- 
palinB. The sari are Hnear-elongaM and BubmarglDal, 
■od covered with Indoaia. A. raiiita, Link, is the on]; 
recognlaed Bpeciea. l. m. Unokrwood. 

Ada (a oomplimentary name). OreiidAtta; tribe. 
Vditdta. A. genus of epiphytes ooataining two iveciea. 
Petals and sepals sligbd; Bpreading from halt their 
length; labellum par&llel with the colunm and united to 
its base. Found at high elevations on the Colombian 
Andes. Useful for the coolhouse, where tbey ma; be 
Kniwn together with Odontoglossums, blooming in no 
deflnile seanin. 

^nraatUoa, Llndl. Pig. 32. Pseudobnlbi 2-3 In., 
orate to ovate-oblong, snbcylindrioal or slightly eom- 
pressed, tapering toward the ■□mmlts, bearing 1-3 nar- 
Tow leaf-blades 6-12 In. long; petals and sepals narrow, 
pointed, channeled; labellum half as long as the petali: 
aeape drooping, bearing racemes of cinnabar-red 6», 

Uhmasnl, Rolfe. Leaves marbled with gray : label- , 
Inin white.— Not much In enltlTatlon. A recent species.** 
Oases Amss. 

The Adas grow at the altitude of 8,500 (t. To grow 
them successfully, a house that can be kept very oool In 
Bummer Is necesBary, one having a northern eiposure, 
■och as is constructed for OdontoglossumB being best, as 
the two plants are found growing together. Shading 
will be found necessary in summer during the hottest 
weather, preferably by roller shades, that can be rolled 
Dp in dull weather, as by this means a current of cool 
air le conat&ntly passing over the glass. The tempera- 
tare inside the stmcture can be kept below that outside 
in hot weather by careful airing and spraying. A. au- 
ranliaea Is the best known, and Is mui^h valued for Its 
bright orange -colored spikes of bloom, which last a long 
time. A. Z^AmanHi Is very rare in cultivation, and Is 
distinguished, among other characteristics, by Its white 
lip and by being a eummer-bloomlng plant, while its 
companion species flowers early in spring. The usual 
fern fiber and sphagnum moss compost will be found 
best suited for thetr cultivation, taking care that the 
plants are never dry at the roots, either in summer or 
"*"*"■- E. O. Oatvr. 

ASAK-AJn>-K7I. See Stmptrviimm Uetorvn, and 
Apltctrvwi kjfnmait- 

ADAHIA. See Dicltroa. 

; Mttta para- 

ASAH'B VXIDLE. See Tucca. 

ADAVBOHIA (named after H. Adaneon, French bota- 
nist). Malvieta. The Baobab Is said to have the thick- 
est tnmk of any tree In the world, Adansonla has no 
congeners familiar Co the horticulturist : fla. large, pen- 
dulons ; petals 5, white, obovate - stamenH numerous i 
ovary !>-10-eelled : fr. oblong, woody, Indehlscent, filled 
with a mealy pulp In which are numerous seeds. 

dlgltita, Linn. Baobab Tsee. Eeight not more than 
60 ft.: diam. said to be sometimes 30 ft. or more : Ivs. 
palmate, with 3 leaflets in young plantB, and B-7 in older 
ones: Bs. 6 In. across, with purplish anthers on long ax- 
illary, solitary peduncles. Africa. B.M. 2791.-HBrely 
cultivated In extreme 8. Fin., where fr. Is »-12 in. long, 
and called "Monkey's Bread." 

ADDZB'S-TOHOIJX. See Erythronirtn. 

ADDEE'S-TOHQTIE FXSB. See Ophiovi«*i«^- 

AOBSAVDIIA (from theglandular anthers). Rviirea. 



olKFvate. Prop, by cuttings from the ripened w 

trftgnni, Roem. & Schult. {Di6>nta frigrani, Slmi 
BSBATH OF Heaveh. Height 2-3 ft.: lis. oblong, < 
tuse, dark green above, whitish beneath, with a gland 
lar, dentJcnlate margin: Hs. rosy. B.M. 151B.-A : 
vorlte in Calif. 



ADENOCABPUS 23 

ASEHABTHSKA (from the deciduous pedleillat^ 
gland on each anther). LegutHittiia, Tender, unarmed 
evergreen tree, cult. In greenhouses only for Its eco- 
nomic interest, and also in Calif. In the open air. Prop, 
by seeds, which should be softened In hot water previous 

Favontna, Linn. Red Saiidal-wood Tbee. Leaflets 

about 13: da. In anazlltary spike. Trop. Asia, where It 
grows to a tree of great sice.— The red lens-ahaped 
"ClrcasBlan Seeds" are curiosities with travelers, and 
are used for necklaces, etc. 



oloaely allied to Biguonla. Orown in hothouses, requir- 
ing considerable moisture. Prop, by cuttings in frames. 
oomAnun, DC. St, rough, punctate: Ivs. opposite, tri- 
foliolate; petioles thickened at Junction with the blades: 
racemes so densely clothed at first with large brsEts as 
to suggest the amenta of the hop-vine ; fls. 2 in. across, 
brilliant yellow, trumpet-shaped ; upper lip of 2, (thd 
lower lip of 3 rounded, waved lobes. Brat. B.M. 1210. 

AOBROCASFUS (from the glandular pod, which 
easily distinguishes It from allied genera). Ltgitmindia. 
Shrubs, rarely small trees, more or less pubescent: Ivs. 
alternate, trifoliolate, small: Hs. papilionaceous, yellow, 
in terminal racemes; catyi 2-lipped : fr. b glandular pod, 
oblong or linear, compressed. About 14 species in S. Eu., 
Asia Minor, N. andW. Afr., Canary Isl. Low shrubs, 
rar6lymorethan3ft,,of spreadlnghabit, with handsome 
fls. produced profusely In spring ; vpry attractive when 
in full bloom. They requires siJany position and well 
drained soil. Theiw-u ^specially adapted fortemperate 
regions, but da««" Wear transplanting well, and should 
be grown in pots until planted. They are also hand- 
some greenhouse shrubs, and grow beat in a sandy com- 
post of peat and loam. Prop, by seeds and greenwood 
cuttings In spring; sometimes also by layers and grafting. 

Irkidienloldes, Cholsy. {A. anagdrv*, Spreng.). 
Branches pubescent ; Ivs. persistent, crowded ; leaflets 
linear-oblong, complicate: fls. crowded, in short racemes; 
calyx glandular, the lateral segments of the lower lip 
longer than the middle one, exceeding the upper Up. 
Tenerlffe. 

intermMlui, DC. Branches villous : ivs. deciduous, 
grouped ; leaflets obovate or oblong-lanceolate : fls. in 
elongated racemes ; calyx glandular, middle segment of 



24 



ADiMOCABPDS 



ea, much eieeed- 



the lower lip longer than the lateral d_. 
log the Upper lip. IIaI^, Spain, Sicily. 

dM6TtiBUi«, BoiBB. (A. Boii$iiri, Webb). Shrab or 
small tree, l(>-25 ft. : branches tomentoae : Ivb. crowded, 
persiatfltit ; luafleta linear, pnbencent : racemes Bhort, 
compact : calyi villous, aemnentB nearly eqaal. Spain. 
R.tf. 1883: 156. G.C. II. 25: 725. Gn. 30:ST2.-BeBem- 
bles English Oorse, bat Is thomlesi. Bark peels natn- 
rally. Tlirives in poor, sandy soil. 

.l.ofuitr^nUiBpreiic.— A.fTuikenlo1deB- — A.JtoiHiiri, Webb 
—A. deoortlMiu. — A. cnmfilKdtHi. Ou. (A. iiuvifoliiu. DC). 
Branchei luarlj Elabrtnu i rwsemes eldns'ted , ulyi ilandu. 
lar. 8. W. Franiw. tlpain. B.U. LIST. » Cytliiu diTiriuttu.— 
A.nnnnnitdftM. Gnu. (A.TeloiuDBli, DC.). Bnmchei vUloni, 
inib«eent: ruemei loose; calyx Tilloui. Spain. Orient.— A. d<- 
tmricitut. Bolu,— A. intemwdlnB when beld to Inelnde A. foid- 
mntatiu and complleUns.— A. raHoUfHi. DC. Brancbea and Iti . 
crowded. villoTU ; ncemn flompact. manj-flowend : calyx vll. 
loDi. Canaiylal.— A. ffnuuKnftrtit, BolBB. Biancheaand Irs. 
elabrouB : racemes few.flowered ; ealjT pubeaoenC. S. France, 
8p^n.— A. Hfipdnieu. DC. Brancbea Telvetj.pnbescent : Ivs. 
tomeatose beneatb : raoemei dense, msnj-flowered ; calyx slan. 
dolar. Bpaln.— A. jwrn/«(iu, DC.-A. HunpUeatM. Gsr.— A. 
Tibmtntit, DC.— A. commotatns.— A. TtloninMt, KichaWn— 
A. grandlflorui. AuBID RtHDEB. 

ASBV6FH0RA. [gland-btaring ; referrlDK to the cy- 
lindrical nectary which snrroonds the base oF the style). 
CanpanulAeea. A genng of hardy hcrbaeeoas peren- 
nials separated from Campanula only by minor charac- 
ters, as the trlloonlar ovary and cyllndrleal nectary. 
' Fls. blue, nodding, on short pedicels, produced freely In 
midsummer in slender but stiff, erect panicles or loose 
racemes. For culture, see <7omponuJo, Prop, by seedB 
or cuttings in spring. The plants do not take kindly to 
division or other disturbance of the roots. Many other 
species than those in the trade are worthy. 

oommftnls, Flach. (A. lilinfiTa, Snhur. A. FitclitTi, Q. 
Don. A.immiia,ljB«,B\i.). Radical Ivs. petiolate, ovate- 
rotund, oordale, crenate -dentate ; cauUne Ivs. scasite, 
ovate -lanceolate, coaniely serrate ; 9s. nnmenius, in a' 
pyramidal panicle ; lobes of the calyx triangular ; style 
exserted. 

Lamirokli, Figch. Lvs. ovate-iancealste, sharply ser- 
rate, clllate : fis. racemose; lobes of the calyx lanceolate ; 
style not exserted. 

Potanlnl. Hort. Shrubby: spikes 2-3 ft. high: fla. 1« 
In.across, light blue. Jnly-Aug. Int. 1899. 

J. B. KiijjB and W. M. 

ASBHASTOIU {adtn, gland, tlona, mouth ; calyx 
with S glands at the mouth). BoidLcea. Shrubs, rarely 
small trees : Iva. linear, small : fla. whit«, about 1.5 in. 
broad, in terroinal panicles; petals 5, stamens 10-15: fr. 
a small akene. Two species In Calif. Heatb-like ever- 
green shrubs ; very handsome when in full bloom. 
They may be cnlt, in temperate regions in a suimy posi- 
tion and well drained soil. A, faiciculatum stands 
many de^^eea of frost. Prop, by seeds and greenwood 
cuttings In spring. 

laaelenUtnm, Book. & Am. Shmb, 2-20 tt. : Ivs. fas- 
ciculate, linear; panicles rather dense, 2-4 in. long; fla. 
nearly sessile. Hay-June. Ranges northward to Sierra 
Co. The characteristic shrub of the chaparral or 
cbamlsal regions of the coast ranges of Calif. Int. 1891. 

spanUAllnm, Torr. Shrub or small tree, 6-12 ft., 
rarely 30 ft., resinous : ivs. alternate : panicles looae ; 
fla. pedicelled, larger, fragrant. S. and Lower Calif. 
Int. 1891. AURiD Rkhdbb. 

ADSBKIA (not howHd; referring to the free atamena ) . 
Ltguminiia. Tender shrubs from Chili. 

.J.ftolidnica, Beitero. Lvs. l-l>j!n. lang; leaflets 1»-1B In 
pairs: tacemoa i-i fld.: fli. Sln.acroai. loldea yellow. B.M. 
S»21.-Hag the odor of balsam. Not In Amer trade. 

ASH&TODA (native name). Acanihirea. Tender 
shrubs, distinguished from Jufltinia by the less spurred 
anthers, and often by the habit and calyx. For culture, 

eydonlnUlIa, Nees. Lvs. opposite on short petioles, 
ovate; lower lip broadly obovate, purple Brazil. B.M. 
4962. F.S.12:1222. R.H. 1873: 110.- Cult. In Calif. 

_.. , eolate.acnmiiute: fla. white. 

B.U. Ml as JiUliaa Aahatoda. 



plishst . „_._ 

adhere, and marginal sorl attached underneath an mrouea 
portion of the segment, which thus forma a protecting in- 
dualum. The requirements of cultivation are plen^ of 
.space, good drainage, and a compost of peat, foam and 
sand. Of the one hundred or more apecles, Hve are na- 
tl»ea,of which A oedafma is the beet known. 

L. M. UMI>«EWOtlI>. 
The genns Adlantum fomiahea us some of the most 
aseful and popular species o( eommerclM fema. They 
are easy of cultivation. They need a slightly shaded 
position, moderately moist atmosphere, and a temp, of 
60-65° F. The soil should be composed of rich loam and 
leaf-mold In equal parts, and should )>e kept moderately 
moist. Some of the moat useful ones for general pur- 
poses (givenandertheirtrade names) are: A.amutum, 
grows about 12-15 in. high, and has very graceful dark 
green fronds; A. bellvm, a dwarf, very compact species 

long, heavily -crested, drooping fronds; A. eutttalHm 
var. i»irieffatum makes a neat specimen ; A. conciH' 
»um, gracefully drooping dark green fronds 15 in. 
long, with overlapping picn» ; A, eonciniMim var. In- 
tuM, of upright growth. Is 24 In. high; A, decorum 
Is very useful, 12-15 in., and baa young fronds of a 
pleasing metallic tint; A.izcitum Tar. mulUriilum; 
A. tormoium; A. Fergutonii ; A, fragranlitiinum ; 
A. pubt4Crm ; A. ttnerum and var. roieunt; A. Wit- 
gandi; A. LtGrattdi, very dwarf; A. Mimdutum, a 
very neat, dwarf species ; A, mbellum, a dwarf spe- 
cies with mature fronda light green, young fronds of 
a deep ruby tint. The above may eaally Ijo grown from 
spores, if sown on a compost consisting of half each of 
finely screened, clean soli and leaf-mold or peat, and 
placed in a moderately moist and shady placo In the 
greenhouse in a temp, of 60° P. To be mwn most 
economically, they shonld be transplanted in clumps 
of 3 or 4 plants as soon as the first plnnn have appearwl, 
and, as soon as strong enough, potted oft, either in 
cliunpa or singly. 

Some very desirable species to grow into Urge, tall 
specimens ore: A. j^Uiiopicum, A. Bauaei, A. (Mlitii, 
A. Ferguiotii, A. /omoium. A, Lailiomii, A. Perv- 



Catharif 



, A. trapii 



. The 



of Capillui- Venerii, A. rhodoptiyllum, A.a»timiU, etc. 
Some kinds, as A. dotabriforne, A.cauiiaCum and A. 
SdgticoTiMi, form small plants on the ends of fronds, 
which may be detached and potted separately, and If 



13. FrulUnE plonuica oi Adlantum pedatam. 

kept In a close atmosphere will In a short time grow 
into choice little plants. Temp. 65-70° P. The last three 
kinds are adapted for hanging baskets. 

NiCHOL N. BRfCXNIB. 

The following species are in the American trade, the 
names in Italics being synonyms : (A, rileam Is au unde- 
termined horticultural name, possibly referable to A. 



ADIANTUM 

rabellmn) : miKlitm, No. 2B j fthioplenm, 21 ; afflne, 
9 ; amabite, 29 ; aiiimilc, 24 ; Sauiet, 19 : belluln, 27: 
CapiUns-Vcneris, 26 ; caadfttom, 2 ; Collisll. 22 ; foq- 
cinnDm, 23 ; cmiMtum, 28 ; curvatam, 16 ; e^clotarum, 
30 ; dteonm, 30 ; dlaphanum, S ; digitatum, 35 ; dolabri- 



dophjlUum, 19 
I OalJuirina, 6 



donln. 14 : Owenl, 30 ; palmalum, 33 ; peda- 
tum, 15 ; Peruvianum, 3; potyphyllum, i; prit 
pubttceni, 17; puivemleiituQi, 1" ■-' -i 
rkomboidtum, 13 ; rubellum, 31 ; , 
Biebrecklii, 30 ; ipreiaiuni, 35 ; t 
fonue, C; varitgaium, 28; TeDUBtum, 33 ;' Kerfai'I- 
tour, 28; Fielorin, 19; Tllloaum, 13; Wagned, 30: 
Wirgandi,30; WlUlamaU, 21. 

A. FnHid4 w«» a tingle rtnc of tnall leaneti on ««»er 
tidt, Titoling at the apex. 

1. laadlktam,'Bano.(A.dolaJrrir6Tme,nook.). FtondB 
1 ft. long on blackish wiry pollsbed HllpeH ; lower le^eta 
nearly Beraielrcular, all od hair-like stalks, India, Trop. 
Amer. , Auiitralia. 

2. raaUtnm, Una. (A. Sdgevorthii.Sook.). FrondB 
6 fn. to I ft. loD^ea short brown iuh densely hairy stipes; 
leaflMs deeply cut into seTeral spreading narrow lobes. 
Old World. 

AA. Fronde tcilh uiually a tingle rov of large leatlttt 
OB eil\er tide, not rvoling at t\t apex. 

3. PsnTlinnm, KlotiRcb. FrondBlft.ormorelong.on 
pallshed stipes, with obliquely ovate pointed leafletH, 2 In. 
long by IK in. wide, on slender stalks ; sort 8-10 on either 
aide of the leaflet, twice as long as wide. Pern. 

4. xmBragbfOan, Swarti. Fronds 1 ft. long, on rather 
Montpollihed stipes, witb4-6 pairs of wedge-shaped eea- 



5. SaftUonil, Ennie. Fronds 6-8 in.hlgh, on nlender 
black stalks; leaflets 5-11, 2 in. long, J4-I in, wide, with 
unequal base; indusia very long and narrow, forming an 
almost eontinuons marginal band on either side of tbe 
leaflets. Mei,,W. Ind. 

AAA. Fronde at teaif Mpitmate, the tefmente dinidiale, 
1. f, with the i-einltit all tprineing from Ihe loirrr 
tide of the leaflet, tchirhia twice at long at bread. 
B. Ltafleit 1)^-1 in. long. 

6. tntpatlUnne, Linn. Fronds lain.ormorehlgh, with 
the terminal leotlet loogerthan the lateral; leaBeta trape- 
Eoldal, with parallel sides, >i-^ in. wide, lobed, and with 
numerons sori. A. Sinrfa-Callvtrlna Is a form with 
deeper lobes. Trop. Amer. 

BB. LeaHeli ttnailer, oi» int% or Uit long. 

c. Stalke poUthed.imoolh. 

T. polnhfllom, Willd. Fronds often tripinnate, with 

lets which are ^-1 in. long, tbe upper margin curved, 
with 4-6 circular or oblong indusia. S. Amer, 

8. diiphannm, Binme. Fronds simply pinnate or usu- 
ally with 1 or 2 plnnn at tbe base ; leaflets Mb. long. 
HIn. wide, with numerous sort placed In the sinuses of 
the inner and outer edges. Asia to N, Zeal. 

9. KtDne, Willd. Fronds biplnnate, with a central pinna 
and seTcral lateral ones^ loaHets not exceeding ^in, long, 
HIn. wide, the upper edge parallel with the lower, and 
crenatc. bearing numerous rounded sort on the upper 
and outer margin. N. Zeal. 

CC, Stalhe polithed but totnevtiat tomentote. 

10. IntarmMium, Swarti, Fronds 1 ft. or more long, 
with a terminal pinna and 1-3 lateral ones on each side; 
leaflets 1 In. or more long, with Interrupted sori on the 
upper and two-thirds of the outer margins. Trop. Amer. 

ceo. Stalke rtingk or hairy. 

11. lonntmii, B. Br, Fronds 1-2 ft, long, two-thirds 
as broad, mostly tripinnate, with rough scabrous stalks 
and rather amaQ deeply lobed leaflets H-Hi". long, with 
rounded and toothed outer margins. Aastral. 

12. polTnoUntiim, Linn, Fronds often a foot long, with 
a large terminal pinna and several lateral ones, bipin- 
nat«; stalks purplish, hairy, as are also the nkcbises ; leaf- 
lets K-1 in. long, Jiin. wide, closely placed, the onter 
edge rounded or truncate. W. Ind. 

13. vUUnim, Liim. (A. rhomboldfum, Swarti). Fronds 
large, with a ternxinal and several lateral pinnn S-12 In. 

nearly 1 In. long Mn, wide, trapeioidal, with tbe Inner 
side parallel to the rachis ; Indusia forming an almost 
continuous line along the upper and outer margins. W. 
Ind. and 8. Amer. 

U. HAvB-CaledAnla, Keys. Fronds 6-8 in. long and 
wide, somewhat pentagonal, once pinnate with one or two 

attached to the rachiaes by abroad hose, nearly I in. long, 
pointed, irregnlorty Incised, bearing 1-1 rounded sori 
next to the base. New Caledonia. 

AAAA. Frondi forked, the tiro branrhtt bearing pinna 

from the tipper tide. 

B. Slalkt polithed, tmooth. 

a. Fig, 33. CoHUON Maidihhair of 
them states, with circular fronds on purplish 

requiring a shady, moist and protected place. 

16. anrrktum, Kaulf . Fronds forked and with the mala 

divisions once or twice forked; leaflets 1-lK in. long, 

nearly !^in. wide, the upper margin rounded and lobed. 

BB. Slalkt ecabrout {or rough). 

IT. hlapidQlDm. Swarti (A. pubisrrnt, Scbk.l. The 

two divisions branching like a fan, with the largest pinn» 

long, two-thirds as broad, with numerous circular indusia 
on the upper and rounded outer margin. Old World. 






26 ADUNTUM 

AAAA^. Frondi at Uait bipitmatt, often triplnnaU or 
quadripinnatt, icitk immcrtiii* rathtr imatt 
fan-thaptd or wtdge-iXaped lealleU loiH vtint 
radiating from the baMe. 
B. Leaflett an iitch or I<M acnu. 
0. Jldget deeply tut into a tiriei ot narrote lobea. 
18. Fkrlajtnse, Hoore. Fig. 34. Fronds often reach- 
ing 1&-24 in. in lenftli, tonning > ricb protaBlon of 
cloaely OTerlapping pin- 
lUB, light Breen; iemhetM 
more or les* wedge- 
■baped at bue, with cur- 
Ted Bides and the OQt«r 
margia ronnded and 
deepiy eat Into lO-lS 
nanow loties, wliicb i«re- 
iv tiear sort. Barbadoea. 
l.H.19:9S.-Saidtobea 
gardeo variety o( A. te- 
nerum, but apparently a 
good apecicB. 
cc. Sdtit not laeln- 

19. Unsnun, Swartz. 
ProndB deltoid, 12-15 in. 
long, two-tbirda as wide, 
the terminal leaBeta 
eqtially, tbe lateral un- 
equally wedge.ahaped at 
base, Ml of t£em rhombic 
and decidnOuB when dry, 
with 10 or leas small aon 
on the ontor and Inner 
marglnB. A. Lathotni.A. 
VietSria, A. rltodophfl- 
lum, A.princrpt, and A. 
Bait»i are hortirultural 



20. JArdanl, C. Hnelt. 
lA. etnarflndtiim, D. C. 
Eaton, not Hook.). 
Fronds 1 ft. or more lon^, 
6 to. wide, mostly twice 
pinnate, with nearly 
Icircnlar leaflets ; 



balneal liu. 



Ba flneiy eemi 
dney-sbaped 



. FrondB2~3-pinnat6, 6-12 In. long, 
3-1 In. wide; leaflets about !4in. wide, niundiith, with the 
margin cut Into small rounded lobes; sorl large, 2-i to 
each leaflet, kidney-ahaped or circular, Chile. 



. Shape of l*afltf» diitinetly euntate at tht bau, 
I. Indiuia oblJfng or indiilinctly lH«f«. 
:. Capfllna -Vtenia, Linn. (A. FfrgiuoHi, A. Mai- 
i, Moore). Fig. 36. Fronds3-3-p" - -~ 
3-8 In. wide; leaJIetB nearly Hln. w 
regularly lobed at tbe outer margin ; son 1-3 to eaeb 
leaflet, with oblong or more or Tesa elonKat« narrow 
Indus la. Native southward, and widely dlatrlbuted 
throughout th'e Old World.— Exists in many varieties, 
some of tbem deeply lobed, like A.Farlrjitntt; a com- 
pact imbricated form is very effective. 

27. b4Unm,Moore. Small,3-« ln.hlgh,biplnnmte; leaf. 
1«!9 wltii the outer margin eroee and often divided into 
2-3 shallow lobes ; aori 2-3 to each leaflet, rather long 
and broad or somewhat louata. Bermuda. 

EI. Indtitia (Marly cirtitlar, \nilh a Narrow tintti. 

28. oimaitnm, Idngs. & Flsch. {A. frnulum, A. mrin- 
dulun, Hoore. A. VirtailUme, A. /moninCltiiiiiiiM, 
Horl.|. Fronds 3-4-plmiate, deltoid, 6-15 In. long, 5-9 in. 
wide; teaflete numerous, obtuse or broadlywedge-sbaped 



e, the I 



irginn 



nded a 



lobed; sori 3-6 toeach segment, withrathersmallronnded 
Indnsia. Brai.— Runs into many forms, of which J., ea- 

Hctrdtum Is one. 

29. ■oArvl, Baker {A. amdbile, Uoore, not Uebtn.). 
Fronds 2-3-plnnate on long slender stalks, 6-15 in. long; 
leaSets bi-iiiii. long, rhomboidal, with wedge-like base, 
deeply lobed ; aori of medium Blie, 4-6 to each leaflet. 
Peru. 

30. Wtciwri, Mett. {A. dicomm, A. Wligandi, A. ile- 
gane, A, Otceni.A, eyctoiirum, Moore). Fronds 3-^-pin- 
nate, 6-9 in. long, 4-6 In. wide; lateral leaflets rhomboid, 
the terminal ooneate, slightly lobed or incised ; son 4-4 
to eaob leaflet, with very large membranous circular in- 
duBia. Peru.—.,!. Siibrtehtii, Hort., "supposed to be a 
cross between A. decorum and A. Williamiii," has 
strong, graceful fronds thiokly set with round pinnules 

31. mbtllnm, Hoore. Fronds 4-6 in. long, deltoid, bl- 
pinnate ; tenure membranous, bri^t green, reddish 
when youuK ; leaflets Hln- wide, deltoid or tbe lower 
rhomboid, tbe outer margin deeply lobed and the lobei 
Bnely toothed ; sort round at the apices of the lobes. 
BoUvU. 



sorl elongate, the IndnBlum almost 
margin of tbe leaflet. Calif, and Oreg. 

21. Wllliamdl, Hoore. Fronds triangular, nearly I ft. 
high; leaflets nearly semicircular. 3-1-lobed on the outer 
margin, bearing 6-i sort covered with oblong indnsia. 
Peru. - Similar in habit to the last, but smaller and with 
more numerous aori. 

BB. LeafJeti moitlg leu than a half Inth aeroiM. 
0. Frondt at Uatt qwtdripinnalt, broadtr than ionf. 

22. C611isU, Moore. Fronds 1 ft. or more long, very 
broad, tbe black raeblses apparently repeatedly forking; 
leaflets rhombic-ovate or cuneate, those towards the outer 
portions longer and largerthan those nearer the base.— 
Of garden origin, possibly a hybrid. 

oc. Fr<rndi noitly frian^ular or oblong, longer 
than broad. ' 

D. Shape of leaflets rhombiCj the indutia kidney-thaped 

23. Mndanum, HBK. Fig. 35. Fronds 2-3-pinnat«, 
12-lS in. long, 6-9 In. wide, on rather stout blnck etolks ) 
leaflets rhombic -oblong, slightly lobed; sori 4-8 on eaeli 
leaflet, usually set close together. Mei. to Bras. 

DO. Shape of leaflett roundiih with obtuia bait, itnall 
or medium tite. 
i,Linn,{4.a«»(»iiIf,Swarti). Fronds 
long on slender stalks, 2-3-pinnat«. rather 

j._>i UP obscurely 3-lobed, the mar- 

2-3 to a leaflet, with oblong or 



ADIANTTJM 

71, D. C. Eaton. FrODds OTBte-deltoid, 
6-12 In. long, tripiaaate ; leaflets Wa. wide, cuneate at 
the base, the upper edge rounded, glightly toothed, with 
m alngle soma or rarely two In a decided hollow at the 
Dpper edge. Jap. 

33. Tnitlftain, Don. Fronds orate-deltold, tri-qnadrl- 
plnnate, 6-12 In. long ; leaflet! cnneate at the base, J^ln. 
wide, with the upper edge Irregularly rounded or with 
3 indistinct lobes, finely toothed, bearmg 1-3 sort In dis- 
tinct hollows. Ind. 

BBS. Lta/ItU mitmttjinimmtrabU; frondi 4-e-piHnatt. 

34. KTatillimnm, Hon. Fronds 1 ft. or more long, 
nearly as wide, 4-6-plnnate, with Inniunerable very sm^l 
leaflets, which are M-Kln. wide and usually beara single 
Boras or rarely two.— Dense, compact forms are In colt, 
under the name of A. £«&nltujt. 

AAA ** ,*- SI. elimbins, leivrol ft, lUKg, S-t-plnnata. 

35. digitttom, Presl. (A. ipteiitum. Hook. A. pal- 
atiium, Moore). Fronds 2-3 ft. long on a stalk IB in. or 
more long, with palmately lobed leaflets I In. or more 
■wide. 8. Amer. l. jj. Undebwcmdd. 

ASLOK, JOBV. Plat« II. Grape etperlmenter, and 
author of 'Memoir on the Cultivation of the Vine," 1823 
and 1828, the first separately published American grape 
book. BomlnYork, Pa.,Apr.29, 1759. Died at George- 
town, D. C, Mar. 1, 1836. He WB3 a soldier in the Hevo- 



, brigadier-Kena 



pointed by Gov. Mlffll 
endeavor-' '-  



itint 



V division 



. Cul- 



■e eaey tn any good soil, light, moist earth preferred. 
They thrive in full sun or partial shade; the perennial 
species well suited for roi^kwork, tiorders. etc. Annuals 

Cop. by the seeds, which are siow-gemilnating, sown 
autumn or earliest spring ; perennials by seeds or 

A. Annual* .- fit. erimion or tearltt. 

B. St. timpl* txeept at lop ! etnttr of fl, ytllmi. 

■■tiTUlSi Linn. Pheibamt's Ete. Stems erect, often 

branched at top : fls. crimson ; petals flat, obtuse, half 

longer than ciHyi, June. Var. dtrln», EoSm., Is a 

garden variety with citron-yellow fls. 

BB. St. brantJud; ctnitr of ft. dart. 

HtSDUllUl, Linn. FLOSAttOHlB. Fig. 39. St. branched ; 

tti. small, erimson, with dark eenter, globose ) petals 



6-S, concave, slightly larger than oalyi. May-July. Gn. 
12, p. 131. — Sparingly naturalised. 

AA, Perennial* .' fl». yellow. 

B. St. not branciud. 

Tarnillc, Linn. {A. Apenn\*a, Jaeq. A. DaiAHam, 

Belchb.). Spbiho Adonis. 6t, simple: lower Ivs.Boal*- 



knd later a 
nia. He was 
80 held an associate Judgeship 
innsylvanla, having been ap- 
le was a friend of Priestly, and 
cientiflc knowledge of hlatlma 
interested In the ame- 
established an eiperl- 
of Columbia. He 



L of the nat 
mental vineyard i^ 
deavored, buliwlthi 
tain pnblio land in Washington for the purpose of "cul- 
tivating an experimental farm." He brought the Ca- 
tawba grape to public notice. He was a pioneer in the 
awakenini Industrial activity of our new country. Tbe 
botanist, Rafine«que, commemorated his name In the 
pretty genus Adlumla ; but otherwise he has remained 

firactically unknown until very recently. For further 
nformatlon, see Bailey, "Evolution of our Native 
*'™1'«-" L. H. B. 

AI)LtmA(frDm JohnAdlum). Fumariieea. Ahardy 
biennial vine, which climbs overhigh bushes in our moist 
voods. Sow seed In springinadsmp, coolplace. Trans- 
plant Infall.lt possible, if transplanted at ail. It flowers 
the first season. 

0llrtlAia,RBf. CLmBTNO FmnTOBT. UomiTAiN FBTNaE. 
Aluwheky Vise. Figs. 37, 38. Climbs by the slender 
young leaf-stalks. Lvs. thrtce pinnate ; leaflets cat- 
lobed, delicate : fls. white or purplish, In ample panicles. 
O.W.P. 13. 

ASftRIB (a favorite of Venus, after his death changed 
into a flower). Banunouldota. Hardy annual and per- 
ennial herbs with showy Sowers. Sii well known 
speelea. natives of temperate regions of Eu. and Asia. 
T\a. solitary, terminal ) petals 5-lG, yellow or red 
pels many: st. about 1 foot high, very lesty: '- 



37. Adlumla clrrtuaa. Volginrf*, Ster, (A. 

WolBinii; Hort.). 

Much like A. vemalU, but st. branched; tvs. seale-lika 

at tuiKe. petioled or sessile above : fls. like .d. Pgrtnaiea, 

but sepals pubescent on under side. Apr. Volga region. 

J. Jniur<iu<(, RegelARadde, abeaatifnl spwles, with broad 



A^ledto" 



llnguisbed by ti 



e, point; referring to the rigid 

■■■--- -"lie^chmeas are 

ilchthey are dls- 
[naj^er nowers, which are little exserted 
□d not widely expanding, short fllamenta 
ana nmaii auLxiHrfl, sharp-pointed sepals and conspicuous 
sharp -pointed flower-bracts. They are epiphytic herbs, 
of about 60 species, natives of Trop. 8. Amar. Flower- 
cluster arising from a cluster or rosette of long, hard 
leaven, which are usually serrate ; petals 3, tongue- 
shaped, obtuse or pointed, 2-3 times the length of tiie 
spine-pointed calyx-lobes ; stamens 6, shorter than the 



2o .SCHHEA 

petali : 0TU7 inferior, 3-oelled. Tbe flowers are snb- 
teodedby (in theuilaof} flover-brsctg ; the entire head 
or flower-elurter is often reinforced or sabtended bj 
couBpicuoua leaf'braeta; in tbe coTnpound-infioreBcence 
t^'BB- ^^^ iadivldu&I hnncheg oreniinally subtended by 
bnnch-bractg. Id Bome Bpecles, u A.Lalindei and A. 
MariaSegina, the large colored leaf-bracts are the 
tooet CODspicDODB put of the plant. In others, u A, 
Vtitehii, ue eatiie head 1b the showjr part, Monagrapb 



3V. Adonla autumnalla* 

b^ Baker, Jonm. Bot. 1S79; 12S, 161, 236. Include! Ca- 
nttfrum. Schitiottack]it , BoXenbetyia, BoplopkyliitH, 
ZampncoecuM, Pinmntava, Potlniava ; and some of 
the species have been referred to Sillbergia, Cryptan- 
thui, OuimanHia, Tillandiia, Ohtvalitra, etc. For cul- 
ture, see Billbtrgia. 

A. Fti. t-ra«ked on tJu hraiKMeti. 
dlitlehAntha, Lemaire. Lts. 2-3 ft. long, with a di- 
lated base 4-G In. long and half as wide, the blade rigid 
and channelled, edges prickly: Bcspe 1-lH ft.; fls. In a 
blplnnate panicle 4-7 In. long and half as wide, the 
petals tongue-shaped and red-purple, longer 

obtuse-en  ' ' > - . 

Brai. B. 

AA. Fit, iHulli farioui, 

B. Inflorttcenee limple. 
O. Oiiarv campreiitd or flalltned, 

LaUndel, Lind. A Bod. Large (3-4 ft.), with long and 
broad spine-edged Its. ; spike very dense, greenish 
white, from the color of the aggregated calices, the fls. 
subtended by many deflexed, showy red, long-pointed, 
entire bract-lvs. : corolla not eiserted. New Qranada. 
:.H. 30:4S1.-Striking. 

Maria -BsylnB, Wendl. Smaller than the last In all 
Its parts : petals blue-tipped when yonng, fading to 
crimson like the bracts, half as long again as tbe mealy 
cuspidate .sepals ; fl. -bracts entire, small, not showr : 
bract-lvs. toothed. CoslA Blca. B.M. 6441.-One of the 
best species. 

VetteUl, Baker. Lts. spotted, serrate ; petals psle, a 
little longer than the sepals : fl. -bracts conaplcuoua, 
toothed, scarlet: braot-lvs. greenish, erect, serrate, not 
encompassing the Inflorescence. S. Amer. B.M. 6329.- 
Keterred to Ananas by Bentbam & Booker, 
cc. Ovary tereU [cylindrical). 
D. Head oblong. 

UndMl, Eoch (ffoplophilutn lAndeni.tlOTT.). Lts. 
dilated and entire at base, the blade minutely toothed 
and 2-3 ft. long, the tip broad-ronnded and short-cnspl- 
date: petals lemon-yellow, twice aa long as sepals. Brat. 



» itvtral or many rmri 01 



inded at the ti 
cape shorter th 



a the : 



with 



several declduons lancealate bract-lvs. ; petals toiigue- 
shaped, not half an Inch long, bright yellow; fl. -bracts 
small, entire, reddish. 8. Amer. 

tuoltta, Baker (Billbirgla faieiita, Lhidt. B. rAa- 
doeyinea, Lemaire). Lts. 1-2 ft. long, with an oblong 
entire clasping base, the blade strongly toothed and the 
back marbled with whitish croBs-lines. tbe tip rounded 
and mucronate ; scape 1 ft. high, floccose, tbe several 
bract-lvs. pale red and erect ; petals ^iu. long. pink. 
Bni. B.H.4883. B.R. 1130. F.S. 3: 20T.--lnfloreBcenee 
sometimes forked. 

BB. InfloretetHtt brantked (or compound}. 

c. Calyx and ovary not longtr than Iht fl.-brad. 

ffkWMTita, Hook. Lts. strongly toothed, lS-2 ft. 
long: fls. in dense, rounded spikes disposed In a narrow 
panicle 1 ft. long ; petals blue or violet, longer than the 
calyx : fl.-bracts Ions, pointed, scarlet (In one Tariety 
whitish). Bras. B.H. 5668. 

CC. Calyx promintnily Iim;sr tkan th* fl.-bmet. 
D. PanicU large, S-pinnat4i petali bright rtd. 

■PMUbiUl, Brongn. Lvs. 2-2X ft. long, minutely 
serrate : fl.-bracts Tery small ; petals twice as long as 
sepals. Guatemala. B.H, 1BT5: 310. 

nn. Panicle J- or t-pinnale ; pelalt blut or violet. 
I. FU. pedieellaU. 

emuUMMU, Hort. Lts. lH-2 ft. long, with small 
prickles: panicle 4-5 In. long, 2-plnnate, with laz few- 
fld. crowded branches ; petals bluish red, ^in. long: B.- 
bracts none or minute. 8. Amer. Gt. 1871:694. -Pro- 
duces white berries. 

EI. Fli. stiiile. 

coUitla, Baker. Ltb, much as In the last : panicle 
deltoid, 3~6 in. long, 2-pinnate, floccose, the lower 
branches subtended by red branch-bracts 1 in. long; 
petals nearly half an Inch long, blue. B. Amer. 

HlKena,Brongn.(^. dficolor, Hort.). Lts. broad, with 
smalt distant teeth, with a broad cuspidate end : panicle 
large, simple above, branched below, glabrous, bearing 
numerous fls. ; petals blue-tipped, exceeding the rich 
red oalyi; fl.-bracts minute or none: branch-bracts yel- 
lowish. 8. Amer. B.M. 4293. 

WeinMMhil, F. DIdr. Lts. rather short, orertopped by 
the red-stemmed and red-bracted scape : panicle narrow, 
1 -pinnate, the fls. ratherorowded,blueandred. S.Amer. 
H.H. 1871:170. 

Yar. LeodUnlil, Andrri. Lts. Tlolet and spotted : fls. 



.S. aunifta. Baker. AlliedlaA.UarlB-Betfnie. Plant laree: 
I. aiDaU. nue: petals short-piotnided ; puiicle l ttjitcb. del- 
Id. Bras. R.E:iSn.p.437(asHohsnb4rclaterTiislnea).-.C. 
inuLttaai^Baker. PLTiforousi lvs. erpandtd in ihe middle ; 



. .. SLpetals short-piotnidedi psiiicle 1 ttjitcb.d 
told. Bras. R.E:i^p.437(asHohsnb4r(la termslnea).-. 
ouronttaai. Baker. PL viaorous i lvs. eriiandMl ' 
fl>.re1low,3tn.lau. B.Amer. B.B.1S73;1S(bs 
rantlacom).—.£.^riH{, Baker, ns. Z-ranked : c 



.— .£.SnuiIUiuf>,BeceL Lvi.n 



alls pale 



jel- 



raclilirKl: psnlels braached. Bras. Gt,ie»&:li02.—^ .brtmulia- 
Mild. Baker. Dense spike: Ivi.whitUh below. 3-4 (c. Idhk, wr- 
miears^oeMent: lis. It^tvellow. S.Amer.— ^.Comili.CarT. 
— .£. nadlcsulls.— .£.i>rai>inii.Andr4, Lrs.wliitlsb. flnel; den- 
tate : spike HimiilB si^d lax ; fls. JonjE-tnbnlar, HfhlbloB i brscts 
and ovaries <wral-red : berries rose, beoomliuc bine. B. Amer. 
B.H. legs, p. 401. -.e. ORidotu, Uorr. Lvs. whitish belawt 
spike Elohiilsr sod dpnsn, mnFllaaiDoas : Detail yellow. Bras. 
L. B.C. 9:801. B.H. 1878:303.— .*.Fiirjlen6(T|7i>,Mort.—Strtplo. 

Hw'l'", Morr. Lvi! lepldobTwS^h crowded :" spRe oblonii 

Brongn.— .£. Schledeans.— j£. Ifelindnfi. Hook! Puili'le S-pln- 
nsle, densB i potsli briabt red ; IvI. Bplny, 1^2 ft. ttnsiaaa. 
B.M. a235.~.£. Jfcxicdno. Baker. Lvs. lone and lute, fine- 
toothed : psntf'le a-plousta, lone snd iai, the peduncles metUy; 
petal* crimson. Iilei.-.e. miituUa. Hort.— Bill bersla thrr- 
■i,Mb»I— *;. mj/rioJiAlilfel, Morr. Allied to .£. dtatirhsntha. 

-^ __. „ ... ._ ->jgi,jj^. fl,. red. the 

.. _..,. __. ...S. — .£■ nudiaalUif, 

If and etralfht, browa-toothed : bract-lvi. lab- 

tondinB! spike IsTBB, brilliant red: petals yellow. Trop-Amar. 
R.H. 1SSS:38 (s*.£.Comai, which Is a form with shorter and 
denser spike).— .£.piinieuKffara.Oiiseb. Lvs. larfe and Ions: 



mCBMEA 



AERIDES 



29 



panicle 1-2 ft. Ions, with f ewflowered branehes : scape tall, 
reddish, downy: fls. purple. Trop. Amer. — ^. Sehiededna^ 
Sehlecht. (^.macracantha, Bron^n.). Lvs. large, rigid, strongly 
armed : panicle 3-pinnat6, pubescent ; fls. pale yellow. Mex. 
Ot. 1804:175.— ^.zefrrina is Billbergia.zebrina. L H. B. 

aGLS (from Mgie, one of the Hesperides). Sutdce€e, 
tribe Aurantiett. Small, strongly spinose trees, with al- 
ternate, trifoliolate leaves. Distinguished from the nearly 
related genus Citrus (particularly C. trifoliata) by 
the hard, gourd-like rind of its fruit and its viscous, 
woolly seeds. 

MArmalos, Correa. Elephant Apple. Marbdoo. Ben- 
gal Quince. Bhel Fbuit. Small tree : fr. large, 2-4 in. 
in diam., round or pear-shaped. Trop. Asia. — Cult. 
in S. Fla. and Calif., and in hothouses. The wood is 
valued for its strength, and the sweet, aromatic pulp is 
used medicinally in India for diarrhoea and dysentery, 
and also as a lemonade and conserve. ^ j Wvbbkr 

JBGOFODnnC {aix, goat, and podion, a little foot; 
probably from the shape of the leaflets). UmbelHferoF. 
GouTWEED. Coarse, hardy herbaceous perennial, with 
creeping rootstocks, bitemate lvs., sharply toothed, 
ovate leaflets, and white fls. in umbels. 

Podoffiiria, Linn., var. Ttriegitain, is a variegated 
form of this European weed, which makes attractive 
mats of white-margined foliage. Common in yards. 

JLEBAXTBJJB, Consult Angraeum, 

AfiBtDE8(Greek,air-p7anO . OrchidAcecB, trihe Vdndem. 
Epiphytes : stems erect, roundish : lvs. distichous, strap- 
shaped and spreading, coriaceous, deeply channeled at 
the base, obtuse: peduncles from the axils of the lvs.; 
fls. in loose or dense racemes ; petals narrower than the 
sepals. A genus of remarkably beautiful plants, which 
develop well under cultivation. Species confined to the 
tropics of the Old World. The genus A6rides, though 
not in general cultivation, has many sterling qualities 
to recommend it. Some of the species produce dense 
racemes of great beauty, which emit a pleasing fra- 
grance, and for decorative purposes have few if any 
rivals in the Orchid family. The genus offers no excep- 



tional difficulties to the horticulturist. 



Oakes Ames. 



All the species of ASrides are of easy culture In the 
warmest greenhouse— one that has a minimum tempera- 
ture of 65^ F. in winter being best. They should be kept 
constantly moist, well shaded, and warm, with fresh live 
sphagnum round the roots at the base of the stems. A, 
odaratum is perhaps the best known. Other favorites 
are A. LawreneicB and A. Fieldingii ; the latter often 
has racemes 18 inches or more long, of a beautiful rose 

^^^^' Cult, by E. O. Obpet. 

Following are in the American trade : A . a f fine. No. 11 ; 
Amesianum, 9 ; Augustianum, 8 ; Ballantineanum, 4 ; 
Bermanicum, 1 ; crassifollum, 15 ; crispum, 14 ; eylin- 
drieum^ 18 ; Dayanum, 2 ; Ellisii, 2; expansunif 10; fal- 
catum, 10; Fieldingii, 13; Godefroyanum, 11; HoulUH- 
awwtn, 10; Japonicum, 16; LarpefU<Bf 10; Lawrenciie, 9; 
Leeanum, 6; LeonsBi, 10; Lindleyanum, 14 ; Lobbii, 11 ; 
maculosum, 12; majus, 1 ; maximum = f ; mitratum, 19; 
multiflorum, 11; odoratum, 1; pallidum = f ; purpu- 
rascens, 1 ; quinquevulnerum, 5; radicosum, 17; Reiehen' 
backiif 4 ; Roebelenii, 5 ; Rohanianum, 4 ; roaeum, 11 ; 
Sanderianum, 9 ; Savageanum, 3 ; suavissimum, 4 ; 
Thibautianum, 7; vandarum, 18; virens, 2; Wameri, 14. 

A. Odoratum seeiion: middle lobe of labellum 

narrow-oblong. 

1. odnr&tnm, Lour. Lvs. 6-8 in. long, l-13^in. wide, 
unequal at apices, deep green : peduncles not branched, 
pendulous ; fls. numerous, crowded ; racemes cylin- 
drical, as long as or longer than the lvs. ; lateral sepals 
ovate; petals obovate-lanceolate, white, with a carmine 
apical spot ; labellum trilobed, midlobe magenta, side 
lobes white, dotted with magenta; spur recurved, green- 
ish or white. Cochin China. B.M. 4139. Gn. 49, p. 158. 
Gt. 8:273. B.B. 18:1485. Var. BeraUbiioiim, Beichb. f. 
Fls. smaller than in the type, the apices of the petals 
with mauve lines and dashes instead of blotches. Var. 
yuriHiito eeni, Hort. Produces large racemes, sepals and 



petals tipped with pale amethyst. Var. m&jiu, Hort. Fls. 
larger ; racemes longer. 

2. ylxens, Lindl. Peduncles 12-15 in. long, 15-20 fld. ; 
spur dotted with magenta; petals and sepals tipped with 
magenU. Java. P.M. 14:197. B.B.30:41.— This species 
is very similar to A. odoratum, of which it is considered 
by some to be a geographical form. Var. EUidi, Hort. 
{A, Ellieii, Hort.). Sepals and petals white, suffused 
with rose, tipped with amethyst-purple. Var. Dftyinum, 
Hort. Racemes very long ; fls. bright, large. 

3. Bavagtt^ntun, Hort. Sepals white at base, dotted 
with purple, otherwise crimson-purple; petals similar, 
narrower ; labellum crimson-purple, with a greenish, 
straight spur ; midlobe denticulate on the margin. 

4. gnavlssimiim, Lindl. {A, Beiehenbachii, Linden. 
A. RohanidLnum, Beichb. f.). Plant robust, more lax in 
habit than type: fls. 20-30, \% in. across; petals and se- 
pals white, suffused with carmine at apices ; labellum 
trilobed, yellowish dotted and suffused with carmine ; 
apex of spur white. Straits of Malacca. Var. Ballan- 
tlneiiniim. Racemes shorter; blooms earlier; sepals and 
petals tipped with amethyst-purple. 

5. quinqaevtlnenim, Lindl. Bacemes 1 ft. long ; fls. 
crowded; dorsal sepal and petals equal, lateral sepals 
orbicular, all tipped with magenta; midlobe of labellum 
magenta. P.M. 8:241. Var. Bobelenii {A, B<Bbelenii, 
Beichb. f.). Sepals and petals shading to green at 
bases, petals denticulate ; lobes of the labellum lacer- 
ated, midlobe rose-colored. Manila. 

6. Lee&iram, Beichb. f . Peduncles much longer than 
the lvs. : pedicels rose-color ; sepals rose-purple, white 
at base ; petals similarly colored ; labellum small ; mid- 
lobe deep purple ; spur groen tipped. India. 

7. ThibautiinTim, Beichb. f. Bacemes pendulous, 
longer than the lvs.; sepals and petals rose-color; la- 
bellum amethyst-purple ; midlobe narrow, acute. Ma- 
laya. 

8. AugiuitUniiiii, Bolfe. Petals and sepals shaded 
with rose ; spur long, straight. Philippine Isls. G.C. 
III. 7: 233. 

9. L&wrenoiaB, Beichb. {A, Lawreneid^numf Hort.). 
Largest species of the section. Fls. 20-30, 1^-2 in. in 
diam. ; sepals and petals flushed with amethyst-purple 
at the apices ; labellum yellowish ; midlobe amethyst- 
purple. Philippine Isls. Gn. 35:702. Var. AmoiUniim, 




40. A«fldes. 

a. A. Lawrenci»; b. flower of multiflorum section; 
e. flower of odoratum section. 

Eransl. More robust: fls. moro intense in color. Var. 
Sanderi&nnm, Hort. Lvs. narrow : fls. yellowish, with 
amethyst on face of spur, otherwise like the species. 

AA. Falcatum section : lateral lobes of 
labellum falcate, 

10. falelitaiii, Lindl. & Pax. (A, Larpintte, Hort. A. 
expdnsumf Beichb. f.). Lvs. loosely arranged, 6-8 in. 
long, IHin. broad : fls. loosely arranged on racemes 1ft. 



!, tlpp«d 



AEBIDE8 



lODg, !!>£ In. In dlam. ; 

vlthimethyiilj side lobes of Ikbellum f*JcBI«,p»le 
thysl ; front lobe convei, denticnUW, keelwl ■bove, 
unpCbfBt in oflnter. mnr^rtiied with wblie uid barred 
with rose; I pur short. Upper Bumukh. Var.HouUatU- 
mm (A. HouiUtidnum.Beiiihh. t.). Flu. large. 1!<ln. In 
diam,; pataU and aepali p»le bnff, mafrenta apioal 
blotch; labellnm creamj white; aide lobes penciled with 
marenta. front lobe keeled. Cochin Chink. R.B.21;20S. 
B.H. 1891:321. Var. LaAnM {A. Leinai, Belohb. f.)- 
Side lobea blant and retuae. 

JLA&. Jfultiflorum teetion: apical lobe of 
labtllum haitaU. 
B. Pedur 



__. _ . . .. Ko»b. ( 
Lodd.}. Plant compact, d 
6-10 In. loDK, dotted with 
long;, often branchlns : B», 
and doraa] sepala ovale, e 
■hading to whl 



afflm. Wall. A. riieum, 
rf : IvB. atont, leather;, 
-own (!): leapei 15-20 in. 
naJl and crowded ; petals 
. . al In length, roee-eolored 
; the baae, dotted and spotted with 
ipals pale, less spotted ; labellam 
cord ate -rhomboid at right anftlei, with other segments 
Boarcelj trllobed, deep rose ; spor compressed, very 
short. India. B.M. 1049. Ot. 8;2G7. Var. UbH (^. 
L6bbii, Hoit.}, Lts. crowded: peduncles more bnnch- 
Ing : fls. more Intensely oolored ; very distinct. 1. H. 
16:55a. Var. QoOabojiiam. Hort. (.1. eodetnyintim, 
Beichb. f.|. Fls. larger than in type and more brilliant 
In color. B.B. 17:les. This Is themoet widely dlstribnted 
of the East Indian species, It we except A. odoratum. 

12. BUMIlUmm, Llndl. Plant compact : Ive. dark 
Bpott«d : racemes pendent, eainetlmes branching ; se- 

(als and petiJs pale rose, dotted with parple ; anterior 
ibe rose-pnrple, white at base. India. 

13. F14U1I18U, Lodd. Poi-BBrsH Okithid. Tall: In. 
gloisy, 7-10 In. long : pedaucles penduloas, branched 
near the base, 18-21 In. long : Ss. crowded, petals and 
sepals white, snlTDsed and dotted with rose ; labellum 
■eareely trllobed, white suffused with rose. Sikklm, 

11. arflpam, Llndl. St. brownish ; Its. rlfcld, h-8 In. 
long ; peduncle often branched, pendulous ; fls. not 
dense, large; pet«ls and sepals white, Bushed with rose- 
crimson, deeper colored on dorsal surfaces: Up trllobed, 
side lobes small, midlobe rose-amethyst. S. Ind. B.M. 
4427. F.S.6:43S. On. 4, p. 85. B.R.26:E3. Var. Liad- 
hyt nnm , Hort. Larger: fls, paler, racemes branching. 
Var. Wfnnl, Hort. Dwarf : fls. smaller andpaler than 

15. erauUAllnin, Par, & Keiehb. f . Compact in growth : 
Ivs. 6-10 In. long : fls. ISln. In dlam. ; petals and sepals 
bright Tose-magenta, shading off towards bases; label- 
lam trllobed, side lobes subfalcate, rose-magenta, front 
lobe ovate, deeper colored- Burma. 

16. JapAniomn. Relchb. f. Smallest species of the ge- 
nus in cult. : Ivs. 3-1 in. long, linear oblong ; fls. few : 
peduncles loosely racemose ; sepsis and smaller petals 
greenish white, lateral sepals barred with amethyst> 
purple ; labellum crenate, ridged, dark violet, with 2 
erect lobules, Japan. B.M.ST98, — This Interesting spe- 
r.ies marks the N. limit of the genus ASrldes, R«qi]ireB 

in the other species. 
Pedunctea ascending, 

. I, Beichb. Lvs. B In, long, 1 in. wide: 

pednneles ascending, 8-10 in. long, sometimes branching 
near the base : fls. ^in, across, purplish ; sepals and 
petals pale rose, verging on crimson; column winged. 
India. 
AAAA. FandontM secfdm.- llpvarioui! Ivt.ttrtU. 

18. Ttod«rum,Beiehb.f.(.4.eiiIliidr>ei.m,Book.). St. 
slender: Ivs.l^ in. long, channeled abOTe, clasping at 
bases, alternate: peduncles 2-3 fld.: fls. lli-2 In. In 
dlam.; segments nndulate ; sepals white, lanceolate; 
petals white. Irregularly obovBte; Up trllobed, nearly di- 
vided In front, dentate, sides erect, Sikkim Bimalavs. 
4,000-6,000 tt. B.M- 4932. J. H. 111. 31; 117.— Much like 

Fonda terei in foliage. Subtropical species. 

19. mltrttnm, Relchb. f. Lvs. semi-lerele ; racemes 
many-fld.; sepals and petals while ; labellum rosc-pur- 



iESCHYNANTHDS 



^ of Trop. Asia and Air., with perfect or imperfect 

fls., the perianal segments short and hyaline: stamens 
B or 4, sterile fllaments Intervening : fls. very small, 
usually In clusters, while or runty. 

•anpiinaUntK, Biume (A, tanfulma, Hort.]. Lvs. 
IS-2>iln. long, opposite or altamate, ovate, acnmlnatc, 
soft, pubescent, pale beneath. Java.— Colt, for its dark 
red leaves. 

XStiUT S IJI TM U 8 laiiekvna, ashamed, ugly, and 
ani\oi, flower; probably referring to the wide-mouthed 
gaping of the fls.). Otintrieta. About 10 species of 
tropical Asian twining or rambling r 
shiTibs, bearing very showy, more or iesi 
fla., and cult. In warm houses (stoves) : i>s. upposim ur 
Terticillale, thick, or even fleshy: perfect stamens 1, 
ascending under the upper part of the Imperfectly 2- 
lobed corolla ; etlgtna entire : capsule 2-valved. 



r less fleshy tubular 



estlni 



J tropical forests of Java 
Borneo, where they grow in company with orchids and 
other plante on the trunks of trees. The fls., which are 
produced In the aiils of the lvs. and at the ends ot the 
shoots, last a long time in perfection. Being epiphytal 
under natural conditions, they should be put in a root- 
ing medium which will require renewal not oftener than 
once in two years. They must have perfect drainage, as 
they suiter from stagnant moisture, but during the 
period of growth they must have copious supplies ot 
water. Prop, by seeds, cuttings, and division. Cut- 
tings are the most satisfactory in building up a flower- 
ing plant from the beginning. Seeds are slow, and di- 
vided pieces, unless their roots are in a good condition 
previous to the operation, do not make as good plants aa 
cuttings. Cuttings should be taken early in the spring, 
and kept close until they are rooted and estAbllBhed In 
small pots. Daring the flrst year they should not be 
allowed to bloom, but encouraged to make growth by 
pinching out the ends of the shoots and shifting into 
larger pots as they require it. Most of the kinds took 
their best when grown as basket plants suspended from 
the roof ot the stove. Wire basltets are best. In pre- 
paring them, first pnt in a linlne of moss, next a goodly 
qnantlty of rough cinders, and the rooting material may 
consist of chopped Hbrous peat, sphagnum, charcoal, and 
small pieces ot pots or bricks, with a little coarse- 
grained sand. For a basket 12 ki. across, several small 
ptuits out ot 3-inoh pots may be nned, and In a hot, hu- 
mid atmosphere the growth 
Is encouimged until the 
sides ot the reeeptAcle are 
covered. During winter 
they sbonld be rested b] 
^ wlUiholdlngwatertoacer 
tain extent, and decreasing 
the temperature consider- 
ably. A good method * 



kinds, wl 



ids, where facilities are 



D walls, 



4-G tt. : lvs 






I.ST28. 



Oakrs Ahbs. 



they will cling by means 
Ichia of the roots thrown out 
from every leaf Joint. 
Cult, by G. W. OuvBB. 
Calyx dttply S-parUd, the lobes acute. 

lAl^ Spreng. St. creeping, mostly herbaceous, 

n.: lvs. lanceolate, acuminate, 1-6 In. long, repand- 
ste, fleshy: fls. aggregated; calyx fleshy and short; 
corolla arched -tubular, 2-3 In. long, downy, orange-sear- 
let. E.lnd. B.M.3813. P.M.8:24L~Wlll succeed Inan 
intermediate bouse. 

a. Calyx tubular, enlirt or sAortly S-taollied. 
paiohra.Don (^. pii!e\er,DC.). Flgs.41,12. Trail- 
ing: lvs. broadly ovale, dlntimtly small-toothed : corolla 
glabrous, brilliant scarlet, 3 times longer than tbe gla- 
brona greenish calyx. Java. B.H. 4264. B.B.I ~ 
K,H.18<*3:204. ~ 



calyx. J. 
P.H.16:1( 



^SCHTNANTHUS 

I, Hook. The commoneBt Bpeeles In CDlt. in 
tbU eountry : differs from ^. pulcAm in n&irower md 
neuif entire Ivb., ooroll* downy uid projecting only 
twice or lesH tlie length of the pnrple down; calyi. 
Javk. B.M. 4260, 4261. 

X. BoKAidna. I>« Tr.— £. Laidimiiibl — ^, /rllcnu. Wall. 
Ln. luieaolate; tiaijx cabnJftr. thort-Iootbed. alBbrDoa : eorollA 
■boat I in. loDE, omin-r«d, pnbeaoent. B. Ind. B.U. t8Bl.— 
^. Jaw M i aa, Hook. Allied to .£. poldini dUfeim In pubewent 



£SCCrLUS 



31 






edrx uid eoToUs. B.U.iSOS, F.i 

1,T1. o™l* "'— ■- -t.— 1-1, , 



P.K.I 



. e;5&e.— .£. JdnipAiva. Hlq. 
atira ; mIji wUndriml. »!»- 
pnb«ioeDt.] 



eikljxdecpljfTit, thadivifliijiiR IlneAT-Bubrdal^: corolla tutmlu', 
■arlet.ni7 loDf: fli. fudeled. Jstl B.H.4asS. P.M. U^iS. 
—A. miniica, Lbdl. Fig. renailloa, In !'■ In the axils of the 
onl or oUiptlo entire Ivi.: eorolle pnlieMent. Jbt«, Borneo. 
P.H.ia:*S.— .£.<I>Mtf«a.IIook. Bnncbei knotlj: tvi. luie, 
onl.leoFeoUtfl, ne«riy aeuUe, the upper one* vertlemale or in 
■'■ : fli. tudcled. nomerooa i calrx with Uneu-inbnlite divi- 
■ionii dotdIIb Urie, oran^e-rtd, eured. 3wK. B.M.4320- P.M. 
14:1W. Od.SItUW.— Ji.niMndnu.LindLAFut.— ^.epeeloiB. 
^M. apUndxdA, Barden hrhrld. with searlet-apotted htack fla.. 
in terminal faKldeg.-,.e. Iricolor, Hook. Ijti. amall. oral or 
UBoeolBte.hali7 at thebaae: ealTTobconlc.pnbeecebt; oomlla 



black or j_, 
LH.S;1W. i 



0:671. 



&.B031.a6.1l):T 
L. H, B. 



■Bincml, Hort., lendets dotted with white. Some other 
variegated fonai. The iiorBe-cheatnat is one of the most 

ti>pular of shade trees on the continent of Europe, and 
I also much planted along roads and in parks and private 
grounds in this cauntry. It is particularly adaptable for 
bowers and places where seats are desired, as the top 
stands beading- In and makes a very dense shiide. Hardy 



leN. ( 



e.). 



Bile, cone a 

neath when young : panicles 6-10 In. long, dense and 
rather aortow ; fls. y^owlsh white, smaller than those 
ot .^. Hippocaitanvm ! fr. rugose. June. N. Chiaa, 
Japan. 0.0.111.6:717. 

Iftmsa, Hayne 1.^. ffjpfiocifsraiiunixi^via. A.mbi- 
eifiufo, Loisei.). Tree.2l>-40ft. : leaflets mostly G, nearly 
sesBile, cuneste-obovate, erenate-Berrate, nearly gla- 
brous : panicles !>-8 In. long ; Qs. varying from flesh- 
color to Bcarlet : fr. with small prickles. B.B. 1056. 
L.B.C. 13:1242. F.8. 2229-30. -Hanv garden forms, ac- 
cording to the different shades In coloring, and one with 
double fls. Commonly planted in parks and on road- 
sides. Handsome and deBirable. 

BB. PetaJi 4, vhit* or palt rate-colorid ; ealyx t-Upptd; 
MtantHi 7-9: fr.ptar-thaped, imoolA. [CaUit\yTt>it.) 

CallMmiMi, Nutt. Tree with broad top, 3fr.4D ft,: 
leaflets 5-7, petioled, oblong-laneaolate, coueate or ob- 
tuse at the base, sharply serrate, smooth : panicles 3-4 
In. long, rather dense. Calif. B.H. 50TT. R.H. 1865, p. 
ISO. Qn. 49, pp. 490,492. 6.8.2:71,72. F.S.13;]312. 
u. WinttT-budi not rttittovt : claws moafly jonfsr 
than (As S-toathed calyx. 
B. Petalt 4, ytllvw to ttariet ; Jfomenf iiuluded or 
totntw^t exitrted : leafltti pttioled, (Pavia.) 

Slibra, WlUd. {^. Okioimit. Mlchi. Pivia elAbra, 
Spoeh. P.pdllida.Spich.). HnuU tree 15-30 ft. ; leaf- 
lets 6, oval or ouneate -oho vale, finely serrate, smooth: 
panicles 5-6 in. long ; fls. greenish yellow ; daws at 
long as the calyx ; stamens eiserted: fr. echinate. Hay. 
N.Amer. B.R.24:51. 8.8.2:67,68. Var. argftta. Robins. 
(jl.ar(riUii,Buckl.} fihmb : leaflets 6-7, obovate-lanceo- 
late, unequally serrate. 



SBCTLnS (ancient name of some oak, or mast-bear- 
ing tree). Sapittdicea. Hobse-chesthht. Buoksti. 
DMlduouB trees and shmbs : 1 vs. opposite, long-petioled, 
digitate ; leaflets 5-T, large, senate : Ba. symmetrical in 
terminal, sbi'wy panicles; petals 4-5, stamens 5-9: fr. 
a large trilocniar capsale with 1-6 seeds. N. Amer., E. 
Asia, Himal., N. Greece. Ornamental trees and shiiibs 
with handsome fls.; hardy except the Calif omion and 
Himalayan species, growing best in moist and loamy 
soli. The larger-growing species are excellent shade 
trees, and the fls. are showy and teterestlng. The fr. is 
not edible. Prop, by seeds, to be sown in the fall or 
■tratifled.orby grafting and budding on eoDUnon species, 
and the shrubby forms also by layers. ^. pat^flora 
prop, also by root-outtings. 
«. Wintrr-budt rilmmn elawi of tht pttalM not longar 

lluiH Utt ealyx/ itamatu exstrUd. 

B. Fttalt 4-6; ealyx eampanulatt, S-lobtd; itanunf 

SS: fr. globular. {Hippoeaitanum.) 

mppoeiitaniim, Linn. Coioion Hoitai-cKiBTtnTT. 
Fig. 13. I^rgetree, 60-80 ft.; leaflets S-7, sessile, cune- 
ate-obovate, acuminate, obtusely serrate, nearly gla- 
broos : panicles S-12 in, long, very showy ; fls, white, 
tinged with red : fr. echinate. Hay, From Himalayas to 
N. Greece. — Many garden forms, as var. QAre pltno. with 
double fla.; hears no fr. I. H. 2:50, Var. pOiiilU, Dipp. 
Dwarf form. Yor. mnbraeaUIera, Hort,, with compact, 
roundish top. Tar. UdsUta, Dipp, {var ditteela, Hort., 
var. Wervpkylta, Hon.], leaflets Itwiniate. Var. Kim- 



43. Opaalnc [allasB of -SacalQa HIppocaata n u m . 

oetindn, Harsb. {.£. fliva. Ait. jB. liitea, Wangh. 
Pivia liUa, Poir.}. Large tree, 40-90 ft.: leaflets 5, 
oblong-obovale or elliptical, cuneate, equally serrate, 
smooUi or pubescent beneath ; panicles 4-6 in. long ; 
petals yellow, very dissimilar; stamens 7, shorter than 
the petals : fr. smooth. May-June. N. Amer. L.B.C. 
13: 1280. S, S. 2: 69, 70. Var. dlsooln (var. hprida. 
Sarg. A. ndva, var. pHrpurdicetii, Gray, A.dlieelor, 
Porsh. A. Mhhaiiri, Hort.). Lvs. tomentose beneath: 
fls. red or parple. B.R. 310. An JnlApnediate form is 
A.neglieta.Undl. B.R. 1009. *' 



_. - . . ,. IntermedlalB betwe 

oclandrti tad A.Pavia. Lts. pubescent beneath: tta. 
yellow, tinged with red or nekrly red. 

nvt>, Linn. {Pdvia riiira. Pair. P. MIehaltxi, 
SpHch.). Shrub or snuUl tree, 4^0 ft.; leaAeta obloDC 
or ellipUcal, >cut« nt both ends, llneljr serrate, Bmooth 
or pnbeaeent beneath : panicles 4-T in. long, loose ; fls. 
pnrpllah to d»rk red ; petals very disiimilar ; stamens 
mostly 8, nearly as ioog as the petals : fr. smooth. 
May-June. N. Amer. B.B. 993. L.B.C. 13:1257. Var. 
hfttnllit (A. kimilit, Lodd.). Low shrub, 2-1 ft.: 
leaflets coarsely and unequaJly serrate, tomentose be- 
neSith : fls. red. tinged with yellow ; calyx dark red. 
B.R. lOIS.— Many nrden forms, as Tar. eirnaa. Hart. 
Fls. flesh-colored. Var. atioaaagtilnaa, Bort. Fls. very 
dark red. Var. WhlUeyl, Hort. Fis. hrlUiant red. Var. 
pindnla, Hort. {P. piimila, var. pStidula, Hort.). Dwarf 
fonn, with pendulous branches : Its. smooth. Some 
forms with Tariegsted Its. 

BB. Fit. pure lehitt, imall ; ptIaU 4-6 ; ttament mors 
ilmn twitt ai long ai thtpetaU. (Maerotk]irtui.) 

pMTitUr*. Walt. (^. maerottithya, MIchi. Fivia 
diba, Poir.). Shnib, 3-10 ft.: leaflets 5-7, elltpticai or 
oblong-OTate, nearly sessile, flnely serratti, pubescent 
beneath : panicles 8-16 In. lonR. narrow ; fr. smooth. 
Juiy-Aug. 8. Htates. B. M. 2118. Gng. 7:81.-One of 
the bandsomest plants for a lawn aiump. 

£. ChinfTvit. Bnnio. Allied lo A. Inrblnau, LBmflal. dis- 
tlnetlr petiuled, ruonded at the base. China.— .£. /mtica, 
Colebr. Fls. limMi la S. Hlppocailsnom: In. oboiaUi-luicHi. 
iBte.disllnetlr [«tloied. smooth. Hlmal. B.M. 5117.— ^.i^rrvi. 
Onv. Similar to A. Csllfamlu. LealleU ■mall, obovaU. es- 
na»wat.tomentaH beneath :cal}iMobed. Calif. O.F. 3:3M. 

AUBED BeHDKB. 

STBIOViMK. {aitho, scorch, and nema 
' ' ' ' ' ^arance of stanienE ^ 

e bardy herbaceous borde 
rocKerr. Liess common tnan Iberis. The genus difters 
from Iberis in having all Ita petals equal, and from Le- 
pidium in haTing its four stamens longer, winged and 
toothed. Fis, various shades of pink and purple. W.B. 
Hemsiey, In Gn. 9, pp. 108, 109. 

They dislike a moist or alilf soil or shady places; bat 
In light, sandy loam, on dry and sunnf slopes, they are 
compact and branchy, and when once fairly estAblished 
wilt last for many successlTe years without replanting or 
renewal, while under the opposite conditions the plants 
(prow feeble and lanky, and may die after a year or two. 
They keep fully as well as the Candytufts in water, and 
ean be cut with Inngor and atralgfater stems. Prop, by 
seeds in spring or by cuttings in summer ; annusJ and 
biennial kinds by seeds. J, g, KlLLIB. 

oorldllalliun, DC. [nirii jucinda, Schott A Eotscby). 
Branches numerous, thick, 1-6 in. high : Its. crowded, 
short, nerTeless, linear or linear-oblong, acute or obtuse; 
fls. smaller and lal^^r than in the next, in dense, short, 
rounded racemefl. Chalky summits of Lebanon and 
Taunis. B.M. 69S2.~Oood for edging. A. puUhUltiiH 
was sold under this name (or many years. 

grandimrnm, Boiss. & Hohen. Branches I-IH ft.: 
Ivs. usually longer than In A. toriditolium, more linear 
aud more acute: fls. as large as those of Arabit alpina, 
in slender, elongated racemes; petals 1 times as long as 
the sepals. PersiiL. Gn. 9:5. 

Finiinmi, Hort. Stoat, erect, shrubby, dwarf. Pis. 
deep rose. Best of dwarfs. Int. 1893, by J. W. Manning. 

polobtUum, Boiss. & Huet. Similar to .^. enriditolium, 
but more diffuse and trailing. Fls. smaller and brighter- 
colored ; petals 2K Umes as long as the sepals. Persia. 
Gn. 25:136. W. M. 

AOALKfLA {agalma, ornament, and kuU, wood; an 
ornament to the woods in which they grow wild). Qet- 
4t«rdcei. Tender climbers from Jbta, which may be 
grown In a basket like .Xschynanthus. 

A.Ianiit>[iiIa,Carr,.lsninelden<d(STnonTmof Ihenext. S.H. 
ierj:270.— J.i(amin«.Blnme. St. rooUnB from Ifae lower snr. 
, abortl» .-.,--. 



AQAPANTHUS 

ASAHIBIA (Greek ofntioi, desirable). AsmaUgmni 
of tropical American eplphyUl orehtds, little onlt. in N. 
Amsr, Botanlcally allied to Warrea and Zygopetalnm. 
Need a humid atmosphere. Grown on blocks In high 
temp. Prop, by dividing psendo bulbs. 

triaolar, N. E. Brown. Fls. In a raceme; sepals whit-  
Ish; petals Ilghtblne; lip in (he form of asaddle, marked 
with orange-brown. S. Amer. 

pnleUlU, Llndl. Pis. white, blotched yellow on the 
lip. In a raoemose spike from the base of the bulb. 

The aboTS siiecles ue the only ones known to have been olfend 
in the Amer, trade. There are S or « others, J.i™n)J«i,Belchb,(. 
Fli. In ailllaiy peduncles, blat-blotched, the Up bristled. Bras. 
—A., cvdnoa, Benth, & Hook, (not Relchb,, which — AwcanUs 
eraoea). Mneh Uke A. trioolor. the lip bine and nndnlate al the 
tip. B.R.lH5:28,Hffarrea elnerea, Llndl.! slui, W. cranes, 
Uodl. (see Bolfe,, U.C. III. 6, p. IK). 

AOAFAJTUUS (apaps, lore, and anfAos, flower), £il- 
iicea. Conservatory plants, with tuberous rootstocks, 
tall simple scape, and S.braeted umbel of handsor ~ ' 

* " e divisions, near], 

at, winged above : foliage 

country, AgapaoUiuses are asually grown in 
roots are apt to burst pots), and are flowered 
In late spring or early summer in the conservatory, win- 
dow garden, or liTlng room. The plant is kept di 
during winter, as In a (rarae or light cellar, only i 
life being maintained to prevonttbe Ivs. from faUli 
— - -ilbiduji usually loses ite leave«j._ When in b 



tube (1 



mfamng(lW 



*otw 



. Plan 



11 btoom 



U given a large eoougb tub, not allowed tc 
crowded In the tub, and supplied with mannre watt 
sending up many clustera each year. Good resulM ci 
also be obtained In single pote. It forces well. If kept 
dormant until spring, Uiey may be bedded in the open, 
or massed in vases, for summer bloom. Prop, by divid- 
ing the roDte (and rarely by seeds). Old roots break up 
more easily if soaked In water a few boors. When dor- 
mant, the plant will stand a few degrees— usnally 10° or 



i.n 



ailllnr^ 



S747. P.U. 13:73. F.S.I: 



r ; blade ss Ion. 
■■Ie» of 12-14 iS 



meoaeueitod. B.M. 



44. 

scape rising 2-3 ft, from the leaf .rosette, beitfllie ku um- 
bel of 20-50 handsome blue fls. ; periaoth funnel. shaped, 
with a short tube. Cape of Good Hope. B.M. 500, -One 
of the beat known of half-hardy liliaceous plante. There 
are white. flowered varieties (the best known is var. U- 
bidni): dwarfs, as Tar. minor and Tar. Kooraiiitii, tioth 
with blue lis. ; giant forms, as Tar. mtilBni (both blue 



AQAPANTHC3 

uidwhite-fld.),<ritl>BRftpe4 ft. highi double -fid. variety ; 
Turlegated-lTd. Tftrietles, an tu-. kbmu aod Tar. TOilS' 
S^tOB ; vti, Ldalltliiili, t, eompaot-CniBBed blue form ; 
aod nthera. l_ h. B. 



AOATE^A. Sev Felicia. 

AQK1SIS(agatkii,giome; thefls.lncluBterg). Tender 
AastraKan cooifen, ajlied to AnuctiHa, yielding Dbid- 
mar realn, ConeB Axillary, globular or sbort. 

TobAita, Hook. {Ddmmara robiitta, C. Moore). 
Bnutebes somewhat vertloillate, hoiiioDtal ; Its. broad, 
Oral-laoceolate, obtuse: tree reaching ISOfeet in Austral. 
-Call-inCaUf. 



AGAVE 



33 



4S. Acave 

AelVB (Greek, offauai, admirable}. Amaryllidieea. 
Important deoorMive and economic plants from hot 
American deserts, the most familiar of which Is A. 
Atitiricaua, tbe Auericah Centcri Pi-ant. St. short 
or wanting : Ivs. mostly in a close rosette, mostly stiff 
Knd more or less fleshy. perslallDgfrom year to year, tbe 
margins mostly aimed with teeth and the apex tipped 
with a more or leas pungent spine : fls. in spikes or 
panicles; perianth 6-part«d,moreor less funnel-shaped; 
stamens S, mostly long-eiserted ; style 1 ; oTury Infe- 
rior, 3-cslied ; seeds numerous, flat, thin, trlan$p:ilar, 
black. Some species flower bat once and die, others oc- 
casionally, while others flower from year to year. The 
number of species is about 150, although more than 325 
have been described. One of the largest collections is 
at Kew, where there are 85 named species. The largest 
eoll»etions In the Dni(ed States are at tbe Botanical 
Garden of Washington and the Missouri Botanical Gar- 
den, where there are about 75 species each. Amateurs 

Kcribed In this account. Agaves are essentially fanciers' 
or amateurs' plants. This noble group of plants has 
never received the attention it deserves, and yet no ge- 
Dns of plants in America furnishes so many suitable 
decorative plants. Sir Joseph Hooker places it neit to 
the palm and aloe, bat the former is a great family of 
1,100 species. While In the United States we think of 
the Agaves only as decorative plants, yet in Mexico, 
their native home, they are the most useful of plants. 
Many species furnish flber, others soap, while still 
others produce the two great Mexican drinks. Ptiiqiit 
and Mtaeal. Pulque, which is a fermented drink, is ob- 
tained froui several species, especiaily A, atrovirtnn- 
Hescal, which is a distilled drink, is nsually not ob- 
tained from the same species as Pulque, although there 
Is a general belief to Uia contrary. The species from 
which is made most of the Uescal used in Mexico is 
unknown. The species vary so much in siie and form 
that they can be used in a great many ways. Some of 
Uie smaller species are suitable for the house, and e-ren 
some of the larger species are sonsed. Tbe larger spe- 
cies are well adapted for vases in large gardens and 
grounds, along walks, terraces, etc. These plants, com- 
ing, as they do, from arid or even desert regions, where 



they have a hard struggle it 

little or no care, but they respond . . 

treatment. Tbe species are propagated in various ways; 

some produce suckers at the biise or even nnderground 

shoots ; others give oft buds from the stem, which fall 

off and take root, or may be detached and planted ; 

while not a few produce bulblets in the flower-c lusters, 

and sometiraes In great abundance, while all may be 

producedfrom seed. But as most of the species flower 

only utter a long interval, and many have not yet been 

known to flower In cultivation, this latter means at 

fropagatlon can not be relied upon. In cultivation, 
ruit is set very sparingly or not at all without artiflciai 
poUination, although this can be accomplished with 
very little trouble. Monograph by J. Q, Baker, Ama- 
ryllideHi, 1888. j. N. Bosb. 

None of the Agaves are at all difficult to grow. The 
soil should be principally loam and sand, and It an; vege- 
table soil be given It should be in small quantities. Good 
drainage and firm potting are necessary. To grow small 
plants of the large- leaved kinds into good-sited specimens 
quickly, they should be plunged out In a sunny spot In 
spring, taking care that the pots ore lari^ enough so that 
they will not require repotting in the fall. Nearly all of 
the large-growing kinds are easily Increased from suck- 
ers, which, when the plants are grown in a pot-bound con- 
dition, are produced very readily. They should only ba 
taken o9 from the parent plant when furnished with snt- 
flcient roots to give them a start. Some kinds are raised 
only from see(ls,which, when freshly gathered, germinate 
in a few weeka. Cult. by Q. W. Olivib. 

The elasiiflcation of the Agaves Is a very difficult one. 
This is partially owing to the great number of species, 
to the difficulty of preserving study material, and to tbe 
infrequencyof flowerinjrin many — 
cies. In foci, many species have n 
been known to flower. The i 
usable characters for claesiflos 
are to be found In the leaves, 
although such an arrangemen 
more or less artlflclol, it is oerti 
the most satisfactory in namli 
collection. From a botanical [ 
of view, however, the Infloresc 
shows the true relationship o( 
species. In this way tbe genv 
usually divided into three pvnp 
subgenera. These are : First, 
Kuagai-e, having a paniculate 
florescence, with candelabra - 

Ing a dense spike of flowers. I 

by some a good genus, but it sc 
to connect witii the flrst sh 
through certain species.) The t 



■reda. Is 



y diile 



from the above, and is consldere 
the writer as a distinct generic t 
although treated here In accord: 
with general usage. Hanfredas 
all herbaceous, appearing each 
from a bulbous base, tbe Ivs. 
are soft and weak, dying down 
annnally, while the Inflores- 
cence Is a slender open spike, f 
with sol Itary fls. from the axils 
of bracts. J 

The following Agaves are 



tenuata', 13 ; Biaucar^ti, 28 ; *^ *^''' *"" 
Botteri, 29; bracbystachys, HowM, 

40 i Candelabrum, 3 ; Celsii, 
31 ; eoarclata, 5; cochlearis, 6; dasyllHoldes, 



32; Deserti. 10; echinoides, 34 ; Elemeetiana, 20 ; 
.iormii, 34 ; filifera, 13 ; gemlniflora, 16 ; Gilbeyl, 



Lecheguilla, 23; Lehim 



84 



AGAVE 



lata, 39 ; tDaenlosik, 38 ; Hszieuift. 2 ; mlcraeantha, 33 ; 

mltis, 33; mitraformit, 6; Nissonl. 25; polalorum, 11; 

PoMstna, 41; Pringlei, i; recurTa,31; AieAantttt, 34; 

Tlgld»,3; rtgtd><aina,28: Salmiana.S; schldigere, M; 

SrolytDDS, 11; Scbotlll, 18; Shswil, 9; SiaalBus.S; strl- 

aM,34; Btrlcta,34; T>ylDii,lT; TAuaeatuntij, 5 ; anl- 

TltUU,3l; UtaheDBiR, 12; vSBtltk.lS; VlclariB-R«g1iiB, 

24; Tirgtnica, 37; ijloDBcanthn, 27; ynaen folia, 35. 

A. /"oJiaj/e perjiifitij frmn VMr (o yeor." innortittnci 
denii, nangfld.! plantt floiceritm aflrr a more 
er Ie>i long inltrval, oHtu but oatt, in elhtri 
OCeaBionallg. 

a. Inflortttnct a eompaelpanieh; ni.bomtinclutUri 
n«ar the tndi et knritonlal branchei. {Kuagavt.i 

1. Amarlotsa, liinn. Couhoh Cihturt Pi^ht. Flga. 
45. 46. PlkDta becontlns very luge ; lv». 40-^, either 
Btraight or the tips recurved; tbe marglii scalloped be- 
tween the sharp teeth; fl. 3 Id. Iodk. yellow. The most 
comiDoD species In cult. A.F. T:»)3. On. 12, p. 397. 
G.C.I!I.lfl:17. Gn.47,p.69. F.B.10;595. Trop. Amer. 
Several rarietieB, of which var. plota, rar. TariagiU (B. 
H. 3854) and var. iMnrrits are tbe best known. -gome 
farms have Ivs. striped, and others bordered with fellow. 
This species Is tbe one which la commonly grown as a tub 

Slant by florists, being nsed out-ol-doors in the suminer 
ir lawn and porch decoration. 

2. Kexlotiia, Lam. Plants becoming very larve : Ivs. 
20-30; similar to .4. .4merieona. Common In En. Int. 
about 1817, from Mei. G.C. II. I9:I4y. 

3. llKtda, Ulller. St. wanting or aometimes 4 (t. long: 
Ivs. thin, narrow, elotigBted; the margin either smooth 
or toothed. S. Mei. Perbaps more than one species in. 
eluded under this name. il. anpudifdlia, Haw., seems 
to belong here. B.M. &S93, as .4. izfliolde*. Qng.SiSS. 

Var. eUmgita, Baker [A. CandflAbrum.ToAtio). St. 
mach elongated. 

Var. BUalina, Engelm. Sisal Hemp. Margin of the 
Ivi. entire. Yucatan. Katurallied on Pis. keya.-Rec. 
ommended for cult, on a large scale tn certain cheap 
lands of Fla. Largely grown In Yucatan as a flber plant, 
the tlber being exported to U. S. and nsed In making 
cheap cordage. 

4. PlIIlKlei, Engelm. Lvs. sword-like, very atiff, 18 
in. or less long, narrowed from near tlie base to the 
sharp tip, tbe margin witb small, hooked, brown prick. 
les: fl. IHla. long, yellow. Ldwer Culif. 

5. atrATir«nl,Karw.(J.i7^ua;an/nsi(,Earw. A.Sal- 
nidiia, Ot1«), Often attaining a great siie: Ivs. few, 
10-30, becoming 9 in. broad and 7-9 ft. long, very thick 
at base and glaucous throughout, tipped with a stout 
spine; the upper part of tbe margin homy: A. 1 In. 

long Mei. G.C.II. r' •-- ^ 

under this name. 



(A 
and tnitrafirmis, Jacobi). Lvs. 



relAla. Lfhrn- 



. Int. 



e middle. 
PcLQCE Plant of W. 






t 1S6 



lections. 

7. qiplanita, Lem. Stemless : lvs. Bometimes 150, 
S-3Hin. broad, stiff and glaucous, with long, pungent 
end spine: fl.3 In. long, greeniih yellow.— A beautiful 
species from Mei ' -  - 



Imaii, s 



;: Ivs 



abont 50, a foot long, very stiff and pungent, glauc 
fls. Id a lai raceme. Int. about 1830, from central Mei. 
G.C. 11.8:137. 

9. BUwil, Engelm. Stemless : lvs. 50-60 or even 
more, oblong-spBtulate, 8-10 in. long, dull green and 
slightly glaucous, with a brawn tlp-splne an Inch long, 
the edge with upturned brown teeth Kin. or less long: 
fls. 3-3>iin. long, greenish yellow. 8. Cal. Int. about 

10 Daairtl. Engelm. Stemless : !vs. few. In a rosette, 
oblanceolate, a foot or lesH long, deep concave above, 
very glaucous, tip-apined, tbe lower half of the blade 
with hooked prickles : fl. yellow, 2 In. or less long. S. 
Cal. Int. about 1875. 



fl. 2-3 in. long, yellowisli. Mei. 

about 18S0. — Said to be common, with several varieties. 

A^ potatdmm, Zncc., may be only a form of the above. 

12. Utahtndi, Engelm. Stemless : lvs. sword-like, 1 
ft. or leas long, thick and rigid, tbe sharp tip-spine an 
inch long, tbe margin with triangular teeth, glaucous: 
fl. an Inch long. Utah and Aiii, 

BB. Jtiftortteencf a dense, cj/lindrieal iptki; fit. «««- 
ailfbomtinlKoi. {Liitita.] 
C. Ifargini or lv>. not toothtd. 
D. Inn. lituar.itiff.tmooth, Kith Iht margint tplitting 



ff int 



II thrci 



13. Eillfant, Salm-Dyek. Plant small, compact, aliont 

1 tt. In diam. : lvs. abont 100, linear, stiff, 9 or 10 In. to 
dlam.. light green In color, with a very pungent tip: fl. 

2 In.long, brnwnloh: Btalk 6-8tt. long. Mex. G.C.IU. 



Several species have passed 



foot 



15. VMtlta, Wa(aon,alBoof thetypeof.i.MIffcra.iBa 
very recently described and introduced species. Lvs. 
more brouiy than that species. Mei. table lands. A.O. 
1892:609. — It deserves a place In any large Agave col- 

16. geminiflara, Ker-Gawl. {BonapdrUa jdncra. 
Haw.). Lvs. often 200-300, narrowly linear, Homewhat 
recurved, lS-2 ft. long, somewhat convex on both 
aides: flower stalk sometimes 25 ft. long. Meiico, where 
It grows commonly along streams. B.R. 1145. P.S. 7, 
p. 6. -Very common. 

17. Tiylorl, Hort, A garden hybrid of .J. jrrfflfnf/Iani 
and A. dtnii/lora is oft«D seen in cult. Hn. 7:111. 
G.C. II. 8:631. 

18. SohAttii. Engelm. {A. gemniribra var. Sonirm, 
Torr,). StemlcBs: lvs. linear, l ft. or leas long and only 
Kin. broad, flat or concave, very rigid, sharp-tipped, 
the margin usually with white threads: fls. lain, long 
6. Aril, B.M.7567. 



AGAVE 



AGAVE 



35 



DD. Lv9. broad and fleshy. 

19. attomi&ta, Salm-Dyck (A. glaueiseens, Hook.)* 
Figs. 47-^9. St. 4-5 ft., crowned by a great mass of Its., 
sometimes 6 ft. in diam. : Ivs. about 20, 2-3 ft. long, 6-8 
in. broad at the widest point, very glaucous on both 
aides: fl.-spike5 ft. long; fl. 2 in. long, greenish yellow. 
6.F. 10:95. G.C.II, 2:218, 223. G.G. III. 17:455, 457. 
B.M. 5333. Gn. 51,p. 407.— This is one of the most ma- 
jestic of the Agaves. It has flowered only twice in the 
United States,— in the Washington Botanical Garden, in 
1897 and 1898. 

20. Elemeeti^nft, Koch. Very near the above, but 
stemless: Ivs. about 25, l>^-2 ft. long, 4>^-6 in. wide ; 
pale. B.M. 7027. G.C. II. 8:749. -A var. sabdentiU is 
sometimes sold. 

cc. Margins of Ivs. more or less toothed. 
D. Border of Ivs. homy throughout. 

21. imivitt^ta. Haw. Stemless: Ivs. about 50, rigid, 

2-2K ft. long, dark green 
except a pale band down 
the center: fls. vellowish. 
Mez. B. M. 6655. - Int. 
about 1830. 

22. heteractefha, Zucc. 
Very conmion. Forms seen 
in collections show a very 
polymorphous species. 
Stemless : Ivs. about 20, 
with a pale band down the 
center; teeth widely sepa- 
rated, never banded, 12 in. 
long, 2 in. broad. Mez.— 
Numerous varieties. Int. 
1862. 

23. Leohognilla, Torr. 
Bather common in collec- 
tions, but usually passing 
as A.heteracantha. Seem- 
ingly a good species, 
though referred by Baker 
to A. heteraeantha. Lvs. 
not banded, and spine very 
long. W. Tez. and N. Mez. 

24. ViotdriflB - BeglnsB, 
Moore. Stemless : lvs. 

sometimes 200, very compact, rig^d, 6-^8 in. long, IM in. 
broad, the margin and bands on the back white, obtuse 
at apex, tipped with a small spine. Mez. Gn. 8, p. 351. 
G.C. 11.4:485; n.l8:841. I.H.28:413. -A very remarkable 
species. Int. in 1872, but now seen in all collections. Prob- 
ably more cult, than any other kind ezcept A . A mericana . 

25. Hisaoni, Baker. A small species usually growing 
in clumps ; especially desirable for large vases. Lvs. 5-6 
in. long, with a pale band down the center. Mez.— Not 
known to have flowered. 

26. bOnida, Lem. Stemless : lvs. about 40, compact, 
rigid, with a very stout end spine, not striped : fls. nearly 
2 in. long, yellovrish. Mez. B.M. 6511.— Many forms. 

Var. Gflbeyi, Baker. Lvs. with a pale stripe down the 
center. Q.C. I. 33:1305. Gt. 1874, p. 84. 

27. xylonaeintha, Salm-Dyck. Stout-stemmed: lvs. 20 
or less, s'word-like, 3 ft. or less long, with a sharp brown 
point, slightly glaucous green, with a few darker green 
Unes on the back, the margin with a few large teeth : fls. 
IKin. or less long, greenish yellow. Mex. B.M. 5660. 
Q.C. n. 7:523.— i[. Ainur4ns%s and A. Kdchii, Jacobi, 
are forms of this species. 

28. Kerebdyei, Lem. (A . Beauedmei, Lem. A . rigid- 
issima, Jacobi). Stemless: lvs. 20-^0, sword -like, a foot 
or less long, rigid, dull green with a pale central band 
above, not dark-lined InbIow, with lanceolate curved 
teeth: fls. IHin. long. Mez. G.C. II. 7:523.- Many 
forms, as diplaetotha, maeiod6nta, pectinAta. 

DD. Border of lvs. not homy. 
E. Zfvs. oblong f with small teeth. 

29. Bdtteii, Baker. Stemless : lvs. 50, 2 ft. long, broad, 
pale green; triangular teeth on margin, crowded and 
black. Mez. B.M. 6248.— A very beautiful species. 




48. Flowers of Agave 
attenuata. 



30. AlMoans, Jacobi. Stemless : lvs. about 30, in a dense 
cluster, 15 in. or so long, 3^Kin. wide, tapering to a 
weak spine, glaucous on both sides, the margin lined 
with small black teeth : spike of fls. about 15 in. long ; 
fls. yellowish. Mez. B.M. 7207. G.C. IL 8: 717. -This is 
one of the smaller Agaves. It does not die down after 
flowering. A form with variegated lvs. 

31. C4lBii,Hook. (J.. (702«tdna, Jacobi). Stemless: lvs. 
20-30, oblong-spatulate, 2 ft. or less long, not strongly 
spine-tipped, the marginal lanceolate spines unequal, 
glaucous : fls. 2 in. or less long, purplish green, the tube 
very short. Mez. B.M. 4934. 

32. densifldra, Hook. Stemless : lvs. 30-40, oblanceo- 
late-spatulate, 3 ft. or less long, glaucous when young 
but becoming green, the end-spine >^in. long, the mar- 
ginal deltoid prickles 1 line or less long : fls. 2 in. or 
less long, greenish brown. Mez. B.M. 5006. 

33. mltis, Salm-Dyck. Short-stemmed: lvs. 30, oblan- 
oeolate, 15 in. or less long, 3 in. at broadest purt, tip- 
spine weak, the teeth very small and green or only ob- 
scurely brown-tipped, green : fls. 2 in. long. Mez.— J.. 
micracdntha, Salm-Dyck, is very similar. 



. ZfVS. very narroWf weak, the surface mostly ribbed : 
the margin minutely serrulate 

34. stri&ta, Zucc. Stemless or nearly so: lvs. 150-200, 
linear from a wide base, 2Ktt. or less long, scabrous on 
the edge, shup-tipped, glaucous -green, and ribbed on 
both surfaces: fl. l)^in. long, brown-green. Mex. B.M. 
4950. Cult, under several forms, as var. recfbrva, Baker. 
Lvs. larger and more falcate, not sharp-tipped. Var. 
stricta, Baker (A. stricta, Salm-Dyck). Dwarf: lvs. 
very stiff, 1 ft. long. Var. echinoides. Baker {A. echi- 
noldes, Jacobi. A. ensifdrmis and A. Bichardsiif Hort. ) . 
Dwarf and stiff: lvs. only ^^ft. long. 

35. ynoosBfdlia, DC. St. short: lvs. 20-40, much nerved, 
linear and recurved, with a pale center, entire or nearly 
so. Mez. B.M.5213.— Int. about 1800. 

36. dasylirioldes, Jacobi. Stemless : lvs. about 100, 
linear, stiff, very glaucous, serrulate, finely striate ver- 
tically on both faces : fl. nearly 2 in. long, yellow. Mez. 
B.M. 5716. 



. Foliage weak atid soft, dying down annually : in- 
florescence a sltnder open raceme or spike : st. 
arising from true bulbs. {Manfreda.) 

37. Virgfnica, Linn. Lvs. few, green, 6-20 in. long, 
spreading, lanceolate ; pale green or brown mottled, with 
a narrow white and nearly entire margin: stalk 3-6 ft. 
high: fls. greenish. S. states. B.M. 1157. 

Var. tiffrina, Engelm., a form from South Carolina and 
Missouri, has spotted lvs. 

38. maenldsa, Hook. Fig. 50. Basal lvs. 6-10, blotched 
with brown or green, soft and fleshy, somewhat recurved, 
the margin serrulate : st. 15-25 in. high, bearing a few 
scattered lvs. or leaf -like bracts : fls. 10-25, nearly ses- 
sile, 2 in. long, purplish ; stamens a little longer than the 
segments of the fl. S. Tez. B.M. 5122.— Generally la- 
belled A, maeulata. 




49. Cion-sectlons of leaf of Agave attenuata. 

39. maonl&ta, Begel. A name commonly used for the 
above, but a very uncertain species. It Is probably A. 
protuberanSf Engelm. ^ 

40. braob^itachyB, Cav. Lvs. lanceolate, green with a 
pale nearly entire edge: fls. reddish. B.R. 25:55.— Bare 
in collections, but a very important plant in Mexico, fur- 
nishing much of the ^amole " of the natives. 



36 



AGAVE 



AGBIMONIA 



41. Fototliia, Bob. A Greenm. An odd little species, 
resembling very much A, Virginiea. Sometimes met 
with under the name of Velpinoa graeillima. 

The gardener may find the following names (thoee marked * 
are or have been offered by American dealers) : A. Bonnetidna, 
Peacock, is considered by J. G. Baker to be a form of A. feroz.— 
*A.Boiltchei, Jacobi. Fls. in spikes : Ivs. oblaneeolate, glaueooa 
when young, brown-toothed. Int. 1864. G.C. III. 21:166. 167. 
B.M.7S56.—M.CaH6cM, Baker. Fls. in spikes: Ivs. lanceolate, 
with very minute and dose teeth. Isle of Martlnlane.— *ii . eaf- 
«ulna, Hort.— *A. ehloraedntha, Salm-Dyek. Fls. In spikes : 
Ivs. oblaneeolate, bright green, weiJc-spined. Int. about 1860. -~ 
A. eoecinea^ Roesl. Has never fid. Apparently common In 
Surope, with at least one varie^. Lvs. spatulate, dark green, 
repand-priekly.— A.a9ru{^e«n«,Salm-Dyck, is a glaacons-leavea 
variety of A. lophantha.— *A. Odrderoyi^ Baker. Has never fid. 
in cult.: Ivs. sword-like, rigid and spreading, ehannelledjrplna- 
edged.— *ii. deeipietu. "Tall-growizig; lvs. dark green. Fla."— 
A. EngelmoMnit Trelease. A J?. 8:109.— *A. erubiaemit, Hort.— 
*A. firox, Koch. Said to be not unoommon in cult., but it has 
never fid. : lvs. slightly glauoonSt the brown teeth ^n. long: 
G.C. ni. 20: 625.— *A. Framdnni. << Large-growing, of peculiar 
blue color.".— *A. Qatdinidna, Hort. — *A. QhletbreghtU^ Koch. 
Int. about 1862. Several varieties. Lvs. glossy green, minute- 
toothed. It has never fld. Some plants ciremated under this 
name are A. pruinosa.— A^yronclufentdto, Jaoobi, is a var. of A. 
horrida.— A. Ougtavidna^ Hort. Considered by Baker as belong- 

Eing to A. Majdmiliana. Lvs. slightly glaucous, with brown 
riokles.— *A. Henriquiti, Baker. Fls. in spikes : lvs. lanceo- 
kte-oblong, rigid, brown-edged and prickly. —*A. HoulUtU, 
Jaoobi. Has never fld. in cult. Lvs. oblaneeolate, not spiny.— 
A.JacQuinidna, Schult. Now considered a variety of A. lurida. 
livs. oblaneeolate, very glaucous, with black pnckles. B.M . 5007. 
— *A. MargarUa. "Dwarf, very compact and prickly. Lower 
Calif."— *A. marmordta^ Boezl. FU. in panicles: lvs. glaucous, 
xepand-prickly.— *A. MetotiUo. ** Pale stripe down the center of 
the leaf i similar to A. LecheguiUa, but of larger and stouter 
srowth."— *A . mieraedntha, SaLn-Dyck. A small-spined form of 
A. horrida.— *A. MiradorhinM, Jaoobi. FU. in panicles: lvs. ob- 
laneeolate, the prickles very small.— *A. NiekeUU. ** Similar in 
appearance to A. Victorin- Regime, except that it is of much 
more robust growth, the lvs. being thicker and the white mark- 
ings on same being broader and more distinct." F.E. 7; 618.— 
A.Ou$»elohemiAna^Jwi6bi^A. albicans.— *A.P(Um0ri, Engelm. 
A beautiful species from Aris. and Mex. Stemless: lvs. oblaneeo- 
late, glaucous, repand-priokly.- A. Pdrrvi, Sngelm. Now con- 
sidered as a variety or A. apnlanata.— *A. polyaedntha^ Haw. 
Fls. in spikes : lvs. oblaneeolate, green when grown, brown- 
toothed. Int. about 1820.- A. prvindBat Lem., see Ghlesbreghtll. 
— *A. tmUhSrrimat Hort.— J.. Regelidna, Jacobi — A. horrida.— 
*A. Bdlfini, Hort.— *A. rupfcola, Begel. Fls. in spikes : lvs. ob- 
laneeolate, bright green, jagged.— *A. Simaron. "Resembling 
A. Americana, but ashy grsyln color, and of smaller growth: 
thorns on points of lvs. much longer." Calif .—A . Simorri. Hort. 
Same as abovef— *il. tpeetdbUis, Toduo. Lvs. nearly 200, lan- 
ceolate, very glaucous, brown-toothed.- A. nUntldta, Hort.— *A. 
sylviMtris. Hort.— *A. TollinhuiM, Hort.— *A. Vanderwinneni, 
Jacobi. livs. oblong-spatulate, dull green, brown-edged and 
toothed.— A. Ver§ehaffHtii, Lem. Is usually considered a form 
of A.Soolymus. I.H.15:564.— *A.1F%Min^u.Todaro. Lvs. few, 
oblong, bright green, with small brown teeth, j, ^, RoSB. 

AODiSTIB (a mythical hermaphrodite monster, the 
genus being an anomalous one in its order). Phytolae- 
edcece. A monotyple genus. Tenderclimbing shrub from 
Mex. Cult, in Calif. 

dematldea, Mof . & Sesse. Lts. alternate, petiolate, 
cordate: fls. axillary or in terminal, branched, racemose 
cymes, white, star-shaped; sepals 4; petals 0. 

AOEBATUM (Greek for not growing old^ probably 
applied flrst to some other plant) . Compdaifag, About 
40 species of trop. Amer. herbs, with opposite stalked 
lvs. and blue or white fls. in small terminal cymes or 
panicles. 

oonyioldei, Linn. (A. Mexicdnumf Sims, and Hort.). 
Fig. 51. Annual and pubescent: lvs. • ovate-deltoid, 
crenate-serrate : fls. blue or white, or varying to rose. 
Ordinarily a rather loose-growing plant a foot or two 
high, but there are dwarf and compact forms ; also va- 
riegated forms. Trop. Amer. B.M. 2524. — This is the 
common ageratum of gardeners and florists. It is easily 
grown from seeds, sown in the border where the plants 
are to stand, or started in the house or hotbed. If the 
plants are to be used for bedding, they should be placed 
a foot or less apart. They thrive in any garden soil and 
exposure. They bloom all summer ; and if sown in 
late summer or fall, they give wiuter bloom under glass. 

The plant sold as A, conapicuum is an Eupatorium ; 
and that sold as A,Las8eduzii is a Conocllnium. 

L* H. B. 



AGLAIA (Greek, $pUndor; from the order and gen- 
eral appearance). Melideea, Tender tree from China, 
with minute, yellow, fragrant fls., said to be used in per- 
fuming certain teas. Prop, by cuttings. 

odorita. Lour. Lts. alternate, 5-7 pinnate : fls. in axil- 
lary, branching panicles. Cult, sparingly in Calif. 

AGLAO Aha (Greek, frWyAUAread). Aroldea. About 
15 species, of trop. Asia and Africa, allied to Arum, 
Alocasia and Dieffenbachia, and requiring essentially 
the same treatment as those genera. Evergreen, often 
beautifully variegated. Aglao- 
nema may be divided, or cut- 
tings may be taken from 
plants that become too tall 
and weak. In either case the 
cuttings and divisions should 
be put into the sand-bed pre- 
tIous to potting, to develop 
new roots. All of the kinds 
will succeed in flbrous loam 
enriched with rotted ma- 
nure, with the addition of 
a moderate quantity of 
leaf -mold, sand, and some 
crashed charcoal. 

Cult, by G. W. Olivxb. 

yfetiim, Kunth. Dwarf : 
Its. somewhat nnequilateral,ob- 
long or elliptic, ovate (4-7 in. 
long and 2-3 in. wide), very dark 
green, blotched with white, the 
central markings usually ex- 
tending the whole length of the 
midrib : spathe white or whit- 
ish, l-l>i{in. long. Sumatra. 
LH. 29: 445. 

nabuldaiun, N. E. Brown. 
Somewhat larger: lvs. narrower 
(5-8 in. long, IHln. or less 
wide^, more acuminate, the 
markings rather more broken 
and not so continuous along the 
midrib. I.E. 1887:24. A.G. 16: 
361, and F.E. 7: 961, as A. pie- 
tum» — This and A, pietum are 
confused in the trade. Both 
species deserve more attention 
than they hare reoeiyed in this 
country. 

oott4tii]ii, Veitoh. Very dwarf 
and compact: Ivs.heart-shaped, 
thick, 3 in. 
wide, one- 
third longer 
than wide, 
seldom ex- 
ceeding 5 in. 
long, dark, 

shining grreen, with midrib 
ivory-white and scattering 
blotches of white. Holds its 
tufted lvs. through the win- 
ter. Moluccas. 

A. eommutdtum, Schott.— Scindapsns Coseuaria.— A. Bti- 
Nin«, Hort., is*^a fine decorative plant, with thick, leathery fo- 
Uage" (Manda).— A. veraieolor, Hort., is probably a form of 
either A. pietum or A. nebulosum. L H B 

AOBIMOHIA (old name of obscure meaning) . J^«d- 
eea, Aobimont. Hardy native herbs, with interruptedly 
pinnate lvs. and small, numerous, yellow fls., produced 
through summer. Lvs. aromatic, astringent. Sometimes 
cult, in shrubbery and wild gardens. 

Enpatteia, Linn. (A. offieindlis, Lam.). Common Ag- 
rimony. Fig. 52. Petals twice as long as calyx, latter 
making a small, lightly adhering bur. Cult, in herb 
gardens to make a tonic tea, also in wild borders. Com- 
mon in woods ; also native to £u. Grows 2-3 ft. high, in 
little dumps, from a short rootstook. 




AQRIMOHIA 

odoiite.UIII. Lfts. narrower tfaan In A. gupataria; 
Itafleta pubeteent ; lob«a more deeplf ereiikt«-aentat« : 
peula mora cbMi twloe *s long m the e*!;!. Italy. Oc- 
catlooalt} eolt. In Am. j, g. Killbb sad W. M. 




ABSOPtBDM {Greek for Httditiiielitat). Ot«mtn«i. 
Parennlmli or umiukli, with ie&f-blkdea flat or eonvo- 
lau : ipika UrmlnBl, niaally atlS ; splkeleta larRe, 3-^- 
fld., eompraised, aeeiUe at each Joint of the almple 
■pike, the aide of the aplkelet placed next the aii*. 
Spesioa about 30. Temperate re^oni of Amer. and Eu. 

TtpcUi Bsanr. Quack Okasb. Couch Gbabh. 
QciciGkabb. QuitchOrabs. Aiimootb,palefrreen 
«r glaoeoaa perennial, very Tariable, with the Ir 
temodea of the rootstock long. In many places _. 
Iiu beeoina one of the wont weeds, apreadlng In- 
Tetarateljr by Its nndergronnd Btema. Fig. S3. It 
may b« destroyed by constaot and thorongh ttllaee. 
Often valuable to hold loose lands. Considered fay 
aome stock ralaen as a raluable bay grass. 

AGBOSTliaiA. See LfeXnli. 

ASBMTU (atrot. Held ; the place of growth). 
ffmmlnta. B^HT Ofuss. A geoDS eontatnlng many 
asefol ftrasses for lawns, pastures and bonqaets. Pani- 
cles variable, usually spreading : 
lets Tory smalt, awnlesa or oo- 
lally a short awn present. 
es about 100, dlatrlbnted over 
ntire globe ; abont asefal in 
Some species are much oon- 
1 with Ainu Id Agrostls the 
leU are l-Bd.; In Aira 2- to 
al-fld. 



(XS). Flower and bar. 



AILANTHUS 



DtilEM ipikeltU. 

I Bent Gbabs. Awell known per- 
nio Ion If erouB, 1-3 ft. : aheaUis 
smoolh : lear-blade linear or narrowly lanceolate, 4-8 in. 
long, acabroua : panicle open, l-IO In. long, the branches 
sometimes widely spreading: spikelets abont 1 line 
long: ligulal-t lines long. — Suitable for meadows, pas- 
ture mixtures, or exclusively for lawn-making. 

Tar. vnlKkiU, Thurb. (A.vvlgirii, Vltb.]. RBD-Tap. 
FiNC Bint Gbibs. DlHtlngulshed from the type bjr 
tbe Emalter llgule, which la trancate. and less than 1 
line long.— Commoner In cult, than the type. 

Tar. ■tolonUara.Unn. {A. tManlftra.lJtia.). Panicle 
contracted linear; cnlms extenilvely creeping or stolo- 
Dl(«rao8 : lignla 1-4 lines long. 

BB. Atoned tptktUU. 

sanlna, Linn. Bbowh or Voa'B Beht Okabb. RnoDB 
1BT.AHD BCMT Gbabb. Ijlender, creeping, 1-2 ft. : panicle 
pyramidal, 4-6 In. long ; spikelets near tbe ends of the 
branches, very small, l-9of an in. long: small b 
on back o( flowering glu 
close aod. 

AJL. Spiktltli about }i lint lant; panieU-brantXti long 
and kair-like. Annual omamtntal graiiii. 
B. Culmi, Ivi.antl panielt'branekei imeoth, 

mabnUM, Bolas A Rent. (A.cap{lliTit,BaTt.]. Cutoa 
Qbasb, FHg. 54. A low grass, wltb extremely delloate, 
featbery-llke panicle and small spikelets: Iva. few and 
very small. Spain.— Tory nsefolforvaaes andbonqnets. 

mlnntUUra, Hort. Tory similar to A. neinloia, but 

amaller, with fewer Ivs. and shor* ' 

(or vases aod bouquets. 

BB, Culmi, IvM. and panicU-brantkti icabrout, 

•okbi«, Wllld. RouQH-BtHT, Tickle Gum, Fi.t- 
awatQbabb. HaibQbabb. Silk Gbass. Halr-llke, deli- 



-Makes a 



r panicles. — Useful 



oate, with widely spreading, oaplilary panicles, which 

>t maturity breu away f '"" ' * "" '*" — ' '~ 

the wind: i pikelets very 



Idely SI 

maturity breu away from the culm and fly abont In 
" ' ' 'I, clustered at the ends ot 




and i.miltUaa,l 



P. B. KBNKBD7. 



AIUUTTHUB (from Its native name Ailanlo, meanlnfc 
Tree of Heavin). SimarubAeea. Large trees : IVB. al- 
tematfl, large, pinnate, dec Idnoas : lis, small, in large 
terminal panicles, polygamous ; petals G ; stamens 10 ; 
fr. consisting of 1-G distinct samaras. Fire species tn 
Cent, and S. Asia and N. Aastral. -Large, ornamental 
trees of loose and somewhat spreading habit, nlth ele- 
gant, teaUiery foliage, Tery rapid erowers. Gooil for 
smoky cities. Suckers from tbe roots. Prop, by seeds 
and root cuttings. 

If. (A. Japdnlea, Hort.). Tbbb or 
1. Tree, 60ft.: !yb, odd.plonate, lW-2 ft, long ; 
leaflets 13-25, petlolulate, ovate -lanceolate, nearly gla- 
brous near the base, with 2-4 coarse teeth, each with a 
largegland beneath: fls. greenish: sHmaras ISIn, long. 
June. China, cult. In Japan. -TbIu able tree for street 
planting, much nsed In the temperate regions and oat- 
uralised in aome localities ; somewhat tender nortli i^ 



* vonog 



AILANTHUS 

>nDg ibite. For atreet pluitlDg, tbe fertile plant 
nly ihoold be nsed,bec»use the mile eibalei a dliia- 
greeable odor when aoweiing, inil the pollen is said ta 
eaoM otarrbkl traablei. It grows la ■Imost any soil, 



■nd ■moke well. Vu. trytlm- 
Cfap« [A. eiythroedrpa, Cftrr. 
A. rilbra. Hurt.), hvg. darker 
e and more rIu 



Bath: 



bright red. i 



9 lu late nummer and 
aninmn. Var. p«IldllllUlla,CaTT. 
Ltb. very large, drooping.— Tbe 
Allantboa foliage glveg a tropi- 
cal effect when the growth U 
very >troDg. If planta are cut 
back to the ground after they 
have become establliiheil(in two 
or three years after planting), 
they will throw ap very strong 
shoota and make an excellent 
screen, aa shown In Fig. 56. 
This practice may be repeated 

tear after year. Sumacs, pan- 
iwnEaa. bass woods, mui berries, 
and otber faat-growlDg thing! 
may be treated In this way. 
The AUanthua foliage Is very 
like tbat of the Cedrela Iwhfeh 



AECEBIA 

AIR-PLAST. In common speech, any plant which 
grows on the trunk or <n the top of another plant la 
called an air-plant. The proper term laepiphutt (that Is, 
growinf on a plant). In bonicolCure, the term air-plant 
Is usually applied to epiphytal orchids, tUlandiias, and 
the like. Moat of these grow opon old bark, perhaps de- 
riving some of their nourishment from the bark, but most 
of it from the air and rain. They are not parasites,- do 

AJtrO&(Hof yoilrd.-lhecalyxnotbilahUte). Labiila. 
Bean Weed. Hardy herbaceous European perennials, 
creeping by stolons. Height 6-12 In.: fls. nomerous. In 
whorls, normally blue or purple, with rosy or white 
varieties. I'rop. by division or seeds. 



B»). 



H. Acnnia Hbukiaa. \ 



■pitou.— J. atriUta. 



tauIi,Ll[ 



1.(4, ru^aja, Holt. A.alplna.Hort.). 



CMillne Ivs. oblong-eUlptic , . ... 

rowed at the base ; lower ones petlolate ; floral lvs.oval« 
or wedge-shaped, eoarselytoothed, sparsely hairy: upper 
fl. -whorls spicate ; lower whorls distant. 



inc. sbraptlTplniiaM; leaflets 
twih wllhonl eUnd.. IndU. 
je ^rown onlj in tropical re- 

tt. CaiT. - Cednta Sliwn>is. 
Alfbid Bkhdeb. 

AlSA (an ancient Oreek name for Damrl). Oramln- 
MX. Haib Qbabh. A genus containing delicate annual 
gnaeea, with slender, loose panicle -branches: splkelets 
very small, of two perfect contiguous flowers ; flowering 
glume acutely 2-eleft at the apei, bearing a slender 
twisted awn below the middle. Eu., N. Afr.-Thls genus 
Is much contused with Agrostis by florisU. Nat. from 
Bn. and cult, for dry bonquets. 

eftiyD^lrllia, Linn. {AgrSitit iltfam, Hort., not 
Gnss.l- A slender and elegant tufted annual, 10-20 in. 
high, bearing a very diffuse panicle of purplish and at 
length silvery scarlous splkelets. 

tlagani, Oaod. (AgrittU tlteam. Sort., not Qusb.). 
A slender, erect and very pretty annual, from a f$w 
inches to a foot high, with widely spreading capilivy 
panicles of many small splkelets. 



Thet 



flawara ue pistillate: the othen 



pyramldUli, Linn. St. erect : eauline Ivi. obovate, 
hardly petlolate, in a4-Blded pyramid; floral Iva. broadly 
ovat«, tbe higheHtoften colored; all Ivs. entire: fl.whoria 
usually all aplcate. 

riptans, Linn. St. prostrate : Ivs. ovate or obovate, 
entire or sinuate, shiny. — A low, dense, fast- spreading 
creeper, eicellent for covering shady slopes. The typical 
and white-dd. (onns are less cult, than the following : 
Var. rtbra, Hort. More valued for its dark purple Ivs. 
than Its bine fla. Var. varlegita, Hort. Lv9. splashed 
and edged creamy yellow. 

metilllsa var. nlllNt, Hort., Int. by 
Bendereon, 1899, is described as dwarf 
(4-5 In. I, with curled, metallic glossy and 
blue fls. in a pyramidal spike. A bed- 
ding plant. Int. from Germany. 

J. B. Kkixeb and W. H. 
_._ , m Akebi, Its Japanese 
Berbtriddefir. Twining glabroua 
ahrubij; Ivs. long- petiole d, digitate, coria- 
ceoDS: fls. monredoua In axillary racemes, 
pistillate at the base, stamlnste at the end 
of the raceme ; sepals 3 : fr. consisting of 
one or more very large, oblong berries 

Japan and China. Very ornamental, hardy 
climbing shrubs of graceful appearance, 
especially adapted for places in which 
very dense shade is not wanted. They 
require a sunny position and well drained 



raluab 






ahoota; with a fev 



ninflown' plants. 



Uld pemt. In Japtn the fr.. wblch Is very showy, bat 
with DB rarely prodaced. Is eateo, and the stems are 
moGh used for wicker-work. Prop, by seeds, bf green- 
wood or hardwood CDttlngs, and 
also by root di-'' ' ' 



plish brown, aboi: 
stamlnate smaller, 
In early spring : ben 
in. long, dark pnrp, 
cons bloom, seeds bl 
handaome, not attack. 
or fangl. Very gni 
---ble. China, Japi 
B.M. vm. U.P*'* 





These figures do not inolade the shlpmentB from 
stations on this line, nor those carried by the Louisville 
and NashTllle. 

Such, Id brief. Is the present status of commercial 
hortiCDltnre In Alabama. In attempting to ontllne the 
poBslblUtJes of Its future derelopment, it will be neces- 
SBiy to RtaDce at some of the more prominent topograph- 
ical features of the state. For onr purpose, it may be 
rouRbly dlTided into fonr regions. First, at the north Is 
the Tennessee River region, or, as It Is often called, tlie 
grain bah (Fig. 58, A). Its atrong clay soils produce 
abundant crops of com, wheat, clover and timothy, and 
were originally covered by a heavy growth of hardwood 
timber. Next eomea Che mineral belt (B), including the 
mounlain roglon of northeast Alabama, and extending 
in an IrregularKay nearly across the state to its western 
border. This is a large region, containing a great variety 
of soils, ranging from rich creek and river bottoms, and 
tbefertileredsolUcbaraeterlstlcot the Piedmont region 
of Georgia, to barren aands and sterile, rocky hlllaldeB. 
The surface Is very much broken, and great areas are 
BtUI covered with tbe original forests of mixed pine and 
hard woods. Below the mountain conntiy, and forming 
an Irregularbelt or girdle serosa the middle of the state. 
Is the prairie region {Fi^, SS, C). Tbis la oarrow attfae 
aaat, where the mountains press farthest southward, but 
broadens out toward tbe western border. The soil varies, 
In some places being light and sandy, but for Che most 
part it is a dark, retentive loam, resembling that of tbe 
northern prairies. While cotton Is a staple crop In all 
~iarts of the state, thla is preeminently the cotton belt. 
ielow the prairie comes the timber belt (D), covering the 
southern third of the state, and extending to the Oulf. 
Before the advent of tbe lumberman this ei 



. Mobile has long been known as one of the 
chief sources of supply for early vegetables for the 
northern and western markets, and tbs truck buslnesa la 
gradually extending from Mobile county to the adjoin- 
ing counties of Baldwin and Washington. Early cab- 
ba^ and Irish potatoes are the most important crops, 
though snap beans, peas, radishes, and many other vege- 
tables are grown In considerable quantities. Tbe tomstol 
ao important a market crop in many southero localities, 
la rery little grown here, owing largely to the preva- 
lence of baeteriosls, often called southern tomato blight. 
UuntBville,lnnorthem^labama, hasalargeand flour- 
ishing nursery business. Several Urge wholenale ea- 
tablisbments are located there, and tbe fertile Tennes- 
see River Valley lands prove to be admirably adapted to 
the growth of a good quality of nursery stock. Over 
1,300 acres are now devoted to this business In this 
neighborhood, the annual shipments All 150 cars, Includ- 
ing 1,500,000 fruit trees, besides rosso and other orna- 
meutala; and the sum of $40,000 is paid out annually for 

Beginnings have been made Id fruit and vegetable 
growing at various other points In the state, particularly 
at Cntlman, Montgomery, and Evergreen, on tbe Louis- 
ville and Nashville railroad, and at Fruithurst, In north- 
eaatern Alabama, on the Southern railway. No dalabave 
been secured as to the total shipment from these various 
points, bot tbe combined amount is very small, as com- 
pared wttb tbote from the Mobile region. Onaroad.the 




gion was an unbroken forest of long-leaf yellon 
with magnollaa anil ' 

dering the water et 



40 



AULBAMA 



ALASKA 



some parts very hilly. The soil is a light, sandy loam, 
usually underlaid with red or yellow olay. It is naturally 
poor, being deficient in potash and phosphoric acid, and 
vields only scanty crops without fertUiaers. It can, 
however, be made very productive by judicious manur- 
ing, and it builds up rapidly under intelligent intensive 
farming. This region is well adapted, both by soil and 
climate, to the production of early vegetables, and It 
seems probable that the business of truck-farming will 
ultimately spread widely from its present center at 
Mobile. Among fruits most promising for this region 
are grapes, oriental pears, figs, Japanese persinunons 
and strawberries. Satsuma oranges on hardy trifoliata 
stocks can be safely planted at the extreme south, and 
peaches and Japanese plums in the more northerly por> 
tlon. Pecans thrive admirably, and the better kinds 
should be widely planted. 

The soils of the prairie region, being mostly rather 
cold and wet in the spring, are not well adapted to early 
vegetables. Their fruit-growing capacity has not been 
fully tested, cotton claiming almost universal attention. 
Peaches and plums will thrive on some of the lighter 
soils, though the trees are usually short-lived. Apple 
trees grow well on the heavier prairie soils, and it seems 
probable that with a proper selection of rarieties and 
due attention to spraying, their cultivation would proye 
profitable. 

The mineral or mountain region presents so great a 
▼ariety of soils and conditions that it is hard to eharao- 
terise it as a whole. Some portions present almost ideal 
eonditions for peaches, plums and grapes, and in the 
moister, heavier lands apples thrive and yield abun- 
dantly. If the people of Alabama ever interest themselves 
in fruit-growing as their neighbors in Georgia do at the 
present day, then these choice mountain locations will 
certainly be covered with orchards and Tineyards, and 
this mountain region will advance to the first place in 
the magnitude of its horticultural interests. 

The northern region already has its well established 
nursery business, which seems destined to increase. 
Owing to late spring frosts, peach and plum crops are 
too uncertain here to make commercial plantings advis- 
able. It is, however, a promising apple country, and 
strawberries, raspberries and blackberries succeed well. 
An undeveloped but promising industry for this region 
would seem to be the growing of late crops of cabbage 
and Irish potatoes for the southern market. The allu- 
vial soils found here seem well adapted for this purpose, 
and all the southern towns and cities offer a near and 
ready market. p. g. Eablb. 

ALAVOimi (from the Malabar name). ComAcem. A 
few species of shrubs or small trees of the Old World 
tropics, with alternate entire evergreen Ivs. and small, 
perfect purple fls. in axillary clusters. Barely cult, in 
Old World stoves, but probably not in the Amer. trade. 

ALASKA, HOBTIGITLTirSE IN. Fig. 69. When con- 
sidered from a horticultural or agricultural point of view, 
Alaska may be very conveniently divided Into two divis- 
ions, the southern coast region and the interior. These 
two regions differ very materially in their climate, and 
may be ultimately found as unlike in their possibilities. 
The climate of the coast region, which extends from 
Dixon's Entrance on the southeast to Unalaska on the 
southwest, is characterised by a heavy rainfall, a great 
preponderance of cloudy weather, and a rather low sum- 
mer temperature, with little or no diurnal variation in the 
readings of the thermometer. The winter temperature is 
not excessively cold, zero weather being seldom experi- 
enced,whlle in the summer it is seldom high. The average 
rainfall, as shown by data from the Government Weather 
Service, varies from 55.9 inches at Killisnoo to 92.1 at 
Unalaska, about one-third of the precipitation falling 
during the growing period, from May to September. The 
data concerning the interior portion of the country are 
mainly from along the Yukon River, that being the great 
thoroughfare of the region. Here the rainfall is slight, 
and during summer clear skies are the rule. The intense 
cold of winter is followed bv comparatively warm tem- 
perature in the summer, with a gprowing period of about 
four months, although occasional frosts have been re- 
ported from the upper part of the valley during the 
summer months. 



The soils of the two regions are very similar, being 
largely of vegetable origin overlying rock or glacial de- 
posits. In the coast region arable areas are confined to 
rather narrow valleys and the slopes along the sea. In 
the interior are reported more extensive areas of com- 
paratively level land. Of the coast region, the most ex- 
tensive area of land adapted to cultivation is that on the 
Kenai Peninsula, and, extending across Cook Inlet, is 
continued up the Sushitna River. This region, on ac- 
count of its position relative to ocean currents, partakes 
more of the climatic characteristics of the interior, al- 
though still somewhat modified. 

The accompanying map shows regions where some 
attempts have been made in gardening, from which defi- 
nite reports have been secured. From the data at hand 




■ketch OMP o< Alaska. 



It seems probable that the loeal supplies of hardy vege- 
tables might be produced nearer at hand than the Puget 
Sound. This is undoubtedly true of the southeastern 
portion of the country, where the production need be 
limited only by the demand for such supplies and the 
ability to secure arable lands at a cost that will permit 
the producer to compete with the Sound country. For 
some time certain economic features will enter into the 
subject of extensive horticulture. Among these are the 
high price of labor, the standard being at present deter- 
mined by the wages paid for gold mining, the question 
of transportation, and the rather limited markets. 

As it exists at the present time, horticulture In Alaska 
is of a very primitive type. A few gardens here and 
there, with perhaps a row of berries along the side and 
an occasional fruit tree, represents nearly all that is done 
along this line. Near Juneau and at Killisnoo are mar- 
ket-gardens of considerable importance, but elsewhere 
only small areas are cultivated. 

It has been said that during the Russian occupancy 
of the country many attempts were made to cultivate 
gardens and fields, but the data are often so meager and 
contradictory as to throw doubt upon the sincerity of 
the endeavor. In the accompanying account, it is de- 
sired to place on record some of the horticultural achieve- 
ments as gathered from reports from gardeners In many 
places, as well as the personal observations of the writer 
during two seasons In the country 

Fruits.— The great abundance both in kind and quan- 
tity of native fruits, especially berries, has doubtless 
contributed to the delay In the attempted introduction 
and cultivation of other sorts. Some effort has been made 
in this line, as is shown by the presence at Sitka of a 
number of old apple trees, remnants of the Russian days, 
which bear a very inferior fruit. A few young bearing 
trees of unknown variety are grown at the same place. 
At Wrangell there are apple trees of what are thought to 
be the Red June variety In bearing, and young thriving 
trees are known to be at Juneau and Metlakahtla. Plum 
and cherry trees have been recently planted in several 
places, but so far have not fruited. The mountain ash 
{Sorbus sambucifoUa ) Is grown as an ornamental tree in 
a number of places. Currants fiourish wherever plantedf 
and gooseberries have been seen, but they were usually 



badl7 mlldeireil. Cuthbert raspberHas do tscMdiogly 
vail M Wranicell aad Sitka, tbe fruit being at One Biie 
•nd qaklity. Tbe gsma la trueot aCnkwberTles at tbe aer- 
enl plaees wbers tbey are outtlvated. Attempla bave 
been made stamuuberot places to enlllTate Bomeot tbe 
IndlgsDOaa (raits, and tho dewberry or " kneabaneka " 
(BubMi it*Hatui],viiid eurrsDM (Bibtt rubnim and B. 
bratUoium), and tbe atrawban? {fragaria Chitatn- 
titt) have all been domesticated, and tbeir frait la 
tally equal, If not superior, to tbe vlld product. 

VsoSTABLie, — More attampta have been made to grow 
Tenetmbles than fruits, and eome definite data bave been 
obtained, sbowlnxwbat varieties are known to be adapted 
to Alaskan condltloDS. Moat of tbeaedata bave been se- 
enred from Sitka and Wrangell, In tb 
«f the oountry, and from tbe Holy t 
Eoaer«fBkl, on the lower Yukon. ^ 

the latter plaeeatates that potato^^^_- ,, 

log IH ponndi, and turnips «IV<nK SM pounds, > 
lipvwn durlDg the summer of ISBS. In addition, notas 
wen given of some of the varieties of vegetables adapted 
to the region, as followa: Cabbage— Early Jersey Wake- 
Held, Flat Dutch, and DmmbsKtl ; eau 11 flower -Early 
Snowball, Early Dwarf Erfurt ; tamipB — Early Flat 
Dutch, Tellow Globe, and Extra Early Milan ; mta- 
bagas^ Improved Amarloan; radfah— French Breakfast 
and Cbartler; onlona — Extra Early Bed aud Yellow 
Danvara; lettuce— Golden Heart; peas— American Won- 
der and Early Alaska; beeta^Eollpse and Edmund's 
Blood Turnip; carrot— OihearC ;j>Braley— Extra Early 
Doable Curled ; ealery— White Plume, Giant Paaaal; 
rhubarb — Victoria. 

The aamevarletlaa, with Dumeroua addillona, have sue- 
«Mded In the coast region. Snap beans. Challenge Black 
Wax and Golden Wax, have done fairly well at Sitka, 
where some experiments were conducted by the United 
SIMM Department of Agriculture during 1893, and tbe 
English Windsor Is qtilta In Its element. At tbla place 
the PhUadelphia Butter and San Franclaeo Market let- 
Ince made fine heads of a moat auperlor quality. Par- 
solps and carrots grow well, and aalalfy and spinach 
were aneoeaafully grown at Sitka for perhaps the first 
time. Peas were found to grow and yield well, and in 
addition to tbe varieties above given, some of tha dwarfs 
and tbe Norwegian Sugar peaa continued to produce ' 
tbeir crap until cut off by the frost. The blood beeti. 
Extra Blood Tamlp aud Extra Early Egyptian, grew 
well at Sitka, but in many places beats are a failure on 
account of tbeIr tendency to run to seed. This unde- 
•Irsble trait on the part of biennial plants is abared by 
other vegetables, principally turnips, although cabbage 
and canllflower have Ixen reported as doing likewise. 
It la believed by some growers that tbe fiat type of tur- 
nip Is more subjeet to run to seed than the globe type. 
Celery of exceedingly fine quality baa been grown at a 
nnmber of places, although at Kadlsk specimens were 
aeen in which tbe central axle was greatly elongated. 
The leafstalks were also iengtbened In about the eame 
proportion, and this trait wasuoteonaldered undesirable. 

Potaloea are more extensively grown than any other 
crop, and tbe quality varies With tbe variety, locality, 
eeasoD. and culture. Csaally little choice la exerclaed In 
the matter of varieties, but Polaris, Beauty of Hebron, 
and Early Kose appear weU adapted to tbe conditions 
existing In this region. The two last are tbe most ex- 
tensively known varletlea, and very favorable reports 
have been received from a few trials of tbe Polaris. 
Season and method of planting undoubtedly e^ert a 
strong Influence on the crop. If the soil, which usually 
contains a high proportion of organic matter and mois- 
ture, Is well drained or thrown up inio beds, as Is tbe 
cUBlom in many places, good potatoes can be grown In 
the average season. In some parts of the country, espe- 
cially from Cook Inletwestward,the natives cultivate a 
■mall round potato, called tbe Russian, that seems to be 
welt suited to tbeconotry. Ills said tobsve been brought 
from Siberia fifty or more years ago. Cloae planting of 
potatoes, as well aa almoat every other vegetable. Is tbe 
rule, and often to this fact alone may be attrlhuteii many 
failures. The object seems to be to grow a large crop 
by planting an abundance of seed. The result Is a large 
growth of tops that completely ahade the ground, thin. 
nlng being seldom or never practiced. Along tbe coast. 



ALASKA 



41 



where cloudy weather la tbe rule, It la safe to say Uiat 
the sun's rays never atrlks the ground after the grow- 
ing season has become well advanced. Under such con- 
ditions ItlsnotaounnommonBlghttoseeacrop of smalt 
potatoes borne in tbe axils of tbe leaves above ground, 
no tubers being formed below tbe surface. 

Id general, cunaiderable Judgment is shown In the 
choice of garden sites. A southweatem slope Is always 
preferred, and If well drained the garden Is nsually m 
thrifty one. In many places tbe earth Is thrown up Into 
beds 4 or 6 feet wide and the crop planted croasniaa tbe 
beds. Where It can be easily obtained, aand Is added to . 
warm and to lighten the soil. Kelp Is extensively em- 
ployed as a fertiliser In some places, but Its value when 
added to a soli already largely composed of vegetable 
debris is questionable. Gardens have been successfully 
maintained at Dawson, Circle City, and other of the great 
mining centers of the upper Yukon, and the dirt roof of 



warmth required for growing early radishes, onions, 
lettuce, turnips, etc. 

Wild BKBBua. — The abundance ot native fruits, espe- 
cially of berries, bas already been mentioned, and an 
enumeration of some of tbem would seam not out of place. 
Of widest distribution are tbe salmonberries iSubui 
ipeolabitis. Fig. 60), two so-called cranberries {Vibur- 
num pauciHorum and faceiniuiH niii.Jdaa), currants 
i Sibei rubTUHi, S.braeteosum, and S. iaii/Iomm], crow- 
berries (Smprlrum nigrvmi, huckleberries | Vaecitiium 
uliginomvt and Its var. mueroHatum), blueberries ( F. 
evalifoHum), red huckleberries { V. parvinorum), tha 
molka or baked-apple berry (Bubut Chamanoruij Im- 
properly called salmonberry In the Interior, and rasp- 






Of less »n. 



00. Salmonberrv. ' 






Fi/>IUCUi.TUi[S.— This branch of horticulture is not 
wholly neglected In Alaska, although but few data are 
available. Many of the hardier plants of the o^d-fash- 
loned fiower garden are to be seen. Panalea of great slie 
and brilliant color are common, and they remain in 
flower all aummer. In aome parta of tbe country sweet 
peas do well, and poppies, nasturtiums, mignonette. 



42 



ALASKA 



ALEURITES 



sweet alyBSam, ehrysanthemains, stock, eandsrtnft, ver- 
benas, and marigolds are not uncommon where any at- 
tempt is made to grow flowers. Window gardens and 
boxes add many sorts to the list already given. 

A single season's experimentation at Sitka, under the 
direction of the Oi&ee of Experiment Stations, United 
States Department of Agriculture, has shown that much 
can be accomplished in horticulture if rational methods 
of culture and a proper selection of varieties and seed 
be followed. Walter H. Evans. 

For further information, consult Yearbook of Dept. of 
Agric. for 1897, aAd Bulletin 48, Office Exp. Sta., Dept. 
Agric. L. H. B. 

ALB£BTA (from Albertus Grotus, commonly known 
as Albertus Magnus). Subidea, Tender evergreen 
shrub from Natal, suitable for greenhouse. Little 
known in commerce In this country. 

mAffDA, E. Mey. Bark pale : Ivs. 4-6 in. long, obovate- 
oblong, obtuse, entire, narrowed into a short, stout pet- 
iole ; midrib stout : panicle terminal, erect, 6 in. high 
and nearly as broad at the base ; corolla tube 1 in. long, 
slightly swelling in upper part ; lobes 5, small, triangu- 
lar, recurved. B.M. 7454. Q.C. HI. 22: 416. Gn. 53:1171. 

ALBlZZIA (after Albissi, an Italian naturalist). Le- 
gumindsa. Trees or shrubs, unarmed : Ivs. alternate, 
bipinnate ; leaflets small, oblique : fls. in axillary, pe- 
dunded spikes or globular heads ; calyx and corolla 
tubular and 5-lobed ; stamens long, exserted : fr. a 
large strap-shaped pod. Twentv-flve species in trop. 
and subtrop. regions of Asia, Air. and Austral. Orna- 
mental trees and shrubs with graceful, feathery foliage 
and yellowish, white or red fls. in summer. For cult., 
see Aeacia, 

A. Fit, in cylindrical axillary spikes : Ivs, 

persistent, 

iQphiPtha, Benth. {AcAeia lophdntha,WUld,), Shrub 
or small tree, 6-20 ft. : Ivs. with 14-24 pinnas, each with 
40-60 leaflets, about 5 lines long, linear, obtuse : spikes 
mostly 2, about 2 in. long, yellowish. S. W. Australia. 
B.M. 2108. B.R. 5:361. L.B.C. 8:716.— Sometimes cult, 
as greenhouse shrub and flowering in spring, and in the 
open in the S. Often known as Acacia speciosa. There 
is a var. glgaat^a in the trade. 

AA. Fls. in globular heads : Ivs. deciduous, 

B. Stamens united only at the base, 

o. Leaflets ovate or oblong, obtuse, 

Ii4bbek, Benth. {Acdcia L4hbek, Willd. A, sped- 
bsa, Willd.). Tall tree : Ivs. with 4-9 plnn», each with 
10-18 leaflets, obliquely oblong or oval, 1-1 H in. long, 
nearly sessile: fls. greenish yellow, in short-peduncled, 
axillary heads, 3-4 together. Trop. Asia, N. Austral. 

oeoidentUli, Brandeg. Small tree, 15-25 ft. : Ivs. with 
8 pinnsB, each with 6-10 leaflets, oblique-oval, %-l}i\n. 
long, glabrous: fls. yellowish, in axillary heads. June- 
July. Mex., Low. Calif. — Perhaps only a variety of A. 
Lebbek, and not indigenous. 

odoratiuims, Benth. {Aciicia odoratissima, Willd.). 
Tall tree : Ivs. with downy rachis ; pinnn 6-14, each with 
16-50 leaflets, oblique-oblong, %-l in. long, glaucous 
beneath : heads few-fld., numerous, greenish white, 
forming large, terminal panicles. E. Ind. 

prdeera, Benth. {Acdeia prbcera, Willd.). Tall tree: 
Ivs. with nearly glabrous rachis; piunie 6-10, each with 
12-16 leaflets, oblique-oblong, 1-1 >^ in. long, glabrous: 
heads few-fld., greenish white, forming large, terminal 
panicles. Trop. Asia, Austral. 

Xolncc&na, Miq. Tree : rachis of the Ivs. with many 
glands; pinnie 14, each with 12-40 leaflets, obliquely el- 
liptic-oblong,glaucous and pubescent beneath. Moluccas. 

cc. Leaflets falcate, with the midrib close to the upper 

edge, acute. 

JtOibriSsin, Durazi. {AcdLcia Julibrissin, Willd. A. 
mmu, Willd. Albizzia rdsea, Carr.). Tree, 30-40 ft.: 
rachis of the Ivs. with a small gland at the base; pinnas 
8-24, with numerous leaflets, falcate-oblong, }iin. long: 
heads pink, crowded on the upper end of the branches. 



Trop. and subtrop. Asia and Afr. R.H. 1870: 490. F.S. 
21:2199.— This plant is the hardiest species, and will 
stand many degrees of frost. Hardy as far north as 
Washington. 

Var. mdllii, Benth. {A. mdllis, Boiss. Acdcia mdllis. 
Wall.). Leaflets broader, densely pubescent. 

ftipoULta, Boiss. (Acdcia stipuldta, DC). Tall tree : 
young branches with large, persistent stipules : rachis 
of the Ivs. with many glands, pubescent: pinnn 12-40, 
with nun^erous leaflets, oblong- linear, H-T^in. long, pu- 
bescent beneath: heads in axillary simple or terminal 
compound racemes. Trop. Asia. 

BB. Stamens connate into a long, narrow tube, 
faitigllita, OUv. (Z^gia fastigidta, E.Mey.). Tree : 
branches and petioles rusty -pubescent ; pinnn 8-14, 
each with 16-30 leaflets, trapezoid-oblong, H-HIb. long, 
pubescent beneath : heads in terminal corymbs on the 
end of the branches. Trop. Afr. Alpbed Bkhder. 

ALBtfCA [whitish ; the color of the first-described 
species). Lilidcem, Tender bulbs from the Cape of 
Good Hope allied to Omithogalnm, and treated in the 
same way. Prop, by offsets or seeds. 

aittta, Jacq. Bracts yellow : fls. 10-30, pale yellow, 
upright. 

m4j<nr, Linn. Bracts red : fls. 6-15, greenish yellow, 
nodding. B.M. 804. L.B.C. 12: 1191. 

ALCHBKtLLA (from an Arabic name). Sosdcem. 
Hardy herbaceous perennials with corymbose, incon- 
spicuous fls., suitable for rookeries and front rows of 
borders. Of easiest culture. Height 6-8 in. Prop, by 
division or seeds. Native in Eu., and A,arv4nsis is 
sparingly naturalised in this country. There are also 
tropical species. 

iJiKina, Bleb. Lvs. digitate, 5-7 cut ; leaflets usually 
7, lanceolate-cuneate, obtuse, serrate at apex, silky haiiy 
beneath, shiny. Eu. 

■exioea, Willd. Lvs. larger than in A. alpina, 5-7 
nerved, digitate; leaflets 7, lanceolate, acute, deeply ser- 
rate from the middle to apex, downy beneath. Cau- 
casus. 

▼nlgixls, Linn. (A. montdna, Schmidt) . Ladt's Man- 
tle. Lvs. 7-9 nerved, 7-9 cut ; reniform, plicate-con- 
cave. N. Temp. Zone. 



J. B. Kellbb. 



ALDES. See Alnus, 



ALETBIS (Greek word for female slave who ground 
com; alluding to apparent mealiness of the fls.). Hm- 
madordcem. Hardy perennial, smooth, stemless, bitter 
herbs. Lvs. thin, flat, lanceolate, grass-like, in a spread- 
ing cluster: fls. small, in a spiked raceme, terminating 
a slender scape 2-3 ft. high; perianth not woolly, but 
wrinkled and roughened with thick set points which give 
a mealy appearance. July-Aug. They like a moist but 
sunny situation. Prop, slowly by division or seeds. 

atoea, Walt. Fls. bell-shaped, fewer and shorter than 
in ^. ^arino«a, yellow ; lobes short, ovate. Eastern N. 
Amer. B.M. 1418, erroneously as A. farinosa, 

farindia, Linn. Fls. longer and more tubular than in 
A. aurea, white ; lobes lanceolate-oblong. N. Amer. 
L.B.C. 12:1161. 

Jap6nioa, Hort. Fls. reddish or deep purple, in long 
sprites. J. B. Kblleb. 

ALEirStTES (Greek: farinose or floury), Euphor- 
bideecB, Half dozen or less tropical species of evergreen 
trees, with small monoecious white fls. in terminal, lax 
cymes and alternate, entire or 3-lobed lvs. with 2 glands 
at the top of the petiole. 

triloba, Forst. Candlenut, or Candlebebbt Tbee. 
Small tree, with 3-5-lobed pubescent lvs., originally from 
the eastern tropics, but now widely distributed : cult, 
for its edible nut, which is spheroidal, nearly 2 in. in 
diam., 2-loculed, each compartment conUdning a walnut- 
like seed. The dried kernels are burned for illumina- 
tion by natives. The nuts yield oil which is used in 
food or as a dryer in paint. The oil is variously known 
as Indian Walnut Oil, Kekune Oil, Kukui Oil. Spar- 
ingly cult, in S. Calif, and S. Fla. Fruits in S. Calif. 



iO-EURITES 

«cndita, SMud. LvH.broadlyovkM, >eamlD>te, deeplf 
cordate. 3-5 euspldsta or lob«d. S. Cbloa.-YleldH en 
eicelloDt lac TKmish. j^. g. q. 

ALFALTA, LDCSBVE (Jfcdicd^D $al\va. Una.). A 
deep-rooted pereuDiai tonm plsat of the Leaaminiair, 
The pl«nt rtows » foot or two high, bears planate Ivb. 
with 3 orate-oblons toothed leaSeta, and gmall head-like 
racemeH of purple clover-Bhaped Bs. It la native to Ea. 
In the arid parts of the U. S. It la the staple hay and 
forage plant, and It Is also growD to a considerable ex- 
tent In the E. Two to b!i mowings may be made each 
year from estabilsbed meadows. Fifteen to 20- lbs. o( 
■eed are sown to the acre; and the seed la preferably 
sown alone, without another crop. Alfalfa should not be 
pastured the first year. In two or three years It be- 
comes thoroughly established and productive, and It 
should continue for many years. June grass often runs 
It out In a cool, moist climate. Alfalfa often becomes 
a weed In waste places. 

AUTLiSIA, The West Amerloau or Spanish name 
tor Sr/tdium eicHiirium, L'Her. G*mniAeea. A h^ry 

ALI3A, plaral ALOS. A general name for chloro- 
phyll-bearing thaJIopbytes. They are flowerless plants, 
allied to the fungi, and generally inhabit water. Those 
occurring in salt water are known as seaweeds. None 
are culiivatod. The green "moss" on flower-pots is made 
np of algK. 

ALOAEdBA la the (rait of CtraUmia tiligtM 

ALSAQI (ItsManritanlanname). Leguminbta. I>aw, 
Vplny, much branched shrubs: Its. oblong, small, ob- 
tuse, entire, alternate : &a. papilionaceous, In few-fld. 
racemes. Snmmer. Three closely allied species from 
Greece and Egypt to Hlmalaysa, producing the Persian 
or Alhagi Hanna. They may be cult, in temperate re- 
gions In dry and sunny positions and prop, by seeds and 
greenwood ootUngs under glass with a little bottom 
£eat. 

J. eanuUnm. Flseh. Cahkl's Thokh. Qtabrons at length : 
orary (labroas. Can. to Himal.— i. mwunV™™, DC. Pabes- 
emt: oTarr trabeeccDt. Esrpt toPersia.— A.^roe^rum. Boiss. 
Terr splor and mot* deusali pubescent ; oTair pnbeicent. 
®'*'™- ALTKm Bbhdeb. 

ALlBKA (derivation donbtfnl). AtUmieea. Hardy 
aquatics, with small whll« or pale rose fls. on scapea 
with whorled, panlcled branches. Perennial by a stout 
protiferoni eonn. Useful in ponds. Prop, by division 

nsatiffo, Linn. Watbb PL.aiFraiH. Lvs. variable, 
but usually broadly eordatS'Ovate ; thinner and nar- 
rower when growing under water. Panicle 1-2 ft. long. 
Common In swales and still waters in U. 8. ; also In Eu. 

A. ndluiu, Unn., Is now referred lo the moootTpIc cenns 
Kllsma (E. oatans. Biieli. ) . It 1) nstlve to En., and li offered In 
foreign eataloam, Fl. whlte.Blnsle,ana lonapednnele; float' 
isfl irs. eUlptic and obtuse, 

ALKASSA, ALKAKET. 8ee.jM«H*<i. 

SI. SesPKytali: 



ALIAMANDA 



Brazil. B.H. 



rSA (Dr. Allamand.Leyden). Apoe]/nAt(a. 
Greenhouse sbmba, mostly climbers. Lvs. entire, 
whorled : Qs. terminal, large and funnel-shaped, with a 
flat-spreading or refleied limb, the tube Inflated below 
the throat: ovary 1-loculed; stamens 6, the filaments 

Allomandas are of easy oultnre. They are usually 
grown In the ground or in large tubs, and trained on the 
ratters. For best results, they should have plenty o( 
sun. The bushy binds, aa,^. tuHifoUa, A. grandiflora 
and A. WiUiamti, may be grown as specimen plants 
In pots. The strong kinds, as A. Sehottii, are some- 
times used as stocks npon which to graft the weaker 
ones, particularly if root plants are desired. Prop, by 
cuttings of growing wood In a bottom heat of TS" ; also 
by layers. The species are much confused, 

BlaasUtll, DC. {A. tUilieta, Oardn-I. Lrs. In I's, 
iMliy on both aides: Us. in terminal clQsters,3 in. across. 



AX, Fit. yeltoie or orange, 
B. Corolla Kith a Mieollen or bulb-Hkt bate. 
neTiiI611a, Hook. A stocky, bushy grower, useful tor 
pots, although It usually needs to be staked or grown 
against a support If allowed to take Its full course: Its. 
In 3's-5's, glabrous, oblong or elliptic, acuminate : co- 
rolla smaller than A. Sehollii or A, fftndertoni, deeper 
yellow, streaked with orange. S- Amer. B.U. 4591. 
~ Early and profuse bloomer. 
BB. Corolla l«bt long, i 






. kair 



stalked: fls. very large (4-5 in. across), nearly circular 
In ontlin« of Umb, bright, clear yellow, with magnolla- 
Itke odor. Finest Bs. !n the fenus. Bras. B.M. 6T64. 
00. Lv>. and calyx gtabraui (exetpl pirhapt in A. 



Fillia 



"■). 



tall-cUmbing, 
eatUrtlM, Linn. Lvs. ratber small, obovate, nsually 
In 4's, and more or less wavy- margined, thin, acuminate: 
fls. golden yellow, while-marked In the throat, the lobes 
acuminate on one angle, 3 in, or less across, the tulie 
gibbous or curved. B. Amer. B.M. 33B- P-M. 8:77. 
— The species first described, but now rarely seen In 

SehAttU, Pohi. Strong-growing, suitable for rafters: 
young shoots and petioles slightly pubescent, the older 
Btemi warty: Its. In 3'a or 4'e, broadly lanceolate and 
acuminate: corolla large, rich yellow, the throat darker 
and beautifully striped- Bras. B.M, 4351, but this por- 
traitls considered by Index Eewensls to belong to..!. 
catkartica. A.magnifica, Introduced into the U. S. in 
1893, is probably a form of this species. 

E«iid«TMni, Ball. (A. Wardteyina. Lebas.). Pig, fit. 
Tall and vigorous, free-flows ring, excellent for roofs; 



01. Allamanda MeodeisanI (X K). 

glabrous: Iva. large, elllptio-ovate, thick and leatlieTy, 
In 4's: fis. large, yellow -orange, with 5 light spots In the 
thrust, the corolla of thick substance, purplish on the 
exterior when In hud. On, 29:542, I.H. 12: 452- -The 
commonestAtlamandainthlscouutry. Bysome antbori- 
tlea considered to he a variety of A.eaiAartica; by oth- 
ers referred to A. ScXottii. Int. fnim Qulana by Hender- 
son & Co.. St. John's Wood, England, and distributed 
by Bull about 1866. 



44 



ALLAHANDA 



OD. Plant anet-bstky. 

BTkndilUn, Lam. St. thin uid wir;: Ivi. thin, oT«te- 
ImuceolaU, pointed, asnill; In 3'b; Ob. SDmevhM imaller 
than thoie of A . Bendertoni bat larger than A . calkor- 
lira, lemon- or primrose-;el]aw. Brai. 6n. 39 : TB4. 
P. H.1S:7S.— Thrives well when sntttod on ■tronser 
kinds. 

WllUkmai, Hart. T«ry dwarf: Iti. and yoanK growth 
generally somewhat pabeBcent, the Iti. looKaad narrow, 
annminate: niuallr la 4's : fia. in eontlnuona alaat«rs, 
rather smaller than those of A , BinderKini and of better 
substaooe, fragrant. Qn. 40 : 832. - CertlBeated In Eng. 
in 1891 by B. 8. Williams A Son, and Int. In U. S. In 1S93. 
Sapposed to be a hybrid. Promising for pots. 

L. H. B. 

ALL-HXAL. See Bmnella vutgarii. 

ALUe&TOS PIAK, iOVkOLTZ, ATOOiSO. Sm 



Amine (aDBlent Latin nam 
^ants, mostly enlt. In the open i 



a). Idliieta. Bnlbona 
but a few, of whioh A . 



the stigma either entire or parted. 

Alllama are of the aaalest salt., for whloh oonsnlt 
BuLBB. For the veftetabte-garden members of the genna, 
BM Chives. Qabuo, Lk», Ohioh, Shau»t. ^tlfiim 
viiuilt, a bad weed In parta of the northeastem states, 
has a Blender scape shsa^ed below with holla* thread- 
■haped IvB., and greenlah roie-eolor«l fls. (or bnlblets 
in the place of fls.). 

The following Bpeoles are known to be Id the Amer. 
trade : aomninatnm. No. 4 ; anceps, S6 ; attannlfolliim, 
21; Bid well In, 23 J Bolanderl, 17; eeraanm.S; Cnslekll, 
16; faleifoUum, 35; flmbriatam, 24; Oeyeri, 13; hama- 
toehlton.li; Btrm4liii,3; madidoni, 16; Holy,!; Nea- 




I. AUlutn NaapoUtam 



Cl*nnin,3: platyeaale, 27; retienlatam, 12; roi«iim,S; 
iKimil, 20; acapOHum, 14; Schceuopraaom, 8; senes- 
cens, 6; serratum, 22; stellBtum, 19; trkoccum, 7; udI- 
folium. IS; TBlldum, 10; VlctoHalis, 2. 

A. Ca mpteHdf it urn, catalugued byUeehan, is perbapB 
a form of some other epecleB. It la deicribed as "dull 
pink. July, latt." 



ALUUX 

I. Exotie garden Alliums. 

*. FU. v«»ow. 

1. MtHj, Unn. Lrs. flat, broad : fls. tmmerons, In a 
deoBB umbel, in early Bpriug. 8. En. B.H. 499.— Well 
known, and a favorite for maaiing. Hardy In the N. 

Ai.. FU^iehiUorteMliik. 
B. Lvt.vtiy broad, obtuie. 

2. netoriftUt, Lian. Tall : Ivs. ovate or broad-oblong, 
short : fls. greenish white, in large heads. Spring. Si- 
beria. B.B. 1222.- Hardy. 

BB. Lei. narrow, aentt or taptrinf. 

3. Xt^wUtlnim, Cyr. Fig. 62. Lva. long and nthar 
narrow, loose -npread lag, shorter than the aeape : fls. 
targCi pure nblte, with colored stamens on long pedtoel*. 
Bq.- Needs protection if grown ontdoorB, Hnoh used 
for cut-flowers In winter and ipring. The most popnlai 
species, A. Birmitlii grandiflirum, reeeatly intra- 
dnned from Holland, Is a clear white odorouB variety, 
well adapted to forcing. 

AAM. Fit. pink, Tott, or HUu. 
B. BtgmunU taitk ncvrved tip*. 

4. wnmlnAton, Hook. Soape 4-10 in.: Ivs. 2-4, not 
longer than the scape, v.ery narrow : umbel nuny-fld.: 
perlaolh segments a third longer than the atamens, llM 



BB. Stgmtnlt not rseiirvad. 

6. Ttenm, Linn. Scape 12-18 U. ; Ivs. narrow, with In- 
rolled tips: da. few (10-12), on long pedicels in an open 
umbel. S. En. B.H. 9TS. 

6. Mntoeana, Linn. Bcape 1-2 ft.: ivs. narrow, erect, 
often twisted; fli. rather small, numerous, in a rather 
dense head. £u. B.H. IISO. 

II. The abovespecIesEOmpriiethoBe which arein gttn- 
eral cultivation !□ this country. Aside from theae thoN 
are various nstive species, mostly from western Amer- 
ica, which are offered by dealers In American planta. 
These are recorded below. Monograph of Amerlean Alli- 
ums by Sereno Watsou.in Proo. Amer. Acad. Sei. 14: 22«. 

a. Bulbt clutttrtd, narrowly oblimg; leapt UnU, 
B. Lvt.tlliptie-IancmlaU.torS. 

T. tiloAMum, Ait. CouMOHWiLnLnK. Fla. greeniah 
white on scape 4-12 In. high in early spring. Qrows In 
elomps. N. Eng.to Wis. andH. C. 

BB. Zfvs. UreU and kotlow, ssMral. 

S. SehmnApranim, Linn. Civ» or Cmns. Fla. ross- 
oolor, in dense little heads: Ivs. short. In dense mata. 
N. U. 8. and En. 

BBB. Lvt. IliHar, ftal or tkanntlUd. 

9. Dtimium,Both. Fls. rose-colored itr white. In open, 
nodding umbels. Alleghanles W. 

10. TtUdum, Wata. Fls. rose -colored or nearly white. 
In dense erectish umbels : scspe l-2Mft., very stoat. 
Nev.,Cal.,Or. 

11. luamkbMllltail, Wats. Fls. deep roBs, la a small, 
erect umbel : bnlb-ooats deep red : scape 1 ft. or less 
high. Cal. 

AX. Bulb* Mguatlii tolltary, globoti to evatt ; 
teapt tenle or ntartg lo. 
B. Coata of bulbM Hbroui. 

12. nUenUtom, Fraser. Scape 3-8 In.: fls. whlt« to 
rose, with thiu aegmenU. W. Amer. B.H. 1840, as .A. 
iltllaltim. 

13. Oefsri. Wats. A foot high : ' fls. ross, with broad 
acute segments. W. Amer. 

BB. Coali or bulbi not fibrotil, 

c. Lvt. I or iivtrat. 

D. Ovar^ \oUh only S ertitt,ornont at all. 

14. Htpdnm, Bentb. Fls. white, red-veined, in a 
loose, tew-Bd. umbel : balbi dark : scape 1 ft. or more. 
W. Amer. 

15. mUidum.Wats. FIb. whlteornearlTao.inamany- 
fld. umbel: bulbs white: scape less than 1 ft. , angled. Or. 

16. Ctuiokii.WatB. Fls.rathernnmerDas,nearlywhitei 
lvB.2,)iin.wide: acapa3-4in. Or. 



ALUUM 



IT. BoUiidni,Wata. FIs. rose, few 
mlnte: leape 4-lD In. Calif. 

IB. onlUlinm, Kellogs- I-^s. seven], narrow and flat: 
■csp« BtODt, 1-2 fl. : flg. rose, 10-30, the seKinentB OTBtfl- 
lancfolMa, eieeodlug stamena and style. Calif. 
DD. Ovarjfdiitinetlne-eKlUd; flt.uiuallj/roii-colored. 

B. Scape uMually mon lIuiH e in. liigk (inlXevlld). 

19. itslUtiiin, Praier. Bulb-(T«ita reddlih : scape S-IS 
tn.; pedicels K-»la. long: atamenB and atytes ezserted. 
W. Amer. B.M. 1576. 

30. Sinbornll, Wood. Bulb-acalea whlM: scape 12-S4 
Id.; pedicela shorter; mnbeldaniely m*Dy-fld.; stamsDH 
and styles eiserted. Calif. 

21. »ttninUaUilm, EelloRg. Lrs. channelled : 
•Bender, 6-15 In., lekfy below) umbel dense ; fls. ; 
white. W. Amar. 
■■. Scapt tttimlly Ism than t in. Aiffk (to the m 



iHOND 



45 



scape 
nearly 






e base. W. Amer. 



oc. Lf. talitarf, linear or flli/orm; loape %-i in. Mgh; 

taptuU e-mtted. 

84. HmbrUtlllB, Wats. Lf. Bllfonn and revolnte : 

■eape 3 In. ; fls. deep rose , stigma 3-elef t. S. Calif. 

AA. Bmlbi uu/ttlf lolilury .■ leaps tt<mt, t-tcing»d ; 

Ivi, t, broad. 



Ji notia 



'led. 



25. bddlbUlun, Hook. A Am. Fls. rose, the segments 
mlnntely glaudalar-serrate and twice longer tlian sta- 
mens ; soape 2-3 in. W. Amer. 

SB. Anecpa, Kellou. FU. white, with parpllsh veins, 
the segments UtUe longer than atamens. Calif., Or. 
BB. Slametu txttrttd. 



UL0FL£0TU8 (diversely plaited ; referring 
peitnuiee of tbe eolyr). OetntrActa. Tender 1 
evergreen shrubby plBnts,with tubular yellowish i 
Oa., borne singly, to be grown in hothouses ant 
the treatment required by Qesneras. 

A.ripnu.Hook. Tralllnc br mean* of roots throwi 

nnootb; calfi pila green, blotched with paiplei oorolli 
Unfed red, ■■plnsi tub* swoUen at the base; Umbof fuu 

asecmentSithenppermost b^Dgtwlcecat. E.lnd. B 
. •pan</Iinv. JIatt. Eract: Ivs. ovsle-oblDna. acnt 
PMlole and Dervta beneath often red : i>*Ivt nt r. mrrin 

ascolar dark blood or purple sepals. (•! .. . 

to the T^low ehib-shaped dansslr hatrr eoroUs ; Umb i 
-•  ' Brai. B.M. — " 









■mlnE a gtrlklns eonLnst 
_/eoroUa; Umb of eorolla 
1. 421S. en-oaeonslT ** A. 



ALLIPICX. The dry berry of the Pimento {Pimtnta 
offieiKilii, Llndl.),an evergreen tree of the MyrtiUia. 
The tree grows in tbe W. Indies. Jamaica yields much 
of the product. The fresh berry Is aboot tbe siie of a 
pea. It Is borne in clusters. The word allspice la also 
applied to various plants with aromatic fragrance, as 
CalyeaiiUina. 

kUUatJt. A name given to tbe tree and fmlt of iVa- 
»K( Amigdalut, BailX. {-i-migdalui commilnia, LIdd.), 
of the BotAeea. It is also applied to certain dwarf orna- 
mental trees or bushes, as Flowering Almond (see Pra- 
nut]. The Almond haa been cnlClvated from time im- 
memorial. It is thoaght to Iwnative to the Mediterranean 
baaiu. SomeeuqulrershaTe supposed It to be the original 
of the peach, but tbls idea is evidently untenable. The 
flowers are peacb-IIke and handsome (Fig. 63). The 
Almond nut of commerce U tbe pit or stone of a peach- 
like fruit (Fig. 64). The fleshy part, which Is so thick 
and edible In the peach, is thin and hard, and it splits at 
maCarlty. There are two general tribes or races of 
Almonds,— the bitter and the sweet. The former has a 
bitter kernel, which Is used In the manufacture of flavor- 
ing eitracta and prussio acid. It in grown mostly in 
Mediterraoeaa conntries. Of tbe sweet or edible Al- 



mondi, there are two classes,— the hard-ahell and tbe 
soft-shell. The former is of little valae, and Is not grown 
to any extent. The aoft-ahell type produces the edlbla 
Almonds of commerce. Borne of the thluuest-shelled 
forms are known as Paper-shells. It was once thonght 
that si mood -growing oould be sucoesstully practiced in 
the peach-growing sections of 
the East, but vagaries of tale 
spring frosts, and other difflcnl- 

abondoned commercially. Indl- 

sionally seen, and they fre- 
quently bear profusely. They 

are nearly OS hardy as tbe peach. , 

The commercial cultivation of  

the Almond Is confined (o west- 
ern America, and the remainder 



t is, t 






, 63. Fkiwet ol a 



written from the Callfomlan 
standpoint. L. H. B. 

Almond-growing in California 
has received the attention of 
horticulturists for nearly half a 
century, and during tbe whole 
of its course the industry has ' 
been marked by viclsaltndea Almond (X >4). 

which, it must be admitted, are 

not yet ended. Two chief sources of dlfflenlty are now 
clearly discerned to have attended the effort from its be- 
ginning, and present knowledge may enable planters to 
•void. In the future, errors which hsve led to much dla- 
appolntment and loss— the vestiges of which stilt encum- 
ber tbe ground, though clearing is proceedluK rapidly. 
Thus fartheAlmond tree has yieldedmoreflrewood than 
any other single fruit tree which has been largely planted 
in California, andyet nlantlng has oontinued, iu thehope 



Is of the w 



were about 1,500,000 



taloed b. 
s 218 CI 



s,of 
■ingago 



of bette 

trees included in 

which number about two-ttalrds hat 
at that dtte. The product of 1S9T ' 

the competition In tbe eastern markets with Imported 
Almonds was so grievona that prices fell below what Is 
considered a profitable return. In 189B, because of un- 
timely froata. the product fell to 25 carloads, which Is 
connted about equal to the local consumption of the Pa- 
cific ooaal. At the present time, 1B99, planting boa prao- 
tieally ceased, and a conaiderable acreage of thrifty tree* 
of bearing age is l>eing cleared for otner purposes, be- 
eanae growers in certain places are out of patience with 
the Almond. In spite of these facts, the Almond will re- 
main an important California product, through the satis- 
factory pertormance of trees enjoying favorable envi- 

Tbe two chief sources of failure with the Almond are 
. the sterility of many varieties without cross-pollination, 
and the eitreme propensity of the tree tor early bloom- 
ing, with tbe con sequent destruction of tbe bloom or the 
young fm It by temperature very little below the freeslng 

Eolnt. These two evils have been singularly associated 
Istorlcally, and only lately have they been shown to be 
Independent factors and both of them demanding the 
eloaeat attention from planters. At first It was thought 
that the wide planting of self-sterile varieties by them- 
selves was tbe cause of disappointment, because, after 
years of chopplng-out or graft Ing-over old, unproductive 
trees to the Prune d'Agen, for which It Is an excellent 
BtocW, Itwasobserved.bychanoe. that the Languedoo va- 
riety adjacent to Drake's seedling, of local origin, was 
heavily laden with nuts when it wss sterile without such 
association. Attention was then directed to the growth 
of seedlings, and a large lot of seedlings of the bitter 
Almond, grown by A. T. Hatch, exhibited such astla- 
foctory hearing habit and such striking variation toward 
new types of the soft-ahell sweetAlmond that tbe growth 
of new, aelected California seedlings was seised upon as 
a panacea tor the previously experienced troubles with 
the Almond. These new varieties were conceived to ba 
not only aelf-fertlle but hardy, and large plantations were 
made withoot dne regard to the frosty character of the 
locations. Low valley lands of great area, and some ex- 
tent of high plateaux, were planted. Pine, lare« trees 
grew only to lose their crops year after year by frosta 



46 



AJLHOND 

intUt) 



from Febmary to April, until the growers ami the trees 
upon the wood-pile. Ab  deduction of tbe eii)e[ienoe of 
■STeral dec*deB, we hare urived ftt what seenis now to 
be the proper conception of the altustlon of tbe Almond 
In Callfomltt, which is, thst tbe most prolific vtuietles 
muet be chosen, must be uaociated for purposes of crosa- 
polllnation, and must be plaoted la placea of least lia- 
bility to frost. There is a factor of some moment in the 
late.blooming babll of some varieties, which will be oon- 
sidered presentlj'. 

The soil best snlted to tbe Almond is a U^ht, well- 
drained loam. The tree makes a scroD;; aod rapid root- 
(trowth, and Is more tolerant of drought than any other 
of our leading decidnoas fruit trees. For this reason, aa 
well as to avoid frost, It Is often desirable to plue the 
Almond on the higher and drier taods of the valler — 
providing the soil Is not heavy and too retentive of sur- 
plus water in the rainy season. Tbe root Is most intol- 
erant of stanilina: water, and will qnlckly die If exposed 
lo it. Becaose of Its thrift in Jigbt, dry soils tbe Almond 
root Is used rather largetf as a stock for tbe Pmna 
d'Agen, and to some extent for the peaeh In tbe dry 

Almond trees are grown by budding into seedlings 
grown from either tbe sweet or the bitter hard-shell 
Almonds, tbe bud being set during the flrat summer's 
growth of the seedling, and then either planted out aa a 
dormant bud the following winter or allowed to make one 
eeasoD's growth on the bud In tbe nursery. The tree 
grows so rapidly, both In root and top, that only yearling 

At transplanting, the young trees are cat back so aa to 
form a low head with only about a foot of clear trunk. 
They are allowed to make free growth during the follow- 
ing summer, and in the following winter are cut back so 
as to encourage branching on the main limbs within a 
foot of their attachment to the trunk. At the same time 
the branches are reduced lo 4 or 6 In number, symmet- 
rically arranged around the stem and at good distance 
from each other, so that they shall not unduly crowd 



other 



sthey 



. Anoth 



rfullg 



the fallowing summer and another cutting back the fol- 
lowing winter give the trees tbe vase-form on the out- 
side, with enough interior branches to Bil tbe Inside of 
the tree without crowding. Thus tbe tree Is systemati- 
cally pruned after each of its first two years' growth In 
the orobard. After that, shortenlng-ln ot the branches 
nsnally ceases, and the third summer's growth Is allowed 
to stand for fruit- bearing, with only thlnning-out of 
growth to prevent crowding. This thlnning-out has to 
be done from time to time In later years, otherwise tbe 
tree becomestoothick.andjnteriorbrancbesdwindle for 
lack ot light. The amount of thinning varies in the dif- 
ferent climates of the state : the greater the heat, the 
denser the tree for Its own protection. With the proper 
adjustment of heat and light, fresh bearing wood maybe 
encouraged in the lower part of the tree, otherwise It 
becomes umbrella- shaped, with the frait wood at the top 
and bare poles below. 

The Almond is the earliest bloomer of oar common 
fniita. It puts forth flowers sometimes u early a* Jann- 



«4. Almond outs (X «). 

ary, but the usoal date is about Febmary 10 for the ear- 
liest bloomers In the warmer parts of the state, with 
the later bloomers a1 Intervals thereafter until April I. 
Records of full bloom of a nnmber of varieties widely 
grown In California, which have been kept at the Uni- 
versity of California aub-statioD, situated in the Sierra 
foot-hill region, show the folio wing success Ion : Commer- 
oial, February 21 ; Sultana and Paper-shell, March 10 ; 



ALMOND 

King and Harie Duprey, March 11 ; TXL, March 12; 
Languedoo, March IS ; Nonpareil, March 20 ; Rentier 
Twin. March 2t; PUtache, lUarch 25; Dr^e Seedling, 
April 2. Obviously the late bloomers have greater 
chance of escaping froat, and there Is at present soma 
disposition to make this a consideration In selecting 
varieties for planting. The dates just given show an 
eitreme variation in time of blooming. Some years the 
Intervals are much shorter, but tbe relation seems to be 
constant. Tbe crop ripens from August IB to October I, 
according to locality. Early maturity does not follow 
early blooming— that la, as with other fruits, the first to 
bloom are not neeessarily the flrst to ripen. 

Not lesa than 25 varieties of Almonds have been grown 
to a greater or less eitent In California. Varieties of 
foreign origin have almost wholly given place to selected 
seedllaga of loeal origin, and of these a very few consti- 
tute the main crop at present. These are named In the 
order of their acreage, aa follows : IXL, Monparell, 
Ne Plus Ultra, Drake, Paper-shell, Languedoc. Of these, 
the IXL and Nonpareil occupy not leas than three- 
fourths of the acreage. 

In handling the crop tbe local climate modifies methods 
Bomewhit, and the growth-habit is also Involved. In 
regions very free from atmospheric humidity In the 
summer, the hull opens readily and dlsclosea a clean, 
bright nut, which can be marketed without treatment. 
Where this Is not the case, and the nut is more Or less 
discolored, bleaching In tbe fumes of sulfur has to be 

Sractleed. The nut must be dry before sulfuring, or tbe 
lunea will penetrate and Injure the Savor of the kernel. 
Sulfured nuts also lose largely in power of gerroina- 
tloD. The practice la to gather the nuts, dry for a few 
days in the sun, then spray with water very lightly, go 
that only the surface of the shell is moistened, and 
then use the sulfur. In this way a light oolor can 
be secured without penetration of the fumes. The jiuU 
can usually be gathered from the ground as they nat- 
urally fall, or can be brought down by shaking or Ibo use 
of light poles. Some varieties are more easily harvested 
than others, and the same variety falls mora readily In 
aome localities than in others. A greater or less per- 
centage, according also to variety and locality, wilt have 
adhering bulls, and for clearing them locally-Invented 

some localities are apt to stain the nuts. Such stains 
cannot be removed by sulfuring, and the nuts have to 
be crushed and the product marketed as kernels for tbe 
use of confectioners. Machinery Is also used for this - 
operation, and a considerable baetlon of the prodnat 
reaches the market in this form. 

The standard ot excellence In the Almond, from a 
commercial point of view, as learned by the experience 
of California producers. Is that the kernel must be as 
smooth, symmetrical and plump as possible. The twln- 

phllopenas, results In misshapen kernels, which are 

large users of Almonds. Constancy to sbigle kemela la 
therefore a good point in a variety. 

Large proportion of kernel to shell by weight Is also, 
obviously, an Important point to almond buyers. At tbe 
same time, the shell may be so reduced in etrength aa 
to break badly in shipping in socks and in subsequent 
handling. Incomplete covering also exposes the kernel 
to the sulfur and to loss ot flavor. The Ideal is such 
degree of thinness of shell as can be had with complete 
covering of the kernel and durability in handling. 

Careful comparison ot the proportion of kernel weight 
to gross weight of the popular California varieties, aa 
compared with a leading Imported variety, was made br 
a committee of the California Horticultural Society, with 
the following result: From one pound of each of tha 
following varieties the net weight ot kernels in ouncea 
was: Imported Tarragona, S 2-S; California Languedoc, 
7X; El Supremo, 7%; Drake, 8% i IXL, 9; Commer- 
cial, 9i<; La Prima, 9«; Prinoess,S^: Ne Plus Ultra, 
10; King, 10; Paper-ahell, II; Nonpareil, 11 to 13. 

EDWABD J. WlOESON. 

ALHOFD, SEXIBABA. See TtrminaJia Oatappa. 
ALXOND, rLOWSBISe. See Prunul. 



ALKD8 

AUniS (th« ancient Latin name). CupuHdra, sub- 
taaiiij BttvlAtta. AuikB. Trees or abrubs: Iva. alter- 
nate, sbortly petioled, deelduouB: Bs. apetalous.monm- 
cions in catkluB, Btamlnate onea elongated and pendu- 
lous, platlUate oneg erect, short, developloR into an 
ovoid, tigneoaa cone with penliteDt aonlea : fr. a 
■mall nutlet. Twentr apecies In the nortbem heml- 
aphare, la America south to Pern. Hardy ornamental 
trees and shmba, suitable for planting on damp soil, 
where they ((row very rapidly, bat A, cordala, tirma, 
Japimica, %Dd alHO A.tinctoria prefer somewhat drier 
soil. The profuae male catkins are pleasing la early 
■priDK. The wood is valuable for its durability In water. 
Usnally prop, by aeeds gathered In the tall and well 
dried: sown in spring with but slight covering, and 
kept moist and ahadf, they germinate laon ; a slight 
covering with moas, taken off when the seedlings appear, 
will be useful. At the end of the same year or the fol- 
lowing spring the seedllDgs are transplanted, usually Into 
rows 1-2 It. apart and 6 in. from each other. After two 
years tbey can be planted where they are to atand. The 
ahmbby species, also A , glatinoia, grow from hanlwood 
enttlnga placed In moist and sandy soil, also from layera, 
and A, incana from auckers. Rarer kinds are grafted 
on common potled Block In early spring In the propa- 
gating house ; grafting out-of-doors is rarely succeBSful. 

Index: aarea. No. ID; cordata,5; cordifolia,5; dentlcn- 
1*U, 10; firma, Sieb. & Zacc, 2 sod 4: glanca. 6; glutl- 
nosa, ID; Imperialis, 10; Incana, 6; inclaa. 10; Japonlca, 
4; laelnlata, 6 and 10; marltlma, 3; multlnervU. 2 ; a»- 
IsHfats, :i and 10 ; OriBaita,e; pyritolia, 5 ; rabra, 8 ; 
rubrinerra, 10; ragosa, 9; iemitata,9; Siblrica, 1) 
tiliatta, 5 ; titiaMUi, G ; Unetoria, 7 ; viridU, 1. 

A. FU. i/ptning in He tpring trith the let.; piitiltaU 

onti tnelotfd in iitdi during tiie vinUr; fr. wiffc 
broad rHtmbrantoKi aingi. AinobiliiJa. 

1. TJridlt.DC. GbHhAldib. Sbnib,3-aft.: 1 vs. usu- 
ally rounded al the base, round-ovste or oval, sharply 
aerrate, m-4 In. long, pale green and pubescent on the 
veins beneath: cones S-l, oblong, slender peduncled. 
Northern hemlaphere, In the mountains, in different 
varieties.- Bardy low shrub with bsndaome foliage, of 
very pleasant effect on rocky streamlets, with its long, 
male eatklDS In spring. Var. BlUrioa, Kegel. {A. Si- 
blrica, Bort.). Sometlmea tree, 25 ft.: Ivs. larger, cor- 
date-ovate. 

2. tfinw, Sleb. & Zncc. Tree, to 30 (t.: Iva. oblong- 
lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, sharply and doubly ser- 
rate, with 10-15 pairs of veins, 2-1 In. long, often nearly 
glabrous beneath : cones Z-4, peduncled. Japan. 

Vnr. mnltlntrTll, Kegel. Lva. with 14-24 pairs of 
growing on dry and rocky soil; quite hardy. 
AA. FlM. aptning in the fall from caljcina of tht tami 
year: Ids. not plicaUlg folded in the bud. 

3. nurltlma, Nutt. (.1. oblongila, Regel., not Ait. nor 
WiUd.). Tree,to30 ft.: Ivs. cuneate, oblong or obovate, 
shining above, pale green beneath, glabrous, remotely 
and crenalely aerrate, 2-4 In. long: cones 2-4, large, on 
short, Btont peduncles. Del., Md. 8.8.9:458. Q.F. 
4:26a. Nutt. N. Am. 8. 1:T0.— OmamenUl shrub or 
small tree with handsome shining foliage, attractive in 
autninn with its male catkins. 

AAA. Fie. opening in early tpri^ before the Iv.. from 
eaikin* formid the previoui year and remaining 
naked duriug the winter. 

B. Lvi. nal plicate <n IJte bud, grten benratli, veini 

eatkint vmally lolitary in the asilt. 

4. Jap6nlea, Sieb. & Znce. (A.finna. Hort., not S. & 
Z. ). Tree, 60-80 ft. ! ivs. cuneate, oblong- lanceolate, acu- 
minate, sharply and Irregnlarly aermlate, glabrous at 
length, bearded In the aills of the velna beneath, 2-6 
In. long : eones 3-e, peduncled. Japan. Ct.F'.6:34a. 
—Tall, pyramidal tree with dark green foliage ; the 
largest and perhaps the most beautiful of all Alders. 

5. Durdkta, Desf. (A. eorditHia, Ten. A. tilidtta, 
Hort.). Smalltree, 20-50 ft.: Ivs. cordate, ovate or round- 
lab, aeomliiate, Z-^ in. long, beuded In Hie aiila beneath, 



ALXCS 



47 



glandular when young : cones 1-3, pedaneled. Italy, 
Caucasus. L.B.C. 13: 1231. Q.C. II. 19: 286.— Round- 
headed tree with handsome, distinct foliage, changing 
orange yellow In autumn, resembling that o( a linden or 
pear, therefore sometimes as A. tiliafdlia, 01 A. py- 
rifilia. In gardens. Not quite hardy North. 
BB. lAii. plieate in the bud, the veini going itratgU to 
the points of the larger teeth: female eatkint S-6 

c. Under tide at Ivt. ^Jaucoua ; not bearded. 

6. inoina, Willd. Shrubortree, to 60 ft.: branches pn- 

bescept: Ivs. oval or oblong-ovate, acnte, lK-4 in. long. 



sphere. In dlffere 

Var. BUQea, Ait.(.4 . glaica, Mlchx. ). Shrab, to 12 ft. : 
Ivs. often nearly glabrous beneath. N. Amer., Eu. 
Em. 251. 

Tar. rnlK&rii. Spach. Tree, to 50 ft. : Iva. uaually 
densely pubescent beneath; conea 1 in. long. Bu., Asia. 

Var. ptnnfttmda, Spach. (var. laeiniAla. Hort.). Lvs. 
pinnately lobed or cleft, with dentate lobes. 

7. tinot*ri», Sargent (.4. tncino, Tar. 'iniiiiria. Hort. |. 
Tree, to 60 ft.; Ivs, broadly ovate, 4-6 in, long, membra- 
naceous, coarsely doubly serrate, slightly lobed. g1 au- 
ooua and rufously pubescent on the veina beneath. Ja- 
pan. Q.F. 10: 473. — Handsome ornamental tree of very 
vigorons growth, with large foliage. 

8. rtbr«,Bong. (A.Orefld»a,Nntt.). Tree, 40-50 (t.: 
Ivs. oblong-ovate. 3-5 in. long, crenate-aerrate, slightly 
lobed, revolute on the margin, nearly glabrous beneath; 
petioles and veins orange colored:' cones 6-8. oblong. 
W.N.Amer. S. 3.0:454. Null. N. Amer. S. 1: 9. 

00. Undtr tide o/lvt.grttn or broienith grten; utualtg 
bearded. 

9. TUKtea, Spreng. (.d.ierruldfa.Willd.). Shrub, to25 
ft.: Iva. usually cuneate, obovate or elliptic, acute or 
rounded at the apex, 2-5 In. long, finely aerrate. usually 
pubescent on the veins beneath: conea sbort-atalked. 
E. N. Amer., from Uaas.Bootb. Em. 248. 

ID. glntinAM, Qnrtn. Bl.AOKAldib. Fig. 65. Tree, to 
70 ft. : lvs. orbicular or obovate, rounded or emargluale 
at the apex, 2-6 In. long. Irregularly obtusely serrate, 
with 5-7 pairs of veins, nearly glabrons beneath, glu- 
tinous wbnn unfolding : cones distinctly peduncled. 
En., N. Afr., Asia, naturallaed in some localities In N. 
Amer. — A vigorously growing tree with dark green, 
dull foliage, valuable for planting In damp sltnationa. 
Commonly planted In many forms : Var. aAr«t. Verach. 
Lvs. yellow. I. H. 13:490. Var. deatiooUU. Ledeb. 
(A. obiongAlaiVf iUi.). Lvs. uaually cuneate, aerrnlata. 



48 ALNUS 

S. Ba. Var.lmMiiUli, Deif. Pig. 66. Lrs. dMplf pin 

notelflobed with l»ns«olat« or naarlv linear lobea. Vbi 
Inolu. WU1(I.(tu. oajiatanthiritia, Spacb.). Lva. iinall, 
ieep\jiiMiM«d,ii^6tboaeot Oratagm oxgatantka, Var. 
"i, WlUd. Lt». plnnately Jobod ; lobes oblong. 



 BhitliHaB, vac. Imparialla () 



I, DIpp. Ltb. large and Bhining, with red 
nerrea and petioles ; p; ramldal IrM ot Tlgorou* growth, 
very bandeome. 

J.a«untadta.HBK. Tree: Iti. nmallr ovate and mbeamiC 
beneath, doablr Hmla. C. Amer.. north to Arli.— J., AlnoMt- 
u/o. Hort.-A. rtridli.-^. tai-Mta. C. A. Mer. Allied to A. 
XlntJlkOM- Tjtb^ pubeuent on the Telna boneath. ovate. Caoea- 
nu. Perhapi hrbrid of A. slntloouXnbnrdata.— J.. Oana- 

.i.nwxWW'OiTen.— A. eordata.— A. «rti»>a. Parah— A. vlrtdii. 
—A^ fimta, uort.~A. Japonlca or A. <abcordata.— A, nlaiieti, 
HIcbx.— A.loMna.— A.J^fffulMrMti.HBK. Allied to A. aenml- 
nata: Ivi. oblonc-lanoeolata. coanelj dexxtaM, C. Amer. —A. 
fMocrHvlnjd, Lodd.. oat tecBoL^A. i^lntlnofla Tar.— A. maen- 
phiUa. Hart.— A. nbiwidata.— A. Bbloagita, WUld.— A, ilntl- 
DOta. rar. dentVeolatn.^A. ofrtrmtrAto, Becel.'A. naaritlma.— A. 
obtoaai/iHa. Torr. Tree. 10-30 tC: Ivi. ablona-OTate, cniuwte, 
donbur aemle. 3-3 In. lang: itmbllH S-1 In. lone, pednncled. 
N.Uei.and Arli. B.S. »:U7.— A. Onpdna, Nutt.-A.nifam.^ 
A. oritnUlU, Deealane— A.iabeardata.--A.puMj«nj,TKh. (A. 
SlnUnouXIneana). Lrg.nnindlili-OTateorDbovate, Irnsalarly 
■eiraU, nabBuent beneath. Natoral hjbrld.— A.rAsinMr«Iu. 
Nutt. Tree. 60-80 ft.: Ivi. ennxalc. oral or ovale, 2-3Sin. Ions. 
Anely serrate, yellowlih Ereen and pabemloue beneath : atro- 
bllen nblong. pednncled. W. N. Amer. 8.S. Oi «e,-A. wiTuWta. 
WllUl.-A. rocoea.-A. SMriai, HoR., not PlHb.-A. virldli 
6\b\rlr».-A.rin<uUa. Rrdb. Allied to A. vlridie. Shrnb, 3-W 
'• ' 1<r>.altghtl7 lobed, eemilate. glabnmi.tbln. W.N. Amer. 
 corddw. U. A. Uev. lA, orlenluli*. Decaisne. A. ttrma, 
>t S.&Z. A.maenphrUa.Uort.). Tree. 30-M ft.r Ivg. 

m pnbeeeent beneath. Allied to A. cordata. Cancaeiu, 



loDiE, •lightly lobed ai 



ilDnallj 3( 



WUld.— 



:d RiHDsa. 



ALOCASU (name made from Cotocotia). Aro\dta. 
Stove foliage plants, of 30 or more origliial apecicB, 
from trop. Asia and the Malayaa IbU. Closely allied to 
Caladlum and particularly to Colocasia, which see. 
These three ftenera differ chiefly In charact^ra of fralt. 
Manogr. by Enjiler 1q DeCandolle's MoDograpbls Pha- 
neiogamarum. Vol. 2. In 1890, b'i species and gpeclfle- 



ALOCASIA 



Alocasiaa are propagated by snckers or cnttlngs ot 
the rhliomes, placed In small pot4 eontalning a mixture 
of light, flbroun peat and sand in equal proportions, and 
plunged In a close frame or propagBtlDg box with bat- 
torn heat. They may also be grown from seeds sown In 
4-Inch pota, in a light, peaty soil In a temperature of 
7S=P. The month of March is the boat time for propa- 
gating. The evergreen species (as A.cuprea,lotigilolni, 
Lateii, Begina) thrive best In a compost of two parts 
Sbrons peat and sphagnum moss and one part lumps of 
flbroDB loam, to which sbould be added a sprinkling of 
silver Butd and a few nodules of charcoal to keep the 
wholeaweet. The herbaceous species las A. naerorliiza) 
do best In good fibrous loam to which H of well-rotted 
cow-roannre or pulverised sbeep-manure has been added. 
Perfect dminage of the pota la absolutely necessary, 
and in potting, the evergreen species should be coned 
up two or three inches above tne rim of the pot, and 
finished off with a surfacing of live sphagnum moss. 
The aeaion of active growth commences about the first 
of Hanh, when they should be given a temperatare of 
70° at night, irith a rise of 16° by day, and the atmoa- 
pfaere must ba kept in a homld condition. They should 
be given a position free from draughts and direct sun- 
light. They require an abundance ot water at the roots 
as the leaves develop, and are greatly benefited by an 
occasional watering of clear liquid sheep or cow-manure 
water. To obtain the best development of the leaves, 
heavy syringing should be avoided, but frequent spray- 
ing on all flue davs with an alomiier sprayer is very 
beneflcial. Towards winter the hmnldlty of the atmos- 
phere and the supply of water to the roots should be 
reduced with the evergreen species, and gradoally with- 
held altogether aa the leaves mature with the herba- 
ceous species. The temperature during winter should 
not faU below 60°. Cult, by E. J. CASiiiHa. 

The propagation of most of the Alocaslas consists ot 
cutting up the stems, so that each piece will have at 
least one dormant bad. The pieces should be placed 
amongst moss, in a hot propagating trams, where they 
vegetate quickly. Such kinds as A. Sattdtriana, A. 
macrorkita.vti.varitgata, mad A. Jtnnlngiii (ColocMtim) 
have creeping rhlsomes, at the ends ot which small 
resting tubers are formed. These shonld be carefully 
collected, and the two first named started in a propa- 
gating tnme In a pan of moss and sand. A . Jenninf/iU 
roots readily In ordinary soil. Host of the kinds require 
asoll which is very fibrous, with a little moss added. The 
pots should be halt filled with potsherds as drainage. 
Cult, by G. W. OuvBB. 

A. Zvs. dUlinetlf it«lBlu4 or undulate on tA« maryin. 
prlniwpa, Nicholson. Lvs. sagittate, the basal lobe* 

narrow and spreading, the margins deep-sinuate; upper 
surface olive-green, with darker veins, the under lighter 
colored, with brown veins and margin; petioles brown- 
spotted, slender. E. Ind. 

Bandnikna, Bull. Fig. 97. Lvs. long-saglttate, with 
deeply notched margin, the basal lobes wide-spreading i 
deep glossy green with metallic reflection, with promi- 
nent white margins and veins; petioles brownish and 
striped. Philippines. Qng. 1H9T : 84. - One of the best ot 
recent Introductions. Runs Into various forms, and haa 
entered largely Into cultivated hybrids. 

AA. Lvi. plane and entire oh the margin. 

B. Markitigi ehieflji on t\e peiiole>,tln blades gretn. 
(•bitaa, Koch A Veitch. Lvs. triangular-sagittate ; 

petioles beautifully marked with large ilgiag bands of 
green. Philippines. F.S. 15:lMI-2. 

VillmeAvel, Lind. & Rod. Lvs. saglttate-ovBte, the 
veins ot lighter green and prominent, basal lobes very 
unequal; petioles spotted with chocolate-brown. Large. 
Borneo. I.H.34: 21. -Named for de Villeneuve, Braiillan 
ambassador to Belgium. 

BB. Markingi or colomlion eMeflf on tit* leat-bladet. 
C. Veini and midrib light ystlaw. 

Iilndmi, Rod, LvB. cordate-ovate, long-pointed, S-I2 
In. long, bright green, with yellowish vekis carving off 



ALOE 



49 



DBBrly whiM. New (JnlDea. 1.11.33:60:t.-Bnil8ed 
emit k Bdong odor. 

cc. Veim and midrib uihile or lilvfri/, 

lOnsUoba, Miq. (A. gigantia, Hort.). Petioles 2 ft., 
neenish white, mottled purjile ; blade HSf^ttute, IS in. 
king, the basal lobes yery long and erect, the upper sur- 
face green, with silvery or gray bands along veins and 
midrib, the under surface light purple. Jars. 

Patiiyli, N.E.Brown. Mnch liiie A. longitoia .■ Ivg. 
broader (oval -sagittate), dark metallic green, promi- 
nently veined and bordereil while, the petioles pale reii- 
purple, under surface dark purple. Sumatra. l.H. 
29: 133. — More brilliant than A. longitoba.Mid bos wider 
spaces between the veins. 

ThIbantUna. Mast. Petioles 3 ft., greenish ; blade 
2 ft. long and lS-20 in. broad, ovate-oordale. the basal 
lobes broad and rounded, olive-green, with broad silvery 
veins and rib, the under surface deep purple. Borneo. 
G.C.1I1.17:485, I.H.28!419. 

UwU, Hook. Petioles 2-3 ft., rose-color ; blade nar- 
roir-uvsce, 18 in. long and a third as wide, long-poinled, 
tbe basal lobes long-acute, upper surface olive-green, 
with very distinct silvery bands, under surface rich 
purple. Borneo. B.M- 5376. A. P. 1895:559 as var. 
gmndis. Var. ^ota, Hook. (B.M. 549T>, has surface 
covered with small white reticnUtlons. This var. Is 
A. I'j tick jt, Schott. (var. rjifchil, Engler). 

ccc. Veint ahile and leaf blotched and mottled. 

maomrlllik, Scbott. Large, reaching 10 or 15 ft-; leaf- 
blades 3 ft. long, long-sagittate and pointed, the lobes 
short and obtuse, margin often somewhat wavy, the 
midrib very broad and conspicuous, the blotches or 
patches of green and white (in the var. variegdta, which 
is the common form) very striking. Ceylon. I. H, 
8:305.— One of the commonest species. Lvs. sometimes 
almost while, 
cccc. Veini dark or purple, or the leaf dark-eolored, 

BftprakiKoch (A. mfWlIicn, Schott.). Petioles 2 ft. or 
less long, green ; blade ovate and peltate, 18 by 12 In,, 
notched at the base and cuspidate at the point, dark 
metallic green with darker rib and veins, the under 
side rich purple. Borneo. B. M. 5190. 1, H. 8: 283, 
Lowe, 60. Un. 50:336, — One of the best, and common. 



like Vllleneuvei ; inUrmidia, hybrid by Vellcb 25 years 
ago; La Salliiita; JJuciAna. Thibautianax Putaeysl, 
with Ira. dark green above and whitish veins and mar- 
gins, purple beneath (I.K. 44:27); Morti/Bntaininaii, 
LowiixSanderiana; Puccidna, Putseyal x Thibauliana ; 
Sideni, cupreax Lawii, with ovat«-pellate Ivg. purple be- 
neath and white veined above (l.H. 24:292;; Van 
BoAltei. 

The following names are also in oar trade; A. illii- 
(n»=Coloca8ia Anti quorum ; J^nningjti^Colocasia af- 
flnls; ^itAnsfiinu^Cyrtosperma Johnstonil; Marchdllii 
= Colocasia Morchallii ; t'ia(dc«a » Colocasia Aatl- 

Tbs [oUowlag mar b« expected \o appear la the American 
trade: A . Aii(putinidna,lAti.A. Sc SoA. Lve. peltate and wavT. 
ereen above Bod iMlow.with pale nervea.tba pbHoIm brown- 
spotted: allied to A. ubrina. I.H.33:Sa3. Kew Guineat-A. 
Oirtiii. N, E, Bro-ra. Petioles B ft. or leas, pnrple-biu™! : If.- 



07. Alocaala Sandulana. 

Hfg^"*, N. E. Brown, Lvs, thick, ovate-eordate, ob- 
tiuc or cnipidate, the basal lobes short and nearly or 
quite obtuse, ths ribs and veins beneath pubescent, 
somewhat Seshy, dark green above with darker veins 
and brown-purple beneath; petioles terel«, pubescent, 
spotted purple. Borneo. LH, 32:544. 

Several colt, varieties and hybrids are In the trade in 
thlscountir; A.argjna, hybrid of longUobaxPucclana; 
Bafocirfimi, petiole dark purple; If, -blade dark green; 
Cfianiriiri (raised by Chantrier Bros., Mortefontalne, 
Prance), hyb. of cupreaxSanderiona, with long wavy 
Ivg., purple betoff and prominently white-veined (l.H. 
^:64. R.H, 1887, p.465): CAr(2ioni, cupreaxlongiloba. 
With lvs. purple b«low and green above ; gigai, much 



■njwn, Lv». peltate, H 



leStt. 



Pensiw,— A.^ntinnu, N, 
>r lesslong and nesrlr h 



'It hair 



_. „. Bntndu, N, E. 1 

LMiKB : lis. 2 ft. or less long, ovate-aaclttBte, half u broad, 
blHA-green below. brisM Ereen above : petioles 4 ft. or lesg, 
blacklah. E. Ind.-A. irutt3ta, N. E, Brown, var. imjmidlit. 
N.E.Bnwn. Lvs, saill tale, acute, l^ft. or less lone and halt 

Boraoq. 'l.H, 31: Sll.-A.'/ndini. Scholt. St.Bft. or fflon^.Hlout 
and flesh;: lv>. very large (often 3 ft. across), ovate-cordate, 
bright imn OD both aides. E. Ind. F. S. 31; 120«,— A. Mir- 
enrifi. Llnd. & Rod. LvB.slightlrpeltate, wav;, >tiinln(,Enen 

ceut. NewOnlnoa. i!h.33: BlI.'A.marni'nAIa. Said lo bave 
come from Brai, I,va,2 ft, or lesalooB and very broad, illghtlr 
wavy, roundeil and short-pointed, pale green, striped and mot- 
tled with purplBj petloleH browu-inarked,— A.^liimAfa, Hort. 
— KrandltT-i. Ttciria. N. E. Brown. Dwarf and compact, the 
petioles in. Ions, blade lees than 1 ft. long, bright green, with 
rib and nerves ofivB-ETBen, B.M. 7468. Philippines.— A. Radi- 
gatiina, Andre. ThibnutlnnaXReglDa.— A. SaniStHAiia, var. 
Qandjiointit^ Rod. Lva. wavy-marEined, pnrple and blotched 
tHoeath. l.H. 43:SS.-A. ii:abrii»aUa. N. E. Brown. Lvi. 

above and'palor beneath. Borneo,-A, linudlo.'N. E, Brown. 
Lva. sagittate and slnnate. dark green above withllebter areas, 
and whitish grwn below. Philippines.- J. ffnWmidna, Hort. 



UOE (Arabic name), Liiiieea.tMiBAloineoe. Acau- 
lescent or variously caulescent succulents ; lvs. often 
large.uauallj crowded in rosettes or along end of St.; 
lis. red or yellow, ott«n prier-slriped, straight, tubular, 
with short, straight limb, equaled or surpassed by tbe 
stainenH. Afr,, especially in the Cape region, one species 
about the Mediterranean and extensively naturalised In 
all warmer parts of the world, and one in (Jhina. Plants 
•coolhouse, bestplant«d out in a well -drained place 



Id s 






h usually is not true to name, and by s 
cuttings well dried-off. Branching for this pnrpose may 
be induced by searing the crown of old plants. Hy- 
brids are said to occur with Gasteria (A, Bedingkauiii 
=A.an»t<ilay.0.nigrieani! A . Ilegnini=A . ariltnta K 
6. verrticoin ,■ A. Lapaixii=A.anilatanG.macuialu; 
A. Lyneliii=A.itrialaKO. verrucosa, aai A. If owolnyi 
=A. arittala « ), and with Lomatopkyllnm (A . Boyeri= 
A. eerrataxL. sp.). J. Q. Baker, in Jour, Linn, Soc. 
Bot. 18, pp. 152-182. WlLLLUd Tbileasb. 

Old plants of Aloe will keep healthy for several years 
Id the same pots without a renewal of soil, and flower 
freely at the same time. The soil most suited to their 
needs is sandy loam three parts, lime rubble and broken 
brick one part, with allttle decayed manure to strengthen 
the mixture. Very Arm potting la necessary. Drainage 
is a more important item than soil, and must be per- 
fectly arranited to enable the surplus water to run freely 
from the soil. Broken bricks are preferable to pieces of 
pots, large pieeea for the bottom of the pot or tub, and 
smaller pieces above, till the last layer is quite fine. 
Some of the species need freer rooting conditions than 
others. A. ciliarit will grow from 5-7 ft. in a season. 
A. Abytiinica is of robust growth, and differs from 
most others in the color of the (lowers, which are pure 



50 



ALOE 



yeltov, most of tb« othere being onnge uid orange- 
aeu-let. A. plitalilii makes an ornamental tab plant 
when 4 or 5 ft. high. Except during the period la which 
the Bpeclea are in active Rrowlh. they need Terr little 
water, the principal idea being to keep the Huif sweet 
and porous even when in growth. At ail times the 
air of the houae should be as dry as possible, full 
sunshine not hnrtlnnr them. Prop, by seedH. suck- 
ers and eultings. The arborescent kinds should be 
rooted after they hare completed growth. Dust OTer 
the cut part c.t the cutting with powdered charcoal and 
dry in sunshine before putting it in to root. Insert 
■Ingly In as small pots as they will go into, and pinnge 
in a sand bed. Very litUe moisture is necessary while 
"^t'lR- G. W. OLn-KR. 

The generic or sclcntiflc name Aloe is a Latinised 
form of an Arabic name. As an English ward it is pro- 
nounced In two syllables, thus, A'-loe. Popularly thla 
ward Is loosely need, the common American Aloe being 
Agavt Amrrieana, the eominoneat "Century Plant." 
The "bitter aloes" of commerce Is a resinous juice much 
used as a laxative. The best quality is called "Socotrine 
or Zanzibar Aloes," a product of A. Perryi, which waa 
known by the Greeks of the Fourth cenlury B.C. to 
coroe from the island of Soootra. The" Barbadoes Aloea" 
is the product of A, vfm, a species much planted Id 
the WeM Indies. Genera allied to Aloe are Apicra, Gaa- 
teria, Haworthia, Pachldendron. and Phylloma. The 
group is an e«remely difflcultone forthe botanist, there 
being few authentic specimens In the herbaria, because 
ot the large slie of the plants, the infrequent flowering, 
and the difficulty of suitably drying them. 

Aloes are much cultivated as decorative plants, being 
nmongst the most popular of desert and succulent plants 
for their sliff, hnmh and rugged habit. They are often 
grouped about large public buildings, where they em- 
phasise certain architectural features. I^rge collections 
are to be seen only In botanic gardenn and in the col- 
lections of a few fanciers. The largest dealer has nearly 
a hundred kinds, but grows only Hve or six kinds in 
qnantlty. For index to the following species, see sup- 
plementary list, p. 51. ^, u. 

A. ArraHgentM of Ivi. iptral {exfepl in iiedlingi). 

B. Form ot In. broadlg laneeolnlt, aeiile .- >lii ot l«». 

modtralelg largt. 

C. Border of Ivt, thin, horny : tiiargin rnlirt or 

D. Color Of Xvt.graf ilk: ihape of lis, flalltned, 

1. ftrllU,Haw. (J.poBfetiHM.Jacq, A. dlbo-riticta, 
Bort.). Caulescent: Ivs. at length large, finely dark- 
lined, scarcely mottled, 
with entire while border : 
inflorescence compound, 
broadly cymose : fls. red, 
constricted above the 
' ovary. Cape. B. M. 5210. 
Hybrids with A . lerrulala 
And A . srandidrnlata oc. 
cur, having toothed I 



ALOE 

00, Borier ef tv$. utuallf only ntar lilt apex ! 
moUtinf prtMtnl. 
5. MpsnirU, Haw. (.1. dliticMa, Hill., not Linn, nor 
Tbnnb. A. umbelliUa, DC.). Shortly eaaleacent : Ivg. 
somewhat gray-green or purplish, the small teeth re- 
mote : racemes short and compact. 
Cai - -- --   

for 



(A. 
rhodoclncla, Hort. A. 

purplish, very glaucous, 
with entire reddish bor- 
der. 

2. MRnUta. Haw. Fig. 
68. Lvs. less striate, ob- 
scurely mottled, the white 



Cape. B.M. 1415. 
Color ot li't. fhartr green ; »\api of Irt. more con- 
cave: leelh email and tut nearly through the 

liui«l«eftrp*, Tod. Lrs. interruptedly green-lined, 
evidently mottled; inflorescence branched with 
ated racemes. Abyssinia. 



LvB. apple-i 






18 pale t 



regularly tr 



.lalimia, Boft.). 
Fcrsely confluent ; 



irved, rather 
. B.M. 1346. 
Lvs. rather thinner : racemes 
several, somewhat elongated. Abys. 

S. obtoAn, Hill. (.J. plcru, Thonb.). Ltb. rather nar- 
rower and thinner : racemes elongated. Cape. B. M. 

9. KnndidsnUtft, Satan. Lvs. and racemes still more 
elongated. Cape. 

coc. Border of Ivi. nearly abienl : aoUtitig icorcfly 
present 1 Ivi.involHleat lip. 

10. sl»»iCli,MlU.lA. rhodaednlha.DC.). Caulescent; 
Ivs.notmottlediVery glaucous, the Irregular red OT brown 
teeth Bubconfluent ; inflor. simple, densely racemose; 
fls. red, scarcely eonstricted above the ovary. Cape. 

t2TB. A hybrid with .^. AhmiIjs, var. iiwtimi, Is 



B.M. 1 

A. eye 
Var. marloita, Sch 



. (A.in/rmi.,Hort..notPor»k.l. 
Fig. 09. Nearly stemless, often densely eespitose ; lvs. 
dark green, aomeltmeB with a tew obscure yellowish 
green spots, slightly striate at base, entire or with a few 
remote small teeth. Capel B.M. 6II<>J. 



. /■arm of ?!■« 



li-Jati 



le, thick 



oitlf 



It. A, hirrida. 
Haw. J'<iehiiliHitro» Wroi, Haw.). Caulescent, un- 
branched : Irs. crowded at summit, glaacoua, the margin 
and both surfaces remotely coarsely pungently toothed ; 
inflor. branched, with elongated very dense racemes; 
lis. reddish, with stamens twice as long as the perianth. 
Cape. B.M. 1975. G.C. 11. 3: 343. -Varies Into several 

13. mltrilAnnU, Mill. {A.tailrrrfirmit.-VUlld., not DC. 
nor Haw. A. Commilyni,W»\d. A. epinuldta. S^lm. 
A.pathyphilla.aoTt. A.xanthaednrha,Wmd.). Fig. 70. 
Somewhat branching; lvs. Spaced along the stem above, 

faces usually murlcate: Inflor. sometimes branched, with 
short, compact racemes: stamens not exserled. Cape, 
B.M. 1270. -Varies into numerous forms. 



ALOE 

ABB. Form of Ivi.ttongaltd, gradually taptrlng ; ilie 
ot Ivi.larnt! border abiiHl ; teclh tiiualli/ toarst. 
14. SUa»M,DyeT. (A. Bdrbera, Dyer. 1. Averj large 
forking tree, in eultlTaCioit becoming tall, thouKb at Brat 
•lender : 1t». very concave, dark greBo, remolelj' den- 
tate, Bpsced along the stem above, wltb nbite-tnar|iined 
■heathlng base : inflor. short and compact, tha reildlah 
fin. tumid. S.Afr. O.F. 3:115. G.C. II. 19, pp. 506-571, 
0.117,119,120,122. B.M. GtHS. 



t, Llm 



lulgiri, 



. A.Barbad 



the apex: Inflor. shortly rsoemoae : fle.reddieb, the petals 
nearly free vlthin the tube. Cape. B.M. 45T. 

W1U.1UI Tbkxjuse, 



Hill.). Low or Bmall, slender tree : Ivs. broader, lens 
channeled, ptlegray-Kreen, coarsely dentate, not aheath- 
iDg: 9s. yellow. Suck«rB,freely produced in enhlviitlon, 
have clear apple-green mottled linear Ivs. Medilerra- 
nean region, and natnrallied through the warmer parts 
itt the world.— The oldest known and probably the com- 

Var.oBloin*lil,Forak. fA.mft^«M»»,DC. A.l'ndica, 
Rojle). Lvs. purpllah: fla. red-oraage. Orient. 

IG. BnoootzliiB, Lam.(.l.«i'nudfa,Thunb.,TiotWllId.). 
Related to the last : lvs. relatively narrower, dark green, 
coaraely serrate ; Bs. red. variously tipped and striped. 
Cape. B.M.472. Qn. 45, p. 303.-A hybrid with ^. eifi- 
arii la A. dt 1/attii. 

Haw. A. 
i. 1474. 
I, Mill. (A.fruticiia, Lam.). Low, alen- 
nertree: at. roughened by oldleaf bases: lvs. dark irreen, 
glauceseeut, coarsely sreen-dentate to booked serrate 
when separated, with whitish sheathing bases : 99. red. 
Cape. B.M. 1300. 

Var.tcnttwana.SBlin.M.'rHliiaceni, Salm.). Smaller, 
•uekering freely: Ivs. blue-glaucous, the sheathing bases 
coarsely green-striate. 

BBBB. Form of Ivt, Umeeolate, acult, flat : lUt of In, 

imall: border abtmt; Utih ciliatt : mollling 

abitnt: Iva. ahtatkingitBilh ptrfoliale mari/in, 

IS. eiliftii>,Haw. St.eIonRated,Tery slender ,braDched: 

Its. dark green, the slender white teeth longer about the 

base: inflor. ■lillary, somewhat elongated, loosely few- 

fld. : fls. red. Cape. 

BBBBB. Form of Ivt. various, l>iick,plano-eonvex ; liu 
of let. small: border abtmt ; mottly toothed 
on the back: motllitig abtertt: lv>. crowded. 



lulyl. Tho.e n 

riLnea in ^Decat&loBiiea: A „ -- 

Lvs. 20-30 in a denae sMsila roMt 
i at tiuae. elftooou 

l/riedna, Mill. St. 



Abi/tsinica. ham-,^arP^itcoftii, 
BBtte, ll^ft.long, 6-fl in. 

ittled.lhe morglnB with 

iplnofi. ivlth homy reddish brown tips: 
, a 6-B-branched dbiiIpIb. B.M. 8820.- 
iDut, marked with scars of InUen lvs.: 



e.red. Trop.Afr.— 



Wat the top of tha It. 


riff'^f'-e^'ES" 


he yonngeat. 




ove the dilnled boas. 




ottled ;' marrinal pri 


Id« dolcold, not hrc 


mi'^I^^Te 








"r."^!™ rjw?^A . " 




ukTbLe. AI- 


A.Abysiinlca. Lvs.l 


5-201n a aoasilBroaett* 


.J4-lfl.loDe 



<n: acapeaimple.li^ft.iDnE; bn 
. B. 11.8301. Hub.t-'A.oliarii 



lat*,8-Wln 
587.57I,f.l] 
rollal, St. 



Bborlly and pungently wbite-toothed; a tew similar teeth 
occBBionaliy on both surfaces. Cape. B.R.990. 

20. htaiilii, Mill. [A. echinila,Wmd. A. luberieta, 
Haw A. iubfu6tmitdla. Haw.). Acaulescent : lvs. as- 
cending, lanceolate, gradually attenaale, looaely soft- 
serrate, both snrfaceB coaraely tuberculate or ecbinate: 
raceme BOmewbat elongated, looaely ild: fls. red. Cape. 
— An extremely variable Bpeoles, oC the bablt of certain 

Var. CudUld, Bak. L.B.C. 15:1481. Var. inodrvft, 
Haw. B.M. 828. Var. MUmlnkU. B.M. 757. L.B.C. 

16:15<M. Var. minor, Hon., iB lu cult. 

21. BrUUU,Haw.(A.lDngianafdfa,Schult.). Lvs.as- 
cending, attenoate into a long bristle. Cape. 

AA, Arrangement of Ivi. S-ratikcd : In. rather tmall. 

22. TMlsgita, Lion. Short - stemmed : Its. erect, 
V-shaped, acute, with flnety warty homy vrblte margin 

I keel, mottled, the pale blotches vaiiuusly_t! 



versely e. 

diab. Cape. B,M.S13. F.E.8: 98.-Comi 






ron^iw 



ked: Ivi.elongat 



23. Codpari, Bak. (A.,ScA«)dfidna. Regel.). Acaules- 
cent: lvs. suberect, linear-oblong, sharply-Brooved and 
heeled, mottled, faintly striate, the small white teeth 
snbconflneot: inflor. aubcymoBe: fls, reddish or brown- 
ish, tumid below. Cape. B.M.637T. Ot.970. 

24. thUtaiM, Mill. (Bhlpidodindron plicdtile. Haw. ). 
Becoming tall and stoat, branching : lvs. glaucous, flat, 
Ungulate, obtnse, serrulate and bordered at least near 



fniUteent. Salm,— 17. -»A. tmticiia — IJ. 
grdcifia, Ilsn. Allied to A. arboreacpaa. I 
arranged, 6-10 in.lone.l tn. wide at the hi 
Date, not Unsd or spotted: prickles minu 

readily diitiovuished by the elongated ran 



A. glaHea. ID.— A. 

, iprBadlnE, lipped 
lU segments. -* A. 



52 



ALOE 



ALPINIA 



oonttxletion of the perUnth below the middle. Lvs. 12-15, in 
dense rosette, lanoeoutte, channelled, bright green ; prickles eon* 
nected by a narrow homy line : lis. i>ale salmon ; bracts awl- 
shaped, purplish. Cape! B.M.6520.->*J..ifanMiridna— 1.— J.. 
heUraedntha, U.—A. SOdebrdfuUii, Bak. St. l>i-2 ft.: inter- 
nodes spotted white : Irs. loosely arranged, 6-10 in. long, glau- 
cous green ; teeth small, ascending : inflor. a lax panicle, IHft. 
long, with 10-12 branches ; remarkably prolific of fis. B. M . 6B81. 
-A. Ai^rrula— 12.-*ii. hUtmOii, TO.-A. Jmiica— 15.-^. tnirmif, 
11.— ii . inHqnis, Brown. A hybrid of A. drepanophyllaX A. echi- 
nata. G.0. 11.24:41.— A. JTfrftii. Bak. St. venr short: lvs. 30^40, 
in a dense rosette, green, not spotted ; teeth large : inflor. 2 ft. 
long, 3-branched ; fls. red. Zanzibar. B.M. 7386.—^. knipho- 
fioldef, Bak. Acaulescent: lvs. linear, rigid, semilate: inflor. an 
elongated raoeme. Hook. Icon. 1^9.— A. de JxHii'^U.—^A . lati- 
fdlia—e.—A. UmoiaTUtdt4v^l.—A.lAintU, Bak. A very distinct 
species with no marginal prickles: st. short: lvs. 7-8, {n a dense 
rosette. 1 ft. long, 2 in. wide at base, i»ale green, not spotted: 
peduncle much longer than )vs: i»anicle of 4-5 long, lax racemes ; 
a marked character. B.M. 7448.-^4. maeraedntha, Bak. St. 2-3 
ft.: lvs. ^>-90, in a dense rosette, lanceolate, bright green, 
much lined ; prickles large, brown and homy In upper half : 
inflor. a dense coxymb; fls. yellow, tinged red; tube constricted 
above the globose base. B.M. 6580. Said to be the flnest of all 
spotted Aloes.— *A. maeraedrpat 8.— A. midica, Hort. Alverson 
'— f —A. micracdTUhat Haw. Lvs. linear, iKft. long, lKin« wide 
at base, deeply channelled, mottled; spines very minute, white: 
fls. greenish red, in a lax umbel-like raceme ; bracts large, ovate- 
acuminate, striate. S.Afr. B.M. 2272.— .4. minima, Bak. Hook. 
Icon. 2423. A recent and little known species.— M . mitrcefdrmis 
—13.— •4. mitrifdrmis, 13.— A. muricdta ^12.^ A. ndbilis, Haw. 
Allied to A. distans and A. mitriformls. Sts. long : lvs. loosely 
disposed, not spotted, ovate-lanceolate : fls. red. S. Afr.— J. . o6- 
teiira, B. — A. packvphi^Ua'^13. — *A. paniculdta'^l. — A. per- 
edsta. Tod.— A. Abyssinica.- A . Pirryi, Bak. St. 1 ft. long: lvs. 
12-20, in a dense rosette, lanceolate, 1 ft. long, 3 in. wide at base, 
dull green, tinned red near the base, channelled : prickles Hin. 
apart : peduncle purplish : racemes oblong-cylindrical, 3-6 in. 
long; fls. red. Socotra. B.^.63M.—*A.pieta''8.—A.plicdtilis, 
24.— J..j>ra<^7m«,Bak. AIliedtoA.humilis. St. none: lvs. 60-80, 
not spotted; spines large, red-brown, homy: peduncle 1 ft. long, 
stout ; bracts many. B.M. 6705.— A. prolifera—ld.—A. purpu- 
rdseeM'^lQ.—A. ram^a— 16.— •JL. rftodocdnMa ■= 10.—* J., rho- 
docineta -=1.— • J. . r^ea-Hneta, Hort. Blanc =- 1—A . rrib^4eens — 
15.— • J. . •Ospondria, 6.— A . Schimperi, 4.— A . Sehmidtidna — 23.— 
A.SeiUidrUt'RoTt, Alverson. Typographical error for A. cili- 
arisf —•A. Bcopeldnia, Hort. T. B. Shepherd ■= ? — .A . Sirra, DC. 
Allied to A. brevifolia and A. glauca.— ^. aerruldta^ 2.— J.. «inu- 
dto— 16.— •J.. Soeritrdna'^lQ.—A. #i>inutd#o— 13.— J., ttridta, 1. 
—A . suberSeta — 20.— J. . tubtuberculdta — 20.-^4 . SuceotHna, 16. 
—A. tricolor^ Bak. Diifers from A. saponaria by its racemose 
(not capitate) inflorescence, and tube constricted in the middle: 
white spots very numerous, oblong, in single or double lateral 
rows : fl. tube spotted white at base. B.M. 6324.-^4. umbelldta 
— 5.—* A . variegiUa, 22.— *A. riro, 15.— A . virent^ Haw. Allied to 
A. humilis. Stemless : lvs. 30-40, lanceolate, white spotted, chan- 
nelled, not lined; prickles green: raceme lax, 15-18, in. long; fls. 
red. B.M. 1355.—*^ . vulgdris, 15.— A . xanthaedntha —13. 

ALONSOA ( Alonzo Zanoni, Spanish botanist). Scroph- 
ularidcece. Trop. Amer. plants, cult, as annuals in the 
open, or rarely grown in pots. They are tender, and need 
protection from frost. Seeds are usually started under 
glass in the N., although plants bloom well from seeds 
sown directly in the open. Use only finely prepared soil. 
Fls. showy; plant of good habit. The corolla is very 
irre^lar and turned upside down by the twisting of the 
pedicel, bringing the larger lobe uppermost: stamens 4: 
lvs. (at least below) opposite or In 3's. Cult, species 
mostly from Peru and Mez. 

incisildlia, Ruiz & Pay. (A. urticcemia, Hort. CSUia 
urticcefdlia, Sims, B.M. 417). About 2 ft. high, erect : 
Its. ovate to oval-lanceolate, long-stalked, deeply cut- 
toothed: fls. nearly ^^in. across, very irregular (some- 
what hood-shaped), scarlet, with protruding organs, on 
slender axillary peduncles. Also a white-fld. var.— An- 
nual; but perennial in warm countries or under glass. 

Var. Warsoewleiii, Boiss. {A. Warseewlcziif Kegel. 

A. grandifldra, Hort.). Fls. larger (often 1 in. across), 

rose-red, the plant more herbaceous and more perfectly 

annual. Also white-fld.— The commonest form in our 

• gardens. 

myrtifdlia, Roezl. Plant 2-3 ft. : lvs. broad-lanceolate, 
canaliculate, prominently serrate: fls. large, scarlet (a 
white var.).— Perennial under glass. Useful for winter- 
growing in pots. 

linildlla, Roezl. Plant l^ft. or less high : lvs. lanceo- 
late or narrower, entire : fls. bright scarlet. 

A . aeuHfblia, Ruiz A Pav. Lvs. less cut than in A. incisifolia: 
•carlet.— A. caulialdta, Ruiz & Pav. Lvs. less cut than in incisl- 



foUa: fls. smaller: st. 4-angled.— ^ . Unedrif, Ruiz A Pav. Lvk 
linear, entire or very neariy so, often fascicled : fls. searlet. 
Greenhouse.— .4. Jfd^Aewsii, Benth. Lvs. lanceolate, toothed : 
fls. searlet, in terminal racemes. Greenhouse. i it R 

ALOt'BIA. See Lippia. 

ALPnrE OABDSHS. In the successful culture of 
alpine plants, the most important point is to give them 
as near their natural alpine conditions as possible. So 
far as soil is concerned this is not difficult, but when it 
comes to moisture with good drainage and surroundings 
atmospheric conditions, especially hi the dryer atmos- 
phere of some of our western states, we have a more 
difficult task. In their natural homes, many of the al- 
pines are found growing under very similar conditions 
to our bog plants, and the two classes, for the most part, 
may be brought together in cultivation. Of course, the 
mountain Primula might never withstand the stagnation 
to which the roots of the water Arum {Peltandra Vir- 
gin ica) penetrate in the wet bog, nor should we expect 
the Peltandra to survive the wintry blasts to which the 
Primula is exposed, but the two may be grown together 
with very good results in a moist, springy situation, in. 
the same bed and soil. Any light, sandy soil, well 
drained, but through which water is constantly passing^ 
in and oat, so that there is no stagnation and always a 
little moistiire on the surface (which makes it cooler 
from the evaporation), will answer for most of the bog* 
plants and the majority of the alpines also. There 
should be a natural slope to the surface of the ground 
for such conditions, and if the surface is undulating, so 
as to make some parts drier than others, those plants 
which require the most moisture can go into the wettest 
places. Alpines like a deep soil, into which their roots 
can penetrate. Leaf-mold should be used in place of 
any manure, and if the soil is a very fine one a mixture 
of gravel should be introduced. Shade and sun are 
rather necessary, as some of the alpines would hardly 
stand the full scorching sun of our hottest days in sum- 
mer, even though the surface of the soil were moist, 
while others require full sun. Alpines have been suc- 
cessfully grown in sphagnum moss. This is done with, 
best results in the rockery, where the various pockets 
are filled with the fresh moss and the plants set in it. 
Water should be supplied often enough to keep the 
moss always moist. The evaporation from the wet moss 
creates a cool atmosphere around the plants, thus giving* 
them a condition somewhat like that which they have in 
alpine regions, surrounded by mountain fogs, or In the 
moist bog. Many alpine-garden plants are not confined to 
alpine situations. They grow in moist places in much 
lower altitudes as well. Such species as Houstonia 
cofruleUf Pamaasia CaroliniarMf and Smilaeina atellata 
may be mentioned among these. Most of the alpines, 
when set in the fresh, damp sphagnum, do nicely in full 
sun, but for the alpine ferns shade should be given. 
ThoHe which grow in drier places, like the little Woodsia 
glabella or W. hyperborea, need less shade and moisture, 
yfhile A splenium viride and A. Trichomanea want more 
moisture about their roots, and deep shade. 

F. H. HOBSFOBD. 

ALPtHIA (Prosper Alpinus, an Italian botanist). 
Seitamindcece, Stove herbs, cult, both for lvs. and the 
racemes or panicles of fls. The fl. has 3 exterior parts 
and 4 interior parts. The lowermost part is lobed or 
tubular. Stamens with petal-like filament. They need 
high temperature, much water, light soil, and abundance 
of room. After flowering, allow them to rest in heat, 
but do not dry them off. Prop, by dividing tiie ginger- 
like roots. 

Alpinia contains many handsome species, but only a 
few are common in cultivation. They are tropical plants, 
and require a moist air and a temp, of 65° to 60° F. A 
mixture of 2 parts loam, 1 part leaf-mold, and 1 part 
dried cow-manure forms an excellent compost. While 
growing, they need an abundance of water, and the large- 
gprowing kinds require large pots or tubs. The plants are 
prop, by division in the spring. A, nutans is grown for 
its handsome fls., and attains a height of 12 or 13 ft. A. 
fittata is popular on account of its varieg^sted foliage. 
A . mutica has very showy fls., but is probably not in the 
American trade. Cult. by Robbbt Gamxbon. 



bUum , Rossov. Srcll-floweb. StiiklDKplaDt.raadi- 
iDE 10-12 ft., with [oQg, lanceolkW KlabrouB loDg-Telned 
Ivt.: fl>.<ircbld-llke, fellow with plok, sweet -scented, Id 
 Iddit. dnwplDB, t«rmlaal, Bpike-like raceme. E. Ind. 
O.C.III. 1»:301. I.H. «;269. B.M. 1903. P.M. 13:125. 
R.H. 1861, 61. —Fine for foliage mueei, and an old 
favorite. 

TltUU, Hook. (Amimum vitlilum, Hort.|. Lower: 
Ivs. in tnfU, luiuolBte. with whitish bars or stripes be- 
tween the nerves ; As. red, in axillary apikes. South 
Sealslandv. A.P.SiTSr. Qn. 4, p. 25. 

iIb«-liiieliM,HoR. A plBDt 

3-1 rt.hlgh,with brand bands 

of white and pale fcreen on 

tbe elliptic - Uuceolate Ivs. 

Probably a farm ot some 

other species. 
OtherapwlMaTeJ.JIIitpAu, 

RoBcoe.lls, In lennlnil panlirlft. 

whItABnd rose; A. inatinltiea, 

r.oSSTuiitou.Tbj 



Pitcher i 


fcM.nd.VT 


«.<»iai. 


Roibf.. 


a,, while and 


7«llow. 


with crimnn .elDi, In 


Bplfate 




L. 


H. B. 


ALSEirdSXIA {t 


tl,o. 


grove, 




:. tn- 


grann. 


6)- Capri^ 




Tender 




shrub 


(ram N( 


BlTealand* 




A. n« 


«:r^l,illa. A. 


Cnnn. 



aide, which are 2-3 li 



long a 



Ih 


ronghont. An. 


ilralla. 


" 


* 






i. Lvi.tripin 


nalifid or trip 


innaU; rachi 


Its armtd 






«:it\ ,pi„e,. 








. Stgmtnti long.ilronyly rii 


n-ed ; 


pinnuta topiring 






la a tUndfT 


point. 








neOMm, R. Br 


. Lvs, coriae 




with m( 






K.1IV rat^hlses; 


plonre G-10 in 




, with er 


owded pin- 




ilex, which are 


I provided wit 


h «1« 


ut 20 pa 






ems. which M 


re stronitlY ci 


irved 


and mt 


ire or lew 




lirgedattheends. Norfolk 


!>.-& 








Vft.high. 












CoApral. Hook. 


Smaller that 


1 the : 


last: rsr 


ihises with 


p. 









ALSTHfEUERIA 



pairs of segnaenlB, which are finely serrate throughout. 
BB. Sfgmfnt» Xm-or Ittt latin, 

SUtrilll, R. Br. Pig. 71- Rachlaei atraw-oolored i 
Irs. ample, with primary plume IB in. long, 6-10 In. wide; 
pinnules deeply pinuatiOd, with aegmenta broadest at 
the base, ovate-oblong and sharply serrate. Taamanla 
and Australia. 

l*roi, Presl. {A. aeultita, J. Sm.). Racblses brown- 
ish; pinnn 12-18 In. long: pinnules narrow, 3-^ In. long, 
^-Kin. wide, with 15-18 pairs of seKtnetita, which are 
narrow and slightly serrate. Trop, Amer. 



lA. Lvi 



quadrii 



□llgooirpa, Fee. Fig. T2. Racbises smooth, grayish 
stnin-colored ; pinnules IW-3 ft. long, the segments 

4-6onthelowerlobes. Columbia. , „ ttkdibwood 

ALSTOBIA (Dr. Alston, once professor of botany at 
Edinburgh). Apoeynicra. Between 30 and 40 species 
of treeo or shrubs of E. Ind. and Australia, with small 
white fla. in terminal cymes, and simple entire Ivs. in 

tree or PsU-mara of Indin, ths bark of which is medlel- 
nal. Trees yield eaoulchouc. 

mamoph^IIa, Wall. A tall tree, with milky Juice, epar- 
Intily cult. In S. Fla., and perhaps Id S. Calif. 

AI.STK(EM£BIA (Baron Alstrtemer, friend of Lin- 

wich tuberous roots, treated as bulbs. FIs. small (2 in! 
or lens long), comparatively narrow, with 6 segments, 
parted nearly or quite to Che ovary, often irregular; 
stamens mostly declined ; stigma 3-cleft ; sts. slender 
and leafy, weak, or even disposed to climb. Monogr. by 
'■  iok of tbe AmaryllldBB. 



AL86PHILA (Qreek, greve-lovina}. Cyalhedceir. A 
genus of tropical tree ferns, with simple or forked free 
veioit, round sorl, and no indnsia. Numerous species are 
fouDd In the tropical regions of both hemlsplieres. 

Of the different species of Alsophila, only one Is in 
general commercial use. A. auifnifia Isavery graceful 
anil rapidly growing tree fern, with finely divided fronds 
of n pleasing: shade of light green, with the stipes thickly 
co.'ered with light brown, hairy scales. It Is grown from 
spores, which can only be obtained from old and largo 
apecimena, and which, like the spores of moat commer- 
cial terns, win germinate very freely If sown on a com- 
pust consisting of finely screened sol), leaf-mold and sand 
in equal parts. To develop a good crown of fronds Id 
old specimen plsnts which may look starved, the stem 
may be covered to any thickness conslstem with good 
Bpliearaoce with green moss, which may be attached 
with thin copper wire, and which, It kept continoallT 
ni..i*t, will aoon be thickly covered with fine roots. Al- 
Botihllai should be grown In a temperature of 60° F., 
and the soil should never be allowed to become very dry. 
Cult, by NicHOL N. BBUcimB. 
±. Lvt.bipinnate; meMitt mtrclg tibrilloit. 

SMttoem, F. Huell. Lvs. ample, from a caudex 8 In. or 
  ' B 12-15 In. long, with 20-30 pinnules on 



has been given, as .^ . at 



a and Its form A.aurta, 



71. AlKiphlla ol 



piunales4-5 1n. long. Que 



ttOD, Mid ai 



ALSTRCEMERIA 



11 timea dniing their growth the roots mtut 
n abnndanee of water. In tut, thera Is lltMe Die 
In *ttemptliiK tbeir caltiTatlon ont-ot-door« where thess 
codditlona oannot be givea. In colder cliinates, tbe Al- 
Btnemeriu eta be grown very tuacetttaUj b; pIiiCtlnR- 
ont in iprtDK, uiiil, as soon »a tbe^ die down, lift, and 
keepoverwlnterlnsplBoe from which (roatU eioluded. 
An umnftl lifting, or, when grown In pots, kd annnal 
Bhftklng-out, sbonid be given, beonse they Increase to 
Bnch an eitent that the joangerand amaller crowns are 
apt to take the noarlsbment from the large, flowering 
crowns. The largest ones ongbt to be separated from 
tbe smaller ones, and either grown In pota or planted 
outside when tbe proper time urlTes. In thli way the 
genns will become much more popular than It now Is, 
either for onttlng or for the decoration of tbe bolder. 
The soil best suited to their reqairementa Is largely com- 
posed of regetable humns; when this Is not to be bad, 
old, well-decayed cow or stable mannro should be Incor- 
porated with tbe soil. When they 
aro planted outside, tbe tubers 
Bhonld be pnl deep in the ground, 
and the soil should be well worked 
for at lea.1t 16 Inches. Tbe tubers 
are slightly egg-shaped, attached 



One of the best for groenbouse ^^ 
work Is A. PelegHna, var. alba. 
Other kinds which may be con- 
sidered tender noitb o( Washing- 
ton aro A, ham/mtha, A. venieelor (or 
Peruviana) and its forms, A. Sookerii 
and A . violaeea. Some of tbe Van Hontl« 
hybrids, raised from Hookeril and bvman- 
tba, are extremely pretty, bnt, with the 
others, they are rather unsuitable for pot- 
cultDre, owing to the peculiar formation 
of tbe roots. 

Tbe species are easily raised from seeds, 
which should be sown rather thinly in 
deep pans, and allowed to roniain without 



prick 



.eOrstsf 
Cult, by G. W. OuTBK. 



A. Lvi. ot II, etem [or leapt) broad, ob- 
long or obiong-tpatulale. 

pnlehUla, Liun. t. (A. pttUaeina, 
Lehrn.). Sterile st. a fcwt or less long, 
with aggregated petloled Ive.: flowering 
St. 2-3 ft., with scattered Ivs.: fls. In a 
simple umbel, on pedicels \-l% in. long, 
long-funnel-shaped, tbesegmentsunequal. 
dark red and tipped with green and spotted 
inside with brown; stamens nearly as long 
as limb. Brasil. Fig. 73 is a copy of the 
A. piittacina, B.M. 3033.-AD old garden 
pinnt. 

Chiltnill, Cree. Stout, 2-1 ft. : Ivs. icat- 
tered. obovate or spatalate, or tbe upper becoming lan- 
ceolate, twisted at tbe base, fringed, somewhat glaucous: 
fls. large, rose or red (or varying to whltlshl, the two 
lower segments longer and straighter : nmbel with 5 
or 6 2-fld. peduncles. Chile. 
AA. Lvi. of n. It. lancrolale (af r^ait llit lower onei). 
B. Fls.purpliihorred. 

PaltfflUw, Linn. FI. St. stout, afoot or less high: Ivs. 
about 30, thin, ascending, 2 In. or less long and >iin. or 
less wide : fl. 2 in. or less long, lilac, tbe outer segments 
broad and cnapidate, the inner ones spotted red>purple' 
nmbel fuw-rayed, normally simple, but becoming com- 

Soundincult. ANo a pure while var. Chile, B.M. 139. 
n. 46, p. 472. L.B.C. 13: 1295. 

hESmintha, Ruli & Pav. [A. Stmtti, Spreng.). Fl. st. 
2-3 ft. : Ivs. crowded and thin, somewhat stalked, 3-4 in. 
long and ^in. or lees long, the upper becoming Um 



ALUM-ROOT 

B.M. 

BE. FU. yellea or yelUMeiih. 
MmntiiM, Don. Fl, St. 2-1 ft. high : Ivs. neatly EO. 
thin, somewhat petlolate, slightly glaucous below, 3-1 ft. 
loDg and !^ln. wide : fls. 10-30, la a compound umbel, 
the perianth bright yellow, outer segments tipped green 
and Inner ones spotted brown. There is a form with 

Sale, unspotted as. Chile. B.IIl.3350, as .^.aurca. Gn. 
S:472. 

Braailltaili, Spreng. St. 3-4 ft.: lvi. remote, tlileUsh, 
oblong-lanceolate, 2 In. long: fl. I3Ctn. loDg,biaG-rayed 
nmbel (each ray bearing 1-vl fls.), the segments oblong- 
■patulate and reddish yellow, the Inner ones spotted 
brown; stamens shorter than segments, Braill. 
XA±. Lvi. of flower item linear. 
:, Bull & Pav. (_A. Pervvidna, Tan Houtte. 
A. lulpkilrta and A. tigrtna, 
Hort.J. Fl. St. short (I ft. or less 
high); Ivs. many, the lower ones 
about I in. long : fla. 1 in. long, in 
a nearly simple nmbel, yellow 
spotted purple, the segments all 
oblanceoiate and acute. A mar- 
ginate var. Chile. 

UrtiL. LIdd- Fl. St. la-Z ft.: 
Ivs. 20-30, thin, tbe lowermost 
becoming lanceolate, 2-3 In. long; 
fls. l>i to. long, in a neatly or 
quite simple nmbel, whitish, liiae 
or pale red, Btroaked purple, the 
legmetitsoftenohtnse. Vai.pfllohra, 
lA.pdlckra, Sims, B.U. 2121. A. 

Jdrttni, Ker.), baa narrower and 

longer ivs., and all the segments acute or 
cuspidate. Chile. Common and variable 
lu cult. A. Bodkeri, Lodd., Is a form of 
A. Ligtu. 

Tbe A. Lintu at B.M. 126 is A. earfo- 
pkgilia, Jacq.. with long-clawed, very un- 
equal segments in two aeti or lips, red and 
red-Btrlped. Brazil. 

Tlel&aaa, PhUl. St. 1-2 ft. : Ivs. seattervd 
and spreading, I In. or less long, tboee on 
Bterile shoots larger, ovate-oblong and G- 
nerved : fls. on forked pedicels In a B-rayed 
nmbel, lK-2 In. long, bright lilac, tbo 




, the 



' oblong-a( 



uidwlth 



ALTtlVKAaTHtBA. See Telanikira. 

AXrTH^A (Greek, Co eunl. MalvAeea, 
Tall biennial or perennial Iterbs, of the 
warm-temperate regions ot tbe Old World, 
of about a doien species. Fls. ailUary, 
solitary, or racemose In the aills or -*- 



it of tl 



li 6-9 b 
.caliiUa, Hort., : 



Bath : fls. 2 Ii 



bright red 



A. friltix 

MabshMauiOW, Downy: Ivs. ovate, 
I or 3-lobed, frequently undivided, 
_i. across, blush or rose, clustered In the 
Perennial. E. En. — Root used for mn- 

ither purposes; also medicinal. The 
I has its brown outer covering removed, 
occasionally escaped in marabes near 

, Cav. HoLLTHOCE. wblch scs for culture. St. 

lud Bplre-llke, hairy: Its. large and rough, 
rounaed-heart-abaped, wavy-angled or lobed: fls. largs 
and nearly aessUe, In a long wand-like raceme or aplka, 
in many forms and colors. Biennial. China. B.M. 3198. 
ticUAlla. Cav. Biennial, 5-8 ft.: Ivs. T-lobed, toothed: 
fl. yellow or orange, large, in terminal spikes, showy- 
Eu. Int. by Franceachl, Cal., as A. aidafilia. 



L. H. B. 



ALIFH-BOOT. See FeucAen 



AMARANTUS 



55 




ALfBBinC (eluale&lnBme). Cntclfira. LowpluitB, 

mostly perrDDlkls and used for rockworh. Tbe Sweet 

Alyaiiani is one of tbe commoaeBt snnunls, griiwa bolb 

In the open »nrf forced 

pots. It ia of tlie essl- 



prized tor pot-cnllnre. 
Uader gin as, requires 
temperature of ft car- 
stand considerable 
fniBt In the open, and 
a early ; It blooms all summer, aud until 
killed b; winter. Useful for window ^Brdens and bas- 
kets. For winter bloom, sow seeds late in Auk* °' ^ 
Sept. Whenbloomsbegmtotailpcutbacktbe plant.and 
II will bloom again. Tbe perenulal apecles are usually 
prop, by dividing tbe roots ; also by cuttings and seeds. 

A. ru.KMit. 



Linn. 



a. t A, odorilum, Hort,). SweetAlts- 
Bim. Pig. 74. A low, sprriulluj;, light green annual, witb 
lanceolate or linear entire Its., tapering to the base, and 
small boney-Bcented fis, in terminal clusters, wbich be- 
eom* long racemes. Eu. Many cult. vars. : Btnthaml 
or BompAetani, a dwarf and compact form, not over S in. 
bigb; mlaKttnm, with pale white- edged Ivs.; irlgan- 
Una. robust, broad-lvd,; proeflnibm*, of spreading 
habit; and variona bortlcultural forme nlth trade names. 
A woody- stemmed little perennial, 
□te silvery Its., spiny fl.branoheB, 
leroui fla. En. Rockwork; 3-6 In. 



Mnjl 
(3-4 hi. 



Dflsf. (A. atpitire, Llnn.T). Dwarf 
mewhat woody at the base, with rouftb- 
ileyellDwHs.inracemes. En. tat.lB»2. 



. Lvi. 



In. i 






MZitll*, Linn. Gouieh-tdit. A toot btgh, woody at 
base : Its. oblanceolale or orate -lanceolate, entire or 

vary, hoary -tomenlose : fls. golden yellow, numeroas, 
in little compact cluaters. Ba. B.M. 159. A.F. S:37. 
—Common In rockwork, making a sprBadlngmal. bloom- 
ing in early spring. There Is a dwarf var. feompdetuaf , 
and a pretty rarlcgated variety mo\dmK A ^varitgAtutn. 

Gamoninas.Llnn. Leas hardy than the laat; Iva. lan- 
ceolate, velvety; fls. lemon -yello w : St. usually more 
woody at base. Eu. 

natiitnm, Stev. (A. Wiinbickii, Henft.). Abont 20 
In.; Ivs. 2 in. long, brosct-obioog, pointed, hairy; fls. 
deep yellow, In dense heads. In summer. Asia Minor. 

■rgtntetnn. Vltm. Dwarf and dense grower. 19 In. or 
less: 1 vs. oblong- spatula) e, silvery beneath : Bs. yetlov 
In clnstered beads, all summer. " 



L. H. 1 



AKUrtlA. See JfusAroom. 



bright eolorlcg. Seeds may be sown in the open or In 

frames. The dwarf and compact rars., wblI^h often have 
beautifully rarlegaled foliage, may be grown In pots or 
used for bedding, Olve plenty of room. 

A. Jjvi, linear- lanctolalt, loi%g and dnoplng, 

■aUoUUlna, Veltch. Oraoefnl pyramidal habit, 3ft.: 
IvB. 5-8 In. long and Hln. wide, wavy, bronie-green, 
ahanglng to orange-red. Pblllpplnes. 6.C.L ISHilSSO. 
F.S. 18:1929. 

Aa. Zvt, broad, moilly ovalt, 
B. Spiktt droopins, 

Eauditoi, Linn. LovE-LiBS-BLBEDiHa. Fig. 75. Tall 
and diffuse (3-G ft.) : ]vs. ovate to ovate-oblong, atalked, 
green : spikes red, long and slender, naked, in a long 
and drooping panicle, the terminal one farming a long, 
cord-like tall. Also vara, with yellowish and whitlab 
panicles. India. Q.W. 6: 709,— Common, and an old 
faTorile. 

atropniiATeuB, Hart. Foliage blaad-red. Probablf a 

form oC .^.caudafHi. Ferbnps the aam -"--■- '•- 

A. atnpurpureu$ from India. 



bypodumdilaeiu, Linn. Prince's Feathib. Tall and 
glabrous: Its. oblong-lanceolate, acule: spikes blunt, 
aggregated into a thick, lumpy terminal panicle, of which 
the central part Is elongated: bracte lung-awned. — An 
old garden plant, with tbe heavy beads variously col- 
ored, but mostly purple. Lvs. mostly purple or purple- 
green. Probably Asian. Cult, also as A . cru^afut and 
.i.alrapurpilreui. Sometimes a weed in oult. groanda. 

panisnUtni, Linn. St. usually pubescent : lvs. nsn- 
ally broader tban In the last, and spikes acute or acutlsh, 
and in an open, more graceful terminal panicle: braOta 
awn-polnted,— Common, and aometlmes a weed. Lva. 
oaually green, but often blotched or bright purple. A 
sUowy form Is A. ipecidMu», Sims. B.M. 222T. Cult, 
alao as A, iati|ru<neu(. Probably originally Asian. 

OMWttinil, Linn. {^.meIaHcA<«[ict(i, Linn.). Usually 
a lower plant. U ft, or less and often only I ft., with thin, 
ovate-pointed lvs., and fls. In abort, glomerate, inter- 
mpted spikes, iiath terminal and aiillary, — Very varia- 
ble. Cult, by Amer. Chinese (Fig. 76) aa a pot-herb 
under the name of Hon-tol-mol, with green Its. (Bailey, 
Bull. 67. Camell En). SU.). A form used for bedding, 
with foliage red. yellow and green, is Jobei^'s Coat, or 
A. tricolor la.-W. 6:709). A form with flery red lvs. ia 
known as A. hicotor. Various dwarf and compact bed- 
ding forms. Used more far foliage than for fl. panicles. 

Other garden Amarantbuses are A. Abyiiinieui, 
dark red; A.giAMsiis, Hort.. a fannof .J.pDnienlalul,- 
A. Hinderi, probably a hybrid with A. talielfoliut, or a 



AKAKABdTA(natlrenamel. Mtlatlomicta. A ge- 
nua of only three species of tender shrubs from New 
Grenada, which are showy both In foliage and flower. 
Lts. large, opposite, sessile, with three prominent 
nervei, brownish red beneath; fls. large, cymose; petals 
oaually 6; atamens 12-15. For cult., see Plcroma. Not 
known to be In American trade. 

Wlia T,tn,lHn iri« whlrf murvirlAi PArmInn; stameDl 



JTTDS (Greek, unfading). Amarantdeia. 
AHAKANTR Coarseannnal plants, grown for foliage anil 
the showy fl. -clusters. Related tothe Cockscomb. The 
Amaranth! are usually treated as open-air annuals. 
They thrive best In a hot and sunny situation. In very 
rich soil tbe lvs. become very large hut usually lack In 



var.of it, with long-drooping, orown lvs., and tall, pyra- 
midal stature; A. Oirdoni, or Uunrtse, with bronay 
banded lvs, and brilliant scarlet Ivs. on top; A.iupirtmM, 
Int. 1893. Other Amarantbuses are common weeds: A. 



00 AUAOANTUS 

rtlrttfUiHt, Uan., A. cklordifocAyi, Willd., A. dlbut. 
LIud., a. bUloUlii, Wata., A. ipindtui, Llnu. The twc 
flntare knoirn u pigweeds uid bee^ToaU; the third ii 
ID tambleweed. [,_ u, b_ 




AXABtUJS (cluBlcsl name). Amatyllidicta. 
Bulbous plants from Cape of Oood Hope, flowering in 
late summer or in (all. the Its. appearing later. Perianth 
with a ahort ribbed tube, the dlTlsioBs oblong or lanceo- 
late, the SlamentB distinct and no scales between them, 
lis, 5-12, In an nmbel, on a tdl scape. Monogr. by Her- 
bert, AmarrlUdaceB. 1837 ; and by Baker, Handbook of 
the Ainarvlllden. 

In dealing with the culture o( Amairllli. It is cas- 
tomar; to apeak of the genaa in Its hortjcultural sense, 
—to Include Hlppeastrum and related things. Such la 
the nnderstandiug in the following cultural directions. 
There are two wldelf differing methods of culClTating 
the Amaryllis to produce show; flowers !n the spring 
months, — the border method and the pot meFbod- Any 
one trying both of these methods will soon come 
to the conclusion - 

but in flower-prt 
Is to plant the bulbs oot in a prepared border after 
they are done flowering, say about the middle ol May. 
The border selected should have perfect drainage, and. 
If convenient, be sitaated on the south side of a house or 
wall, fully exposed to the sun during the greater part 
of the day. The bulbs are set out in rows, nereBsarily 
with as little disturbance of the roots as possible, becanse 
If they are bulbs which hsve undergone similar treat- 
ment the previous year, by the middle of Hay they have 
made a considerable number of new roots ; besides, the 
foliage also has gained some headway, and may be con- 
sidered In the midst of actual growth. In planting, care- 



AHABTLUS 

Amaryllis Is capable of. To partly ameliorate these con- 
ditions, the bulbs In active growth at lifting time may 
he heeled-ln on a greerihonae bench unlll they gradu- 
ally ripen, taking care that some of the soil la retained 
on the roots; otherwise the ripening process is altogether 
toorapld, so that the roots and leaves suddenly lose their 
robust nature, become flabby, and eventually die. For 
this method, It can be said that a larger number of bulbs 
can be fcrown with less trouble than by the pot method, 
but neither bulbs nor flowers compare In site with those 
kept In pots the year round. For the purpose of simply 
increasing stock, the outdoor method is to be preferred. 
Most of the kinds are naturally evergreen; potting under 
those conditions Is best done either after the plants have 
made their growth in the fall or after they have flnlshed 
flowering In April. When done in the foil, they are al- 
lowed to remain rather dry during the winter; this will 
keep the soil of the original ball in a sweet condition 
nnlil tha time arrives to start them into growth, whieh 
may be anywhere after the 1st of January, or even 
earlier If necessary. Tbey will winter all right, and keep 
their foliage. In a brick frame In wbich the temperature 
is not allowed to fall below 45° F. By the begltmlng of 
February, in astmcture of this sort, tbey will be showing 
flower-scapes, and should then be taken to a position 

tlon of cow-manure will much help the development 
of the flowers. When in bloom, a groenhonse tempera- 
ture, with slight shade, will prolong the flowering period. 
After flowering, the greatest care should be taken of the 
plants, as it is from that period till the end of snmmer 
that the principal growth is mode. A heavy loam, en- 
riched with bone-dust and rotted cow-manure, suitB them 
well. The seeds of Hippeastrums should be sown as soon 
as ripe, covered very lightly with finely sifted leaf-mold, 
and If this shows a tendency to dry t«o quickly, cover 
with panes of glass until germination takes place. As 

potted in the smallest slied p.~ts and kept growing. In 
the propagation of varieties, It will be fbond that the 
large bulbs make two or more offsets each season; thesa 
should not be detached until It is certain that they bav« 
enough roots of their own to start with after being 
' " " a the parent. If a well-flowered speclmi 



soil has been raked o' 



le depth of 2 Inches 
with halt-decaved cow- 
manure. With frequent 
waterings during the 

nioval of weeds, they 
will need no more at- 
tention untit the ap- 
proach of coolweslher, 
when tbey should be 
lifted, sised, and pot- 
ted ; however, at this 
season, it wet weather 
has predominated, 
some of the bulbs will 
be in a semi-dormant 
state, while the ma- 
jority will yet be In 
active growth. Here 
Is the drawback to this 
method : the roots are 
large sod fleshy, they 



na 6- c 



Qslderable 



] the soli c 
not be evenly d" 
uted amongst 



T-lnch 



irgene 
..lantki 
_rlnom) are hardy In the Dist... 
longl/lora thrives even In damp, heavy s 
protection, and flowers abundantly each year. The seeds 
are about the slie of a chestnut, and If not gathered •• 
soon as ripe, they are apt to germinate on the surface ol 
the ground during the next rainy spell succeeding tha 
ripening. A . Belladonna needs a worm, sheltered spot, 
with deep planting. Cult, by G. W. Ouvbr. 

Belladtana, Linn. Beli^donha Lilt. Fig. TT. Scape 
2-4 (1., with a 2-lvd. dry spsthe or involucre just nnder- 
neath the umbel: fls. Illy-like, sbort-lubed, and flaring, 
with pointed segments and style, and S stamens deflexed, 
on short pedicels, fragrant, normally rose-eolor; scape 
solid ; Ivs. strap-shaped, canaliculate and acute. B.H. 
733. On. 33;64], 47. p. 46. 49, p. 276, 64;4U. G.C. 111. 
24:315. An old favorite. There are varietlea ranging 
from white to red, and varying In shape and site of fls. 
A. Aldnifa.Gawl (B.M. 1450|, Is a large form, with whlt« 
fls., fading to blush. A. Hdllii, Hort., from V. China, 
but probably not native there, is evidently only a form 
of the Belladonna Lily. For var. riaea penfcta, see Gt. 
45, p.443: ipeetAbllil ttlMlor, 45.p. 358. See £»»(- 
vigia torA.glgantea sndorirnfalit; Crlnumfor.4.I[>n|rl' 
folia Kiiomata; Hlppeastrum for A, aulica, eqaet- 
trti,ralgida,JohHioni,Ijeopoli''' -"- - **- 



tlal decay of the n 



leapea appear, they are developed 
bulb, through having Insufftclent i 
Ishment from the soil. Thr 
are small, few In number. 



id do not show what the 



bergia for .^. iufca ; Vallota for .il. purpurea ,■ Zephy- 
ranthea for A. Atamasto and Candida. The following 

tiilgeni. A. tnibfie'eni, of Horaford's Cat.. 1899 '(by 
mistake printed crnbeKrrm), Is Zephyranthes erubes- 
eeDS,Wats. It Is not now ottered. t tt n 



AMASAMIA (fttier Tbomu AmMOD, early American 
traveler). I'erbinicea. Qreenhoaae ahmb from Trini- 
dad, with long, tubular, hairy yellow Hb. and bright red 
bractt, wlileh remain attractive two or three montfaa at 



'd or alDnate. glabrona, except the floral ones : S>. 
IK'^in.louK, drooping; calyi nearly I in. Iodk, red. 
B.M.6915. an.2T:47a. B.B. 20: 13. 

AXBEOStirU (Qlulotl AmbroBlnl, an Italian). 
Areidta. A dwarf, perennial, tuberousherbof Italy and 
Algeria. Half-hardy; planted Id the open or in pota, 
and blooms In the fall. A single apeeiee. 



B4M11, Linn. Three or 4 Inches : Its. 2 or 3, over- 
topping the spathe, the leaf-blade ovate or ovate-elllp- 
tie, obtuse, ottaa retuae: apathe % in. long, tipped with 
a brown tail, divided lenEthwLee, the antherB being In 
one eompartraeut (which boa a hole to admit Insects), 
and the solitary ovary in the other, thus preventing au- 
tomatlo close pollination. B.M. 6360.— Prop, by seeds 
started inside or la frames, or by division in ppring. 
Thereis&narrow-leavedfarm [var. angustifilia, Gusb.J, 
a spotted-leaved form (var. naeHlAta, Engler), and a 
form with pale green rellcolatlons (var. reliculdla, 
Engler), L. H. B. 

AMBLABCHIEB (Savoy name). Soiieta. Shruba 
or email trees of Eu,,Asia and Amer.: Ivb. alternate, 
simple, usnally serrate: &a. white, In racemes, rarely 
solitary ; calyi tnbe companulate, 5-labed, lobea narrow, 
reSexed, persistent ; petals 6 ; ovary 2-5-celled, each 
subdivided and conttdning 2 orolea : berry round or ob- 
long-, with prominent cavity, red or dark purple, sweet, 
Jnicy. Temperate regions aronnd the globe. Species 
few and cloaely reliteil. Dfnlmble for ornament, the 
dwarf varieties also valuable as fmil-bearing planta. 



AMES 57 

Bloom very early in spring, often before Ivs. appear. 
They thrive upon a variety of soils and over a wide range, 
succeeding well In dry climatee. Prop, by seeds of 
suckers. A. ordlit and A. olplita of borticnlturiBte, 
sometimes purporting to come fram Eu., are oar native 
P])rui nigra, which see. See Juntberrg, 

A. Lvi. aeute or acuminalt, finely itrrate. 
B. Fetaii narroie, lanneolatt, obianceolale or tpalulale. 
Cana<Mn*l». Medio. Common Shad-bcbh. Tree, 25-10 
ft., upright, narrow, oblong, round-topped : trunk toll, 
Btr&lght; branches Bmal I, spreading: IvB. oval or ovate, 
acute or acuminate, rounded or cordate at base, sharply 
and finely serrate, aoon becoming glabrous : tniH glo- 
bose. Early summer. Newfoundland to Fla., went to 
Ark. and Minn. S.S.4:]94. 

rn, DC lA. Canadimia, var. oblonsitbtia, 
y|. Common Dwahp Joraeissi. Bush or 
Ivs. and flower-stalks whitish woolly when 

f elliptical, seldom cordate, often pointed at 
les dense, shorter than in A. Canadtniiif 

fr. Juicy, of good flavor. New Brunswick 
It to Mo. and Minn. B.M. 7619. G.C. III. 
. 4:195, aa A.CanadinMii var. abovilit, Sarg. 
Endl. (A. Canadintit, var. Japdnira. Mlq. 
i,Hort.}. Small tree with aleudfr branches: 
liptical, acute, densely woolly when young; 
lie, compound. China and Jap. 

BB. Pelali broad, obovale. 
h, Boem. Low shrub 2-9 ft., nearly glabrous 

Ivg. tblD, narrawiy ovate or oblong, pointed 
, finely and aharply aerrate : racemes few- 
letals broad, obovale : fr. dork btue-purple, 
, with heavy bloom, sweet, of pronounced 
mpa, Lab. to N. Y. G.F.I; 247. 
reader, tibtute or roandtd at apex, eoar»t1y 
Merrate or dentate. 
1. Pig. 78. 1 



Nutt. Pig. 71 
irly eircnlar. 



imb : Ivs. thick, broad, 
. „ ... . . lely toothed toward the 
I narrowly obovate or oblanceolate, cuneate: 
pie or blue, with bloom, large, sweet, Juicy, 
dicb., Kew Mei. and westward. O.F.lrlsi; 
4: 196.— A valuable species for fruit or or- 
is, Roem. (A.Cawidintia,Tax.rtilundifblia, 
ly). Low, itraggiiah bnah: Ivs. rounded, 
coarsely serrate: fr. ripening aft^r A. 
Canadtniii. K. Brunswick to Mian. 

Qiotte, Dec. SmaU bush 1-3 ft.; Ivs. 

elliptic or oval, rounded at both ends or 

somewhat cordate at baae ; Sa in numer- 

' ous 4-10-tld. racemes : plant woolly on 

Eoung growths, but becoming glabrous. 
>ry, rocky places. Pa. and X. J. 
TalgUi, Monch. SEBVici-BEaBT. Dwarf 
shrub ; ivs. roundish, coarsely siTrate, 
woolly beneath when young : racemes short; petals long- 
narrowly oblanceolate : fr. blue-block. Cent.Eu.-Cult. 
for ornament ; also for fr. under the name of European 
Juneberrj-. YasD TV. Cabp. 

AXES, FBEDESIOK lOTHBOP (June S, IS35-Sept. 
13, 1893), of the fourth generation of a family distin- 
guished in the history of Masaachusettta enterprise, was 
bom in North Easton, in that state. He was graduated 
from Harvard CoUe-ge in the class of 1854, and devoted 
bis life to the management of great commercial and in- 
dustrial interests. Buaineasdid not occupy all his atten- 
tion; be woe a Fellow of Harvard College, a tmstee of 
the Massachusetts Society (or Promoting Agricullnre, 
and at the Museum of Pine Arts; and on active and 
faithful director of charitable and benevolent institu- 
tions. A munificent patron of arts and sciences, he was 
successful in stimulating the IncreoHe of knoviledge in 
many fields of human reseorch. Devoted through hia 
whole life to horticulture, he gained distinction for his 
wide and accurate knowledge of tropical orchids and 
(heir cultivation, and his collection of these plants at hIa 
country place in hia native town was tbe moat complet« 



58 



AMES 



AMORPHOPHALLUS 



in the New World. His important services to botany and 
horticnltnre are commemorated in Lalia Ametianaf 
Latlia anceps yar. Amesiana, PhaUenopsis F, L. Ames, 
Cypripedium Amesianumf Cypripedium iruigne var. 
Amesianum, Vanda Amesiana, Stanhapea Amesiana, 
Miltonia vexillaria var. Amesiana, Odontoglossum 
Bossia var. Amesiana, and Cattleya Hardy ana var. 
Amesiana, c. S. Saroent. 

AMHiBSTIA (Countess Amherst and her daughter, 
Lady Amherst, promoters of botany in India). Legu- 
mif^sm. One of the noblest of flowering trees, native 
to India, where it reaches a height of 40 ft. and more. 
Gaudy red fls. 8 in. long, with wide-spreading petals, the 
upper ones gold-tipped, and colored petal-like bracts, in 
long, hanging racemes : Ivs. pinnate, nearly 3 ft. long. 
The tree nrst flowered in Eng. in 1849. It requires hot- 
house treatment. The fls. last only 2 or 3 days. Demands 
rich, loamy soil, and abundant moisture during the grow- 
ing season, after which the wood must be ripened firm. 
B.M.4453. F.S. 5: 513-616. 

AMIAHTHXITM. See Zygadenus, 

AXXOBIUIC (Greek, living in sand), Compdsiia, 
Hardy herb, cult, as an everlasting or immortelle. Florets 
perfect, yellow, surrounded by a dry, silvery white invo- 
lucre, and subtended by chaffy scales ; pappus of 2 bris- 
tles and 2 teeth. Commonly treated as an annual, but 
seeds are sometimes sown in Sept., and the plant treated 
as a biennial. Of easiest culture, the seeds being sown 
where the plants are to grow. In the N., sow seeds In 
spring. Cut the fls. before they are fully expanded, and 
hang in a dry, shady place. They will then remain white. 

aUitimi, B. Br. Three ft. or less high, erect and 
branchy, white-cottony, the branches broadly winged : 
early root-lvs. ovate at the ends and long-tapering be- 
low (javelin -shaped) ; st.-lv8. linear or linear-lanceolate, 
entire or nearly so : heads 1-2 in. across, the involucre 
becoming pearly white. Australia. A large-headed form 
is var. graadifltoiin. Xj. H. B. 

AMX6GHABI8 {ammos, sand; eJkartj, beauty). Ama- 
rylUdAce<B, Greenhouse bulb from Cape of Good Hope. 
J. G. Baker, Amarylliden, p. 96. For cult., see Bulbs. 

f alo4ta. Herb. Bulb ovoid, sometimes 6-9 in. in diam. , 
with brown tunics : Ivs. 1-2 ft. long, 1 in. wide, strap- 
shaped, spreading, produced before the Ivs.: fls. 20-40, 
in an umbel, bright red, fragrant. Winter. Probably 
the fruit figured in B.M. 1443 is that of a Brunsvigia, 
mismatched with the flowers. 

Ammoeharis falcata requires rich, loamy soil. It 
■tarts to grow in the spring. Give plenty of water during 
growing season in summer. It can be cultivated out-of- 
doors. When perfected and finished in autumn, the bulb 
can be put under the greenhouse bench ; keep moder- 
ately dry in sand or earth ; can be potted in January, 
after which it will soon throw out its fine, fragrant 
^^ooros. Cult, by H. A. Siebrboht. 

AXMOKIACAL CASBONATE OF COPFEB. See 

Fungicide. 

AMMOFHILA (Greek, sand-loving). Oraminea, A 
coarse perennial, with long, hard rootstocks. Spikelets 
1-fld., in large, spike-like panicles, jointed above the 
empty glumes : flowering glume surrounded at the base 
by a tuft of hairs: axis of spikelet terminating in a small 
bristle-like rudiment. Species one. Eu. and N. Amer. 

axen&ria, Link. (A. arundiniUcea, Host.). Beech 
Grass. Mab&oi Grass. Abundant along the sandy 
coasts of the Atlantic, and the great lakes. Adapted for 
binding drifting sands of coasts. p „ Kenkedv 

AlCOlIUlI (Greek -made name). SeitaminAcece. Hot- 
house ginger-like herbs, with narrow entire Ivs., and fls. 
in dense cone-like spikes, which are usually near the base 
of the plant or on a scape. Closely allied to Alpinia 
(which see for culture). 

Oirdamon, Linn. Cabdamon. Thick, spicy, lanceolate 
Ivs. : plant 4-8 ft. : fls. brownish, in a recumbent com- 
pound spike. E. Ind. Produces the Cardamon seeds of 



commerce. Not to be confounded with Slettaria Carda- 
mamum (which see). 

Other species are A. angusHnUum^ Sonner.with lineai^laneeo- 
late Its. and yellow fla., Madac. ; A. DdnieUi^ Hook., Ivi. lanoe- 
oblong and fl. larae, red and yellow, Afr. ; A. Qranum-ParadiH, 
Unn. (A. grandiflonun. Smith), with colored stems and white- 
tinted fls., Afr. ; A. maon^Uiewm^ Benth. ft Hook. (Alpinia mac- 
niflea, Rosooe), 10-12 ft., fls. very ntuneroiis, in a candy braeted 
head, large, red. Mauritius, B.M. 3192 ; A. vOtdfttm, Hort.— Al- 
pinia vittata ; A. vUeUXnum^ Lindl., with oval Ivs. and yellow 
fls. ,B. Ind. L. H. B. 

AMOBFHA (Greek amorpXos, deformed; the fls. are 
destitute of wings and keel). Leguminbscs, Shrubs: 
Ivs. alternate, odd-pinnate, deciduous, with entire leaf- 
lets : fls. in dense, terminal spikes, small,papilionaceou8, 
but without wings and keel ; stamens exserted : pod 
short, slightly curved, with 1-2 seeds. Eight species, 
6 in N. Amer. Hardy flowering shrubs, with graceful fo- 
liage, well adapted for small shrubberies, especiaUy in 
somewhat dry and sunny situations. Prop, usually by 
seeds ; also by «eenwood cuttings under glass in early 
summer, or bv hardwood cuttings, placed in sheltered 
situations early in fall and left undisturbed till the fol- 
lowing autumn. They may be grown, also, from layers 
and suckers. 

oaateoenc, Nutt. Lead Plant. Low shrub, 1-3 ft., 
densely white-canescent : Ivs. sessile, 2-4 in. long, leaf- 
lets 21-49, nearlv sessile, oval or ovate-lanceolate, 4-7 
lines long : fls. blue, the spikes crowded into terminal 
panicles. June. S. states. Mn. 5:707. B.M. 6618. R.H. 
1896:280.— Handsome free-flowering shrub of dense 
habit, well adapted for rockeries and borders of shrub- 
beries in sunny and well-drained situations. 

Imtlodsa, Linn. Bastard Indigo. Shrub, 5-20 ft.: 
Ivs. petioled, 6-16 in. long, leaflets 11-21, oval or elliptic, 
mostly obtuse and mucronulate : spikes dense, 3-6 in. 
long, usually in panicles ; fls. dark purple. From Wis. 
and Pa. south. B.R. 5:427.— Interesting ornamental 
shrub of spreading habit, with flne, feathery foliage ; 
remarkable for the unusual color of its dark violet- 
purplish fls. A very variable species ; slightly differing 
forms have been described, and are cult, under many dif- 
ferent names, as, e. g. : A. Caroliniana, Croom ; eroceo- 
lanata,WKts.; dealbata f Hort.; elata, H.ort.\ fragrans. 
Sweet; glabra, I>est.; tot^afa, Nutt. ; Lewisi, hodd.; 
Ludoviciana, Hort.: mimosifolia, Hort.; omato,Wend.; 
panieulata, Torr. & Gr. ; Tennesseensis, Shuttlew. ; 
Texana, Buckl. 

A.Calif6miea,'Sjitt. Allied to A. fraticosa. Pubesoent: sts. 
and leaf-stalks famished with prickly slands : spikes usually 
single. Calif .—A . herbdeea^WtJLt. (A. pabesoens.Willd.; , 2^ ft.: 
Ivs. nearly aessUe, pubesoent or glabrous ; leaflets with black 
^ands beneath : spikes mostly panided ; fls. blue or white. S. 
states. L.B.C. 7: 680.— A. mieroph^lla, Pursh. (A. nana, Nutt.). 
One ft. high : leaflets small, Kin* long, crowded, glandular be- 
neath : spikes usually single. From Minn, and Iowa west to 
Rocky Mts.— A. virgdta, Small. Allied to A. fraticosa. Peren- 
nial, 2-6 ft., sparingly branched : leaflets broad, coriaceous*: 
spikes single or few. S. states. Alprkd Rkhder. 

AMOBFHOFHALLUS (Greek-made name). AroXdea, 
Giant arolds, from the eastern tropics, grown as curiosi- 
ties in hothouses. Spathe (or *^ flower ") springing from 
the grreat bulb-like tuber in advance of the Ivs., the latter 
usually pedately compound : differs from Arum and re- 
lated genera by technical characters. Monogr. by Engler 
in De Candolle's Monographics Phanerogamarum, vol. 2, 
1879. 

Amorphophalluses are propagated by offsets of the 
tubers. Towards the end of March the plants should be 
taken from their winter quarters and placed on the 
stages of a moderately warm greenhouse and kept moist, 
where, if the tubers are strong enough, they will soon 
flower. The leaves begin to grow immediately after the 
flowering season. Towards the end of May they should 
be planted out in the open ground, or they may be used 
in subtropical bedding. Plants should be lifted in the 
fall, before frost, and potted in any good, rich soil, and 
placed in a warm greenhouse to ripen off the leaves, after 
which they may be stored away under the greenhouse 
stages, or any convenient place where the temperature 
does not fall below 50°, giving just sufficient moisture to 
keep the tubers from shriveling. 

Cult, by Edward J. Camkikq. 



AHORPHOPHALLUS 

BlTUrl.Dor. Diyil'sTongui. ShakePai^. Fig. 79, 

Sope (gent up in esrly spring ) preceding the 1 vs., 3-4 ft,, 

duk colored and speckled with light red : It. often 4 ft. 

merou, pedMely decompound, the petiole mottled, Btand- 

Ing onastsik like an umbrella: epathe 

, ceJU-like, with a long-projeot- 

and slender dark red alightl; 

ed spadix, the whole "flower" 

I measuring 3 ft, ioug. Cocbio 

a. R.H. 1871, p. 673.-The best 

m species Id Amer. gardens. 

a strong and dlasgreeable odor. 

npwiiiUtu, Blume, Stanlbt's 



I Tub. 



, lo-er (2 fl 



: spatbe nearly or quite 2 ft. 
i and IS in. high, wilh a hori- 
zodMI. Bpreodlng fluted bor- 
der (not calU-like) , red-purple 
on the margin and grayish. 
■potted white lower down, and 
becoming purple In the cen- 
ter : spadli 10-12 In. high, 
the purple top enlarged and 
*■ convolulod: If. much as in .d. 
Bivieri: tuber weighing S-IO 
lbs., shape of a flat cbeese. An 
Id garden plant from E. Ind. 
I.H.2812. F.S. lS:1602-3. U.C. 
872:1720, 1721; III. 5:755. 
■firantini, Blanc, "Fl. larger 
UUI A. campanulatus (often 2 
L across) and much more pleaa- 
]g in color, shading from deep 
M to cream color towards the 
enter. The club-shaped spadlx 
I dark maroon, with yellow and 
»1 base. After Uowerlng, the 

 m of deep green color, mottled 
h gTBf . After growing at the 
! of several Inches a day, it ?i- 

Sanda Into a large palm-llkft leaf, 
or, often measuring G ft, across," 
Blanc. 1892, rec"elved "nnderthla name from Indja." ^. 
eampanulatut t Probably not the A.giganftHi of Blume. 
SmUnM, Blanc. 'Fl. 15 in. long, the Inside of peculiar 
golden color, spotted purple; the back In metallic brown. . 
Pine palm-Uke fotlaRe." The cut In Blanc'a catalogife 
shows a spathe prodncsd Into a long foUac^us ^ummlt, 
and a long, slender, recurved spadli. ProbSffjt of some 
Other genus: very likely i — ' '' 



liM UvlcrL n 



AMPELOPSIS 59 

eatelngs with a good eye placed in sandy soil under bell- 
glasses In Sept. Monogr. by Planchon In De CandoUe, 
Honographiffi Phanerogamarum, 6:447-163. Cf. Cii*u$. 
A. Temfrili moatJy ditk-btaring ; btrritt dark purplt 
tcilh blut bloom, pea-tiied. [Parthenocitint.) 

qiilsqiwUlU.Michx.M,A«f«rdefa,DC. TUIt guingtu- 
»lui,Lam.). Virginia Cbebpek. (^g.tW. High -climbing: 
IvH. digitate ; Ifts. usually 5, elliptic or oblong-obovate, 
coarsely serrate, N,Anier, £m. 12: 535. Var, radlMntft- 
•ima, Bebder. Young branches and Ifla. beneath pubes- 
cent : tendrils with many Tamlficatlone and well devel- 
oped disks. Var. murirum, Rehder, {A. liederAcra, vox. 
murdrum, Focke. A.murdnim and murAlit, Hort,). In- 
florescence and tendrils like the former ; Ifts. glaucous 
and glabrous beneath, Var, Kngslmannl, Hort. Slniilsr 
to the last, with smaller and more di-nse foliage. Var. 
latilftlla, Dipp, {ASdylei.Bon.). Of vigorous growth: 
Ivs. very large, shiniug. Var. Or Jebnsrl, Rehder, Pubes- 
cent, Intense scarlet in fall. Gt,4S:14{J2. Var.yitteea, 
Knerr. A6rial roots none, and the tendrils scarcely disc- 
bearing : berries large and early. Ulch.toKans, Does 
not cling to walla.— A very valuable climber of vigorous 
growth, coloring bright scarlet in autumn ; the varieties 
railicantiitiiKa and tnurorum well adapted for covering 
walls, clinging firmly, growing more straight upward 
than the following species. 

trlcnmidiU, Sleb. & Zucc, (A. Viitcki, Hort. A. 
ltd)/ lei, Hon. n(i< itieiiniiam, Miq.], JafaHeSk Ivr. 
Boston Ivr. Flga. 81, 82. Hlgh-ctimblng, with short 
and dlsciferous tendrils : Iva. 3-lobed or 3-folIolBte, 
coarsely and remotely dentate>shlnltic and glabroua on 
both sldea : racemes short^taiked, China, Jap. R.B. 
1S77;11. Qng.4:353, 1:373. -A hardy and r«ry usefol 
climber, clinging flnnly and covering walls densnly ; 
the glossy foliage stands dust and smoke well, and turns 
to a brilliant oj-ange and scarlet In fall. Probably ths 
favorite of all hardy vines in cities. 
AA. T^HUtnlj Kithout diiJu : MoE aUoMttg vtrn high. 
B, Lv%. Hot \obtd or ranly trieutpidate. 

eordita, Hlchx. ( VXtit indivUa, Wllld. CisiHS Atn- 
fisl^tif, Fees,), Nearly glabrous: Ivs. cordate, round - 

greenish. From 111. and Ohio sontb. 

an. Lvi.a-S-lotied or divided. 
hetsiophyllB, Sleb, & Zncc. Lvs. cordate, slightly 3- 
or deeply 3-5-lobed, nearly glabrous and shining be- 
neath, lobes serrate or incised : berries light blue, pnoe- 



Tided.' ^Mr. B. 
CDDllomLaeDnril.tJ 



\7i2 



'Laea<trii, Linden. 
~ ilu barred with yf 



(fai , I, 
I.H.U 



able plants known. Tuber 

4Sfi,lneini,i >pathe3(t -, ..-. _ 

at Kew in 1890, the tuber d]iD« thereafter. Snniatn. 
TlM-5. G.C. 111. 5:748. L. H, B. 

AMPKLOFSIB (Greek ampiloi. vine, and op,i», llke- 
nessj. VilAcea. Sbrubs, climbing by tendrils opposite 
the Ivs.: !va. alternate, petioled, digitate, bipinnate or 
simple : corymbs opposite tlw Ivs. or terminal ; fls. per- 
fect, greenish and small ; pefkls and stamens usually 5 : 
fr. a 1^-aeeded berry. Allied to Vltis, but easy to dis- 
tinguish, even in the winter atate. by Its bark bearing 
lenticels and the white pith of the branches, while Vitla 
has a shredding bark and brownish pith. About 20 spe- 
cies In N. Amer., E, Asia and^limal. Hardy and orna- 
mental climbing vines, thriving in almost any soil. 
Prop, by seede and by hardwood or greenwood cuttings. 
A. qaitujuttolia Is asoally Increased by hardwood cut- 
tings, while A. Iricvipidata grows beat from seeds 
planted under glass or out-of-doors ; also from green- 
wood cuttings In spring or early summer, under glass. 
Layers also root T«adlly. All species may be prop, by 



t»te. E.Asis. B.H,S682. Gt. 1ST3:765.-Well adapted 

for covering rocks and low trelUa work ; handsome In 
autumn, with Its freely produced light blue berries. 

Var. ilagUU, Koch [A. tricolor, Hort.). Lvs. 
blotched and striped with white, flushed pink when 
young : slow-growing and tender. Gn, 54, p, 5. 



60 



AMPELOPSIS 



aconltlMlU, Buage. {A. quinquifilia, vai. aamlHaiia. 
Hon.). Lye. 3- or G-cleft, the middle lob« o(t«n pto- 
DStelf lobed, nhinlna; uid nenrlr glAbroaa beneath: ber- 
rl«B small, fellow. N.Chlnk. Vai.iiMBtOt^, Koebue {A. 
ditteeta, C«T. S. affinii, tat. ditiecia. Hart. I. Lvs. 
S-parted, the middle or the three loner lobea plnnatifld. 
R.H. ISua, p. 31S. Gn. 5, p. B23.-Orseetiil climber for 
trellis work. 



Sbowtim  



roaoa leal 
thep] 



eudHli by which 



■aiJuiiaUlU, Bange. Roots tuberous ; Ivs.S-S-parted 
or disltale, ehsrtaceoDS, Bhlnlng ■■»] dark green above, 
the dlTinlona plDuate, vlth winged rarhls. the pinnn 
aeparMe from the wings : berry small, bine, punctate. 
Jap., N. China. at.lG:S31. R.H. 1870, p. IT. 

BBS. Lvi. bipinnale, Uaflttt ditttnetly atalked. 
arbOMft. Koehne ( Wit biplntiita, Torr. & Ur. CUtui 
ttdtu, Pers.). St. erect or Homewbat climbing; pinnn 
kDd leaflets usually 5 ; leaflets orate or runeste-oboTate, 
coar»el; toothed, K-lKin. long: berries dark parple. 
8. states, Mei. 

, Mirhi-~A. arborea. — A. brtviofduntvldla, 
r. Ilart.-beteni- 



_ lltlfoliB. Tl... 

QTtimiafifyhm^A. htderAera, Hort-* 
lam.— A.HiogiMon.— A. iricDipld 
— A.heterophyllaiar.— jl.ii«*rn(o 
A.Javiaita.Hoit.—A. IrlFiupldkU 
nltifolla.— ^.TMipiMrmi*, Clirr,— A.i 
Planch. Alllpd to A. arboru. Pell 
tie. qnlte (lahnnii; pelali and niai 
Hort.— A.qainquefolU.Tar, laClfoEl 



I, DC.- 



I, Hlq,— il. tricn^idaU.— 



Itf. &rT. 
nu ttAiiXt..—A.SUboldi, 
A. IrviarMa. Carr.— A. 
aconltlfoUa.— 1< .tubrrdti 
Hon.— A. tilciuiildBta.- 



H01I.-A, I 

aconlllfoU 



irophilla. T. 



rt.-CH- 



 ; the sei 



(ewer ib>D i 

lH-:i ft. ; 'le 

rolls tabe ai 
B.H.MBO. < 



«.plj->e 



'i. Royle. tMtbi 



ANACARDIUH 

AXMIU (named for Charles Amson). Called alM 
Antonia. Apocynicea. Tough-barked perennial herbs 
□r eastern N. Amer. and Jap., with terminal panicles o( 
blue or bluish narrow-limbed small Ss. In Uay and June, 
the Inside ol the corolla tube bearing refleied hairs. 
Grown In the bardy border, mostly with shrubbery. 
Prop. mostl;r by dividing tbe clumps ; also by seeds 
and by cuttings In summer. 

TahmusmanUna, Walter (J. tati/ilia. Hlehz. A.ia- 
lieifAHa, Pursh. Tabfrmrnontdna Amadnia, Unn.). 
Olabrons or nearly so, 2-3 ft. : IvB. willow-like, ovate to 
lanceolste, acuminate, alternate, short-petloled : ds. 
many, with lanceolate spreading lobes, succeeded by 
slender, milkweed-like follicles or pods 2-3 In. tang. 
Holds Its foliage lale. N.C. to Tei. B.M. 1873. L.B.C. 
693. B.B. 131. G.W.F.48. 

utKlutlUlla,Hiehx. (.^.ei»d(a,Walt.). VilloDswhen 

Inch or two long, mnch crowded, margins becoming r«TO- 
lule : corolla lobes ovate-oblong la llnear'Ublong. 8. 
Slates. Int. 1SS3. jj_ g, g, 

AHTei>AL6P8IB. See iVunui. 

AlrtODALITS (Greek-made name, referring to ths 
furrowed pit). BotictiT, A name given to Ihe peaches. 
aprloota and their kin, but here treated as a section of 
the genua Pnmiia, which see. 

ARACiMFBBBOB (Greek-made name). Porlulaeietir. 
Succulent herbs, of a doEen species, from the Cape of 
Good Hope, but DOl gmirti in Ihin country except in bo- 
tanic gardens. They are greenhonse planla, with ovate 
fleshy Ivs,, tia. expanding in the san ; prop, by seeds or 
by catlings of stems or leaves. 



AaAcABDira(ni 



er. tropics, of which one Is widely cult. : 



nfolli.-J. VHIehi.. 
rt.-A.oolDiIlufatls, 

AKPELOVlTIS. See filit. 

AMPHICAEF^A (Greek, alluding to the two kinds 
of fruits). Legunindia. A halt-doaen little herbaceons 
vines of E. Amer. and Himalayas, bearing snblerranean 
clelstogamousfla.: Its. pinnate, of 3 leaflets: fls. small, 
purplish. Two common species are A . momtica, Null., 
and A. Pitcheri. Torr. A Gray (also known as Falcata 
eonofo and F. PiUheH). Not known to be In cult. 

AMPHICOltE (ampAi.both, and komt 
bavlngatuftofhalrat both ends) "' 
house herbaceous rockery plant 
With larse, rosy, funnel-shaped, 5-lobt 
I. Heichi 



n. Amp«lopsia trlcusnldata. 



receptacle (the cas 
red, andls acid ai 



ew apple) which varies from the slas 
•f a pear, from white to yellow and 
I edible. Gn. 11. p. 211.— A vinous 
I the apple. Tbe kernel of the nut 
is edible when roasted ; the shell of the 
ingly acrid, even tbe fumes from tbtt 



ANACARDIUM 

TtMutlng being highly Irrltuit. The tree yteldi s ^m 
which la the buls ot » vkmlih, belofc ueed to protect 
books uid woodwork from the ravngea of white ants and 
other Id sects. Thetree grows 20-10 ft. blgb. l. H. B. 

AVAQALUS (Oreek, meaning dtHehtful). iVfnuId- 
tea. PiupiBHEi.. AuDoa], biennial or pereDol&l herbs 
cult, in the open. In Amer. onl; the annual Bpeclea are 
Renerallr known. Fli. azlllar? : Ivs. In ptjrs or 3't. 
These are eulty grown In a wum Boll, the seed uaually 
being gown where the plants are to grow. The peronnliUs 
are prop, b'j dlvliion and are grown In glMS houses, Or 
well protected If grown in the open. 

urtndi.Llnn. PoOBUAN'BWiATHiB-aLABS. Spread- 

fls. small, red to white, the petals fringed with glandular 
teeth. Annnal. Eu.— Often runs wild. F!s. Bald to 
eloae on the approach ot rain. 

Var. s»rtlM> NeEIr. (A. cmrAUa, Lun.). Bine lis. 

UnUAlU, Linn. Moro nprlgfat, a foot blgb : Its. linear 
or lanceolate : fls. Kin. in diam., blue. Uany named 
varieties, In ysrloos colors and habits. Biennial or per- 
ennial, bul most of the annual ADBgmlllses of gardens 
are supposed to be forms of it, as A- grandifldra, An- 
drews (blue Bunualti A. eoinna. Schousb. (Tennlllon, 
greenhonse); A. Mortlti, Lion. Ihlne, greenhouse); 
A. WitnortAna, Hook (parple). 8. Eu. and N. Afr. 
B.M. 319, 831 (as A. truticita), 3380.-Tbe biennial 
forms often cult. In cool greenhouses. i^, q, q, 

AHABAS (modified from aboriglaal S. Amer. name]. 
Written also Ananaaia. Bromflidcca, Stove herbs, al- 
lied to the Blllbergias, and demanding the same general 
treatment. As ornamental subjecls, grown raoally (or 
the rosette of rigid Ivg. and the strange often colored 
head of fleshy fls., which are 6-cleft, with 6 stamens and 
one style. The ripe bead Is composed of the thickened 
rachls. In which the fleshy berry is Inibedded, and the 
fleshy persistent bmcts ; In the pineapple, the Ba. are 
■bortlre. Prop, by the lea^ crown or topknot, by 
strong suckers, or by smalt ofrsets from the base : these 
are treair^d as cuttings, being rooted in sand with bottom 
heat, or in the 8. set directly In the Beld, Monogr. by 
Hes, DC, Monogr. Phaner. 9. 

»atlTn», Schult. (. PinKappLi, which see for Held cul- 
ture. Pig. 83. Plant producing a single shaft 2-1 ft. 
high, and when 12-20 moe. old bearing a hi^ad or plne- 



ANDROMEDA 



6t 



AVGEt>8A (ancAouja, n point tor the skin). Bora' 
ginicta. ALKiNiT. Hardy plants, with fls. blue or pur- 
ple. In panlcled scorpioid racemes, the corolla trunipet- 
shaped and the throat closed by scales. Of easy call, in 
snnny position. Prop, by seed generally. 



apple, , ._ 

long and sword-shapeil, stiff, r 
The I 



on gh -edged. 
;, bul 1 



shoot may arise from titc same root and bear at^other. 
Better results are usually secured by severing the 
sucker or crown, and growing a new plant. Amer. 
tropics. B.H. 15&1. B.R, 1081. -There is a common 
cnlt. form (via.varlegilnotilTati/iliai, with striped Ivg. 
On. 51, p. ST. A.Porteinui, Koch, Is a form of A.aaticvi, 
with olive-green, sharp-«plned Its. with a yellow central 
band. A. Corhinchinfntii. Hort., Is another form (In- 
troduced by Pitcher & Manda, ISSI). 

J. Schult. f.. la a shony siieclBs with red fapAds. 



all the 

B.M. ; 



s beini . 



. has larse toothed 



pappuB-brletles ot the stamlnate fls. not belngi 
(these are thickened upwards in that genus) and the 
St. leafy. Hardy border plant ; oBetut for Immortelles. 
margaTitiosa, Benth, & Hook. A foot or two blgb, 
with many corymbose heads, while : Ivs. sessile, linear- 
lanceolate, toDg-polnted : Involucre pearly white, hence 
the value of the plant as an everlasting. N. states, 

AIlABBHbnni (inoullti,). ScrophulariAcet. A 
doien biennials and perennials ot S. Eu. and N. Atr. 
Allied to Antirrhinum, but not cult, in this country. 
Pis. small. In splke-llke racemes, white or blue. 

AHASTATICA. See Bfiimction Plant. 



A. Fti. tmatl, like rarget-iite-nett. 

Bamlitil, Vllm. Perennial: heights ft. : Its. ovate- 
lanceolate, smaller and shorter than in A. Itatica .• fls. 
with a white tube and pink throat. May. £u. and Asia. 
Minor. B.M. 2J49. - Valued for Its earliness, and for cut- 
fls. The least common ot the three species. 

Caplnils, Thunb. Biennial: height l>i ft. ^Ivs. nar- 
rowly lanceolate and less hispid than In A.IIalica ; fls. 
red-margined, with a whit« throat ; buds red ; calyx in- 
flated after the fl. has withered ; divisions short, obtnae. 
Jone-Sept. Cape of Good Hope. B.H. 1822.-Plne for 
cut fls. Often winter-killed, but seeds Itself freely. 
AA. Fll. largt. 

Itllloa, Retz. Perennial: height 3-G ft.: Iva. largest 
ot the three species here contrasted, ovate-lanceolate, 
rough, shining ; radical ones sometimes 2 It. long. 
Mediterranean. B.M.2197. L.B.C. U: 1383.-lt not al- 
loved to go to seed, will bloom continuously from Jnne 
to Sept. Commonest and perhaps best species. 

JpdrdAli. Lehm. Lvs. linear. Siberia, [tare.— A.iRvM<M- 



ibabl;^ diflira. Lebm. Lvg 



I, Linn 



Lullne 



e»ilf. aval. Siberia. Caacami.- 
x«1at«: ndlcHl ouoi Flunlered : 
. Eu. B.M. IWTliA. oEBdnalii' 



base. Eu. Esteemed In i ran«. j_ g kblUB and W. M. 

ASDtEA (Broiillon name). Legumindtn. Nearly 30 
species ot tropical Amer, trees, with conspicuous fls. In 
racemes. Two or three species are sometimes cutl. In 
hothouses in the Old World. 

AHDBOXXDA (Greek mythological name). Ericd- 
eea. Low shrub, quite glabrous: Its. small, evergreen, 
entire, ehort-petiuled; fls. ped ice lied, in terminal imibels; 
corolla globose-urceolate, with 10 Included stamens: 
capsule splitting Into 5 carpels, with numerous very small 
seeds. One species through the northern hemisphere ; 
in America from Penn. northward, and Alaska. Low* 



62 



ANDBOMEDA 



ANEMIA 



evergreen shrub, with delicate fls., growing best in pesty 
or sandy soil. Prop, by seeds, sown thinly soon after 
maturity, in pots or pans of sandy peat soil, placed in a 
«oolframe. They germinate easily if sown in cut sphag- 
num, but must be pricked into boxes as soon as they can 
be handled. Cuttings from mature wood, placed in sand 
under glass in fall, and kept in a cool greenhouse during 
the winter, will root easily ; also increased by layers. 
See, also, L^ueotholf, ChatMBdaphne, Pieris and Zenohia. 

polifdlia, Linn. {A. rotmarinifmaf Purnh). One-half 
to 2 ft.: Ivs. oblong-lanceolate or linear, %-'\'%\n, long, 
whitish-glaucous beneath, with strongly revolute mar- 
gins: fls. nodding, white or pink. June. L.B.C. 6:546, 
16 : 1591, 18 : 1714. — There are a number of formR, differing 
in the color and size of the fls. and shape of the Irs. 

ii. acuminata. Ait.— LeaeothoS popolifolia.— A. arMrea, Linn. 

— Ozydendram arboreum. — il. axillaris, Miehx.-* Leucothoe 
Catesbiei. — A. axilldrii, Lam.— L. axiUaria. — A. calyculdta, 
Linn.— Chanuedaphne calycolata. — .1. eampantUdta, Miq.— 
Enkianthufl eampanalattu.— J., cdndida, Hort.— Zenobia iml- 
Terulenta.— A.ea««inus/d{Mi,yent.— Z. pnlverolenta.— ^. CdUs- 
ben.Walt.— LencothoS Catesbaei.— J., e^mua, Miq.— Enkianthos 
eemnns.— A. dealbdta, Llndl.— Zenobia pvdvernJenta.— A. fat- 
tigidta. Wall.— Cassiope fasticiata. — J., ferruginea, Walt.— 
Lyonia fezTa|dnea.— ii . fUmbundat Pursh — Pieris floribnnda.— 
A. ^orrn^a, Walt.— Pieris formosa.— A.iytoi^, Hort.— Zenobia 
palveralenta.—J...rap<^i0a,Thanb.— Pieris Japonioa.— il . lioua- 
trXna, Muhlbff.- Lyonia liKostrina.— A . Ifaridna, Linn.— Pieris 
Mariana.— ii. nttida, Bartr.— Pieris nitida.— ii. ara/«/dIui,Wall. 

— Pieris oyalifolia.—il.oani«u<<Ua, Ait.— Lyonia li«ustrina.— 

A . parabdliea, Duh.— L. Ucostrina.— il . populifblia. Lam.— Len- ^ 

•cothod popollfolla.— A.pttJrtfrul^nto, Bartr.— 2ienobla pnlvem-' 

lenta.— A. roeetndca, Linn.— Lenoothoe raoemosa.— A . apecib$a, 

Michx.— Zenobia polvemlenta.— A. ^^^rd^ona, Linn.— Caiwioije 

tetrasona. — A. tomentbsa^ Hort., not Dom.-Coars.- Lyonia 

ligustrina pabescens. . „ 

Alpbed Rehdeb. 

AHBBOPOOOH (Greek-made name, referring to the 
bearded flowers). Oraminect. A polymorphouH genus, 
spread over all parts of the world in the tropical and 
temperate sones. The species prefer dry places, espe- 
cially plains. Lvs. usually long and narrow: spikes ter- 
minal and axillary ; spikelets in pairs at each node of the 
jointed hairy branches, one sessile and perfect; the other 
with a pedicel and either staminate, empty, or reduced to 
a single scale : a straight or twisted awn present. Spe- 
cies, about 180. Includes many species of useful pasture 
grasses. Two or three species are fn'own occasionally for 
ornament. They are of easiest culture, either from seeds 
or division of clumps. 

argtateus, DC. Silver Beabd-Gbass. A stout, tall 
grass, 2-4 ft. high, with a distinct ring of white hairs at 
the nodes : panicles narrow, silver-bearded : If.- blades 
long : spikelets covered with long white hairs at the 
base : awn 1 in. long.— A handsome ornamental grass. 
Probably a form of A. aaeeharo\de8 , Swartz, of Trop. 
Araer. 

Halop^BSls, Brot. Johnson Grass. A stout perennial, 
with smooth, erect culms, 3-6 ft. high, and ^strong, 
•creeping rootstocks : panicles variable, more or less 
drooping, exserted, rays mostly in whorls of 4, rarely 2-6; 
sessile spikelets variable ; pedicellate spikelets stami- 
nate or neutral, much narrower than the sessile ones. 
S. Eu., S. Amer., Australia. Gn. 13, p. 305.— Abundantly 
grown in the southern states for hay, where it makes a 
very rapid g^^owth. When once it has become established 
it is exceedingly diiBcult to eradicate, and hence it has 
become a very troublesome weed in some parts. Much 
admired in Eu. as an ornamental grass, and sometimes 
•cult, in the N. for that purpose. 

SclUBnAnfhiu, Linn. {A. formdaus. A.citriitus, Hort.). 
Lemon Gbass. A very handsome tropical grass, growing 
in fine clumps 5-6 ft. high; effective for borders and as 
single lawn specimens. 8. Asia, Japan, and Trop. Africa. 
•Gn. 10, p. 605; 12, p. 495.- Cult, in India and Ceylon. 
Yields a fragrant oil, called both oil of verbena and lemon- 
grass oil. Used as a stimulant and antispasmodic for neu- 
ralgia and rheumatism, and also in the adulteration of 
attar of roses. 

A.Ndrdua,lAnn. Citronella Grass. Cult, in Ceylon. Yields 
the citronella oil, which is used for scenting soap and perfumery. 
Forty thousand pounds of oil distilled annually from this arrass. 
8. Asia and N. Australia. Gn. 12, p. 405. — A. Sdrghum, Brot. 
(Sorghum vulgare, Linn.). Includes all the varieties of cnlti- 
'vated Sorghum ; of great economic value for sugar, brooms, 



brushes, fodder. sleoboUe drinlcs. Seed prised for poaltiy. 
K.Ind.— A.STuarrftras.Ltnn. Rhiaomeafkacrani. Used in India 
for thatching, weaving into mats, fans, brashes. Boots said to 
keep garments free from inseets. Sold bj druggists in Enrope 
under the name of Radix anatheri. lotrodneed into T.rfin<«<^ii^ 
India, W. Ind. Is., and BraziL p. b. Kkkxtedt. 

AVDBOSACS (Greek -made name). Primuldcea. 
Rock Jasmine. Snudl tufted plants cult, in the alpine 
garden, those known in Amer. being perennials. Fls. 
constricted at the throat, primula-like, in umbels, on 
short leafless scapes. Fl. in very early spring. Many 
species are known in European gardens, but alpine-gar- 
dening is little known in this country, and only those 
species which have been found to succeed, and are in 
the trade, need to be mentioned. 

A well-drained soil, partial shade, free circulation of 
air, frequent waterings during our dry siuoimer months, 
and protection from heavy fall and spring rains, will 
lead to success with these charming aipines. A heavy 
shading of everfcreen boughs in winter will be found of 
great benefit. Close covering is not to be recommended, 
because it smothers the plsunts. A great many species 
have been tried in this country, wltih variable and not 
very encouraging results, but in a few instances, with 
extra care, plants have done well. The northern aspect 
of a steep rockery seems to be the most favorable posi- 
tion for them. Prop, by division, seeds or cuttings. 
Plants should be kept in pots until thoroughly es- 
tablished. Cult, by J. B. Kelleb. 

lannginAia, Wall. Lvs. scattered, oblong-obovate, 
acute, 1 in. long, silky-hairy : fls. rose-purple with yel- 
low eye, the mouth contracted with a crenated ring, in a 
dense umbel : plant 6-10 in. high, with many trailing 
shoots, making a good drapery for rocks. Himal. B.M. 
4005. Gn. 49, 287. 

larmentdsa, Wall. Lvs. oblanceolate or spatulate, 
silky-hairy on the edges, in rosettes : plant producing 
many pink runners, which root freely : fls. in umbels of 
10-20, pink with white eye. Himal. B.M. 6210. Gn. 54, 
p. 128. 

oimea, Linn. Lvs. very narrow and pointed : fls. a 
half dozen, flesh-color, with yellow eye. Switz. 

Var. ezimea. Hook. Lvs. less rigid, strongly recurved : 
fls. larger (>^ in. across). Switz. B.M. 5906. L.H.B. 

AHDBOST^FHIirM (Greek-made name, referring to 
the corona). lAlideece. Small genus of S. W. Unit«d 
States, with funnel-shaped, spreading-limbed, 6-Iobed 
perianth, 6 stamens, and 3-angled ovary, and a corona 
or crown at the mouth : lvs. linear, radical : scape 
simple, leafless. Plant in a sunny place in sandy soil, 
placing the bulbs 4-6 ft. deep ; protect in winter. Prop, 
by division of the bulbs and by seeds. 

▼ioUUseum, Ton*. Slender, 6-10 in. : fl. blue, 1 in. long, 
3-6 in loose umbel. Blooms in spring ; pretty. 

AKEILfiHA (Greek ; no involucre), Commelindeete, 
Sixty tropical perennials, of which A, bifldrumf R. Br., 
and A. Sinicumj Lindl., are sometimes cult, in Old 
World hothouses. These species are blue-fld., diffuse or 
trailing plants. 

AVfiMIA (Greek, naked; the panicles devoid of 
sporangia). Schizadcece. A genus of tropical ferns, 
with the lower pair of pinusB elongate and bearing the 
sporangia in panicles at their extremities. Of the 40 
species, two are found in the southern states, and a few 
are occasionally in cult. £,. m. Undebwood. 

Anemias are dwarf, compact ferns, suited for shelves, 
or for growing near the glass in warm pits or low 
houses. They prefer being grown in small pots to being 
planted out in the femer>'. Their growth is too slow to 
make them popular decorative ferns for general pur- 
poses. P^p. by spores, which germinate freely ; tufted 
kinds by division between Mar. 15 and Apr. 30. — Schnei- 
der, Book of Choice Ferns. 

A. Leaf 2-3-pinnate^ with narrow divisions. 

adiantifdlia, Swz. Leaf 6-9 in. long on a stalk often 
twice as long, the ultimate divisions oblong or linear- 
cuneate, with the outer margin toothed. S. Fla. and 
tropics. 



ANEUU. 

AA. Ltttt only ontt pinnalt leilh broad pinna. 

■•zloAnk, KIotiBch. Lea(6-91ii. long, witb 4-6 plnr 
on either side, which are dlstlDctly Ht&lked, oTale-Iance 
iMe uid rounded on both Bides at the bue : panlcl 
3-4 in. long, dense. Tex. and Hex. 

eeUlnft. Baddi. Pluita  foot high, □□ haiir Btklki 
Iva. with abont 10 leaflets an each side, which am 
rounded at the outer ends and truD<!Bte at the upper side 
Bt the bue : paniciea about IH in. long, dense. Brae. 
8. 1 : 384. 

BB. F«iH» anailomoaing (running togtHifr). 

FtLrUltldte, Swz. (A. tancioUtta, Lodd. A. longihlia. 
Link. AntTiidlcryon PhylIUidit,WiM.l LeaC4-I2ln. 
long, with 4^l:> pairs of Bessile pinnn. with a crenulate 
margin and a rounded or unequal base ; teIds (orm- 
ioK long, narrow areoln : panicle 3-9 Id. long, dense. 
CMbaandMei.toBrai. S.l:a90. L. M. USDBEWOOD. 

AITEMIDtCTTOS. S.e ^iianiia. 



ANEMONZ 



63 



kortemis. There.. 8; Japonlca, 21 | multlflilB, 22 ; tutr- 
oiBslflora, 24 ; nemorosa, 15 : nemoroMa, var. qninqui- 
talia, 16 ; occidentalie, 5 ; Ortgana, 19 ; palmats, 10 ; 
patens, 3; Pavoniana, 8; Pinmylvanica, 23; Pnlia- 
tlUa, 4 ; qainquefolla, 16 ; ranuneutoldes, IS ; rubra, 1 ; 
tUllata,9; lulphiirea , 1 ; sflveBtrls, 12; vmbtllata, 
24 ; vemalis, I ; Vlrglnlana. 20. See Bupplementary 
list. 



. Nea 



ennlals : chieny 
mountainous regiouB. Sterns usually erect, with fireat 
variation In height. Basal leaves lobed, divided or dls- 
sei-Ied, those of the stem forming an involucre near to, 
or remote from, the flower. Sepals few or many, petal- 
like; no true pc^tals. Stamens many, shorter than sepals. 
Carpels numenias ; fruit a l-seeded akene. 

The plants thrive beat In a frosh, rather rii^h, sandy 
loam, well drained; but moHt of the species will do well 
in anv (rood garden aoil. The tuberous spectca are suit- 
able for hardy borders, while most of the others prefer 
a place in a rockery, and some are partial to shady places. 
A. korlenii/, eoronaria, fulgent and others will well 
repay the little Indoor or greenhouse care they require 
tor producing winter blossoms. They require essentially 
the same handlirg as tulips and hyacinths, and are usu- 
ally plaased with bulbous plants. Tubers placed in pots 
In Sept. or Oet. bring forth a beautiful ahow of bloom hy 
Jan. or March. For this purpose (hey should be well 
drained, and not kept very 
wet or too warm before the 
growth is welt started ; 
they prefer more n ' " 
at flowering time. 
all the species can be read- 
ily propagated by both root 
division and seed. The 
season for both out and 
Indoor planting will di- 
rootly influence the flower- 
ing season. Good seasons 
for outdoor planting are 
Sept., Oct.. >Iov., Dec, 
Feb. and March. As a 
rule, the tuberous Anem- 
ones will blossom at any 
time desired, being influ- 
raced by the time they are 
. kept out of the ground. 
The bulbs may be ripened 
lifter flowering time by be- 
ing taken from the ground 
to dry, or by covering the 
Irad to keep out rains. A. 
Japoniea is one of the fin- 
est of all fall-blooming 
herba. Prltsel, Revision 
of Anemone, in Ijnnva 
15;498(I84I|. Brltton, N. 
■4. ADenone patens, vat. Amer. Anemone, in Ann. 
i). N. Y. Acad. Sci. 6: 217 



Alphabetical list of species described below |syno- 
Dyms in Italics); A.acMHpelala.'Bon.,^ ; aciilipttala, 
8chl.. 4 ; alpina, Linn., 8; alpina, Hort., B; apennina, 
Li ; blanda, 14 ; Canadensis, 23 ; Carollniana, 11 ; coro- 
naria, 7; dteapelala, 11 ; deltoldea, 17; dirholoma. 23; 
fulgena. g; Orayl, 19 ; Hallerl, 3 ; bortensis, Llnii.,9 ; 



rubers ol Anemoofe CDtooarla. 



B. Invnincre brll-ihaped, dUtecltd into numcrttuf lintai 
equal lobet. 
1. TemUi*. Linn. IPuUaHlta rrradtti, Mill. A. gtil- 
phiiTia, Al].). Very ahapgy,6ln.hlghor less: Ivs. pin' 
nately parted, segments trifld: fls. purple without, whit' 
leh within, and smoolhlsh ; erect, on very short pedun- 
cles ; sepals 6, rarely spreadinK. Apr. Cool, molsl 
places. Eu. 1896. J. H. 111. 32; 223. Gn.25:436. 



the lesser divisions lanceolate- linear ; involucre ol Ioqb 
narrow segmenta, sessile ; fla. large, erect, whllisb 
epals ; anthers yellow. Apr. Sunny places. 



LtierlaDd. 1 



. L.B.C. 10; 940. 



Ji,n 



, Linn. Much like the first variety below, 
is more common In Amer.. but differs In its 
broader and shorter leaf-segments and smaller fls. Eu. 

Tar. KnttalUina, Gray [Pulialilla hitiutttaima, 
Brit.). Wiu> Patrnb. AmBicAS Pasqce Flower. Fig. 
64. Villous, with long, silky haira, 4-9 in. high ; radical 
Ivs. petioled. others sehsiio, all much divided into narrow, 
linear, acute lobes ; fls. appearing before the root-lvs., 
bluish purple or whitish, erect, seldom nodding : akenea 
silky: styles plumose, becoming 3 In. long; peduncle 
elongates several Inches after flowering. Apr. Low 
ground. N. central states and Siberia. 

Var. OdhMleAoa, Sims. Fls. creamy white, appearing 
at same time as basallvs. Mar.- Apr. J. H. III. 30: 343. 
B. M. 1991. 

4. PollBtilla, Linn. iPHUaliUa riilirdrts. Mill. A. 
aeulipitala,licb},l, PAaqL'EFiowERof Europe. Villous, 
hairy, rising %-l ft. : basal Ivs. flnely thrice-plnnalely 
divided, on slender petioles ; involucre sessile, deeply 
cut Into long narrow lobes : fls. blue to reddish purple, 
lH-2li In. across. Apr. Well-drained soil or stony 
places. Eu. On. 32:623. L. B. C. 18: 1704. Var.rtbra, 
Hort. (..1. rllbm. Lam.). Dwarfer ; fls. alwavs erect, 
Var. TarieKftta, Uori. Pis. pale, appearing in May. 

BB. Iniflucral Iraret S, on sliorl ptlieUi, tktathimg 
Ihe Htm. 

5. oooidBntUll, Wats. { J.nl^lna, Hook., not Linn.). 
Silky-balry, >i-IK ft. high, simple ; Ivs. 2-parted, the 
divisions deeply plnnatifld Into usually Incised linear, 
acute lobes ; Involucre short-petioled ; basal Ivs. long- 
petioled : fls. solitary, white or purple, varying, 1-2 In. 
across ; receplucte conic, sometimes much elongated : 
akenes pubescent : plumose styles reflexed ; peduncle 
becoming much elongated after sepals fall. May. Calif, 
to Brit. Columbia, Int, 1802. 



M 



ANEMOKE 



e. ftl^aa, Linn. (A.atuHpitata, Hort.). Closely al- 
lied tolbe aboTe. Stem %-lHtt. high, (rem thick, strong 
routs : Ivs. large, flnely divided, eat and serrated, smootb 
or hairy ; ivs. of involucre similar : &». few, in an umbel 
or solitary, 2-3 in. in diam,, creamy white inside, purple 
outside, but varying much ; anthers yellow. Hountain 
Bides. En. May-June, L.B.C. 17: 1617. B.M.B007 (var. 
lUftjor). Var. nlphtusk, Hort. Fls. a delicate sulfur 
yellow, larger, downy beneath r Ivs. larger. Moist, rich 
soil. 1SB2. aii.35:682. 



AA. Ahtn 



'oolli/ or ttnaotliiih, »(($ ihort itylei. 



D. Booit iuberoui 

7. soronirU, Linn. 

86, 87. One-halt to 1 



; tni'o2uer« uiuallg ttiiile. 

POPPT-FLOWZRED A. PlgS. 85, 

H. high, from tuberous roots ; 
Ivs. i^ut into many fine lobes 
and lobules ; Involucral Ivs. ses- 
sile, 3-1-parted. deeply cat : fls. 
1 M-iii !n. across, poppy-like, ot 
many colore and mlitares of 
red, blue, whiM, etc.; stamens 
blue. Early Id spring to June. 
UesdowB Mediterntnean region. 
Vick's Mag. 11:257. B.M. B41. 
Gd. 50:1073; 16, p. 111. B.H. 



light 

a In its coarse, brosd I _. 
TOW-pointed sepals. Oar- 



high: basal Ivs. lobed and cut Irregularly: involucre 
small, 3-5-lobed, asoally 3 or more In. below the fl. ; Qs. 
red, rosy purple, or whttish, single, IK In. across : sta- 
mens brownish violet. Bicb, light soil. S, Eu. 
This difters from A. corona: 
and its elongated, rather n 

den names are given to the forms with different colora- 
tion. B.H. 123, from which Fig. B9 is taken. 

10. palmlU, Linn. St. 6-9 In. high from tuberous 
root : basal Ivs. leathery, 3-5-lobed, cordate, toothed ; 
Involnoral Ivs. 3-parted : fls. golden yellow, solitary or 
in 2's; sepals 10 or more. May-June. Deep, Tight 
soil, Mediterranean region. B.B. 200.~Three good va- 
rieties in the trade. Var. I16re-plino, Hort., with doable 
yellow or white fls. Var. tUbida, Sims (var. alfta, Hort.). 
Fls. white ; basal Ivs. lobed. B.M. 2079. L. B.C. 3:175. 
On. 22: 3M. Var. litm.. iMdd., like the last, but with 
yellow fls. L.E.C. 17:1660. 

11. CarOlMIULa, Walt. (A. deeapHala, AmeT.viibon, 
not Ard.). St. simple, slander, S-l (t. high, arising 
from a large tutier : tvs. of involucre seBsile.with 3 wedge- 
shaped clefts ; basal Ivs. thrioe divided, and much lobed 
and parted, slender -petio led : solitary fl. erect, I-l>i in. 
broad, erasmy white or purple ; sepals often numerous : 
akanea densely woolly. April-Hay. Open places, U. S. 

DD. SooUtoei eretplng 1 Ivi. of involucre p«tioUd. 

12. tjlvtetril, Linn. St. 1-1^ ft., simple, or branched 



■iDBiB-nd. fl 



n {X%). 



•DiXH). 



1893: 232. Caen, Scarlet, The Bride, St. Brlgld. Victoria 

Gisnt, etc., are some ot the trade names ^ven to the 
single forms. Var. Qara-pUno, Hort. Fls. double, as 
shown in Hg. 87, by the pistils becoming petal-like, the 
stamens mostly remaining perfect ; many colors, scarlet 
being the most common at present. F. 8. 10: 1678. Var. 
ohiyaanthemilldn, Hort. A seedling variety produced in 
1848, and introduced many years iator. Pis. more com- 
pletely doubled than the above variety, by the stamens 
all becoming petal-like. A duzen forms, beantiful, self- 
colored, as deep red, sky-blue and even pure white, 
have been fliedandnamed. Useful as eat fls. On. 30:564. 
R.H. 1887:30; 1897, pp. 418-19, K.B. 21:260-1. 

8. HlgMU, Oay (A. Pavonidna, var. fHlgem, DC. 
A.korMnait,TboTe.]. Pig, 88. One ft. high, simple : 
basal Ivs, 3-5-lobed, with roonded outline, followed later 
by deeply cut ivs. ; sessile involucre several inches be- 
low the solitary fl. : fls. vivid scarlet, 2 in. across ; sta- 
mens black. May and June. France. Sometimes cslled 
ttvarietyot A, hortengit, Ljnn., from which it may have 
descended. Several garden forms, as anaaata-grandi- 
flora, multipetala, and Southern SUr. Gn. 11:65. Qt. 
37:60. R.B, 21:262-3, B,H, 1877: 270. 

9. hoit«n«i«, Linn. (A. itelWa, Lam.|. Broad- 
LiAVBD Qardin A. Fig. 89. St. simple, erect, 10 In. 



(^ jjj_ Reduced from snoWcot.to show 

a little-Improved form, 
once at involncre, from a creeping rootstock : Ivs. 3-4- 
parted, deeply cut at top, hairy beneath : involucre 
petioled ; fls. solitary or in 2'a, pure white, IH in. 
across, nodding, aweet-Bcented ; sepals 6. May-July. 
Wooded places, Eu. and Liberia. B.M. 54, Qn, 18, p. 561 : 
30, p. 173. L.B. 0.18:1739. Var. I16r«-pl*«o, Hort, Doubli 
Snowdrop A, Has large, white, doable fls. G.C. Ill, 
19:739. 

CO. Head of frvit litnitpherical ; itkene$ 
lilky-pubetcent. 
D. Boolt tuberaut. 

13. Apsnnlna, Linn. St. simple, slender, 4-9 In.: 
Ivs. twice-divided and lobed, much toothed : fls. sky- 
blue, IK in. across; sepals 10-12, elongated, obtuse; 
anthers white, Mar,-Apr. Woods, Italy, Gn, 46:976. 
-This and a form with whitish fls., both well suited 
tor shady nooks in clumps ot shrubbery, etc, 

14. blinda, Schott & Kotscby, St. 4-6 In. high, from 
a cylindrical rootstock: Ivs. like A. apennina. but 
harder and smoother, and principal divisions sessile : 
fls. intense sky-blue, differing from above species in 
being larger, more finely rayed, styles black -pointed, 
and sepals smooth on the outride ; opens in earliest 
spring or mild winter weather. Prom Taurus Mts. and 
Greece. Bocky places. Int. 1898. Gn, 14: 143; 16,p. 162. 



ANEMONE 
. Sealttock ilendrr, crtipinf, tj/lindrieal. 
nuntek, Iiton. Wood A. St. simple, 3-8 Id., 
imootb : nxitstock borliontal, 3-1 times tbe st. 
: lv«. of Invoiucre petioled, 3-6-puted : b«- 
Bkl Itb. kppearlDg ftfter the fl. St., 6-p>rted. divisionB 
wedgo-ahaped, toothtid : Ss. 'whtta or purplish, solitary, 
1 In. across ; akenes pubeBcent ; styles hooked. Apr.- 
Hay. En. and Siberia. Three or more horClctiltural va- 
rieties. Var. ilba,Hort. (rar. /tonr-pfrHD, Bart.). Fls. 
larger, pure white, and abundant. Int. 1883. Qn.32:618. 
D. 25. Var. Bobinsonliua, Hart. (Tar. carulta, Hort.). 
A robust form, 6-12 Id., with broader and thicker Ivs., 
and large fls., becomlDg blue. Sometimes given as t, 
aeparate species. Har.-Apr. Qn. 46, p. 153 ; 32: 618: 
p. 315. Var. rtwa, Hort. (var.mtra tloTt-pleno,Eon.). 
Fls. a reddlsb purple ; now much used. 

16. qnI]iqa«fAli«, Linn. (A. nemordttt, var. quinqutfi- 
lia. Gray). This American species differs from .^. nrno- 
raia in hftving smaller fls.,lnvolueral ivs, less lobed. fo- 
liage paler, aud much more slender St. and petioles. The 



Windfloweror Bpring ADemon 



erly caUed 



. PtduneltttSimoini/S). 



. fruilt (akiH. 



ollvo. 



lilkg! 



eemidmy 



AHEH0N0P8IS 



linear: fls.^-1 in. across, red, vary- 
ing to white or yellow: akenes very wooliy. Early sum- 
mer. Rocks and uplands. Middle states to Hudson Bay. 

CC. Fntitt (altttitt) glabrout at first ; fli, urkiU, 
tomeichat ambellate. 

23. Cuudinili,Linn.(A.i%nnatffvilmea,Linn, A.di- 
cAiJ/oma.Am.Autb.&Miehi., not Linn.). Hairy, stout, 
1-2 ft. high, branching at or above the involucre : the 3 
Ivs. of main Involucre sessile, 3-cleft; npper InvaiuerM 
each 2-lvd. ; basal Ivs. broader than long, mucb divided, 
cleft and toothed ; petioles long: fls. white, 1-2 In. across: 
akenes wing-margined, naked, beeoming pubescent, 
grouped Inio a spherical head. Summer. In shaded 
wnods and open meadows. N.Amer. Gng. 2:21. 

21. n%ieiuaii!i^.Urm.(A.umbeIlAta,I^aia.). St. erect, 
rather stout, H-lKft. high : Ivs. of involucre seBslle i 
basal Ivs. petioled, 3-5-pBrt«d| divisions deeply cut: fls. 
white, K-l In. across, several in an umbel ; anthers 

Sallow: akenes smootb, with sbort style. May-July. 
[ountalnous regions. Northern hemisphere. Un. 30, p. 



IT. dsltoldaa, Dongl. St. simple, slender, 6-12 in. 
high, from a slender rootstock : Ivs. trifoliate, basal 
ones petioled, others nearly sessile, coarsely crenated, 
often incised : 6a. solitary, white, rather large: akenes 
several, densely BBbescent ; style very short. Spring. 
PaeiBe slope. 
DDD. Sootilock tioriiontal, fleihy oriomeichal tubtroui . 

18. TantmsiiIoldM, Linn. Tai-Low Wooo A. St. 3-S 
in., from elongated, somewhat tuberous rootstock : Ivs, 
3-5-parted, divisions deeply cut and serrated ; fls. gol- 
den yellow, usually solitary, single or semMouble. 
Uar. and Apr. Rich, light soli in open places and woods. 
En. and Siberta. On. 35: 699. L.B.C. 6:656. 

19. CMl]rl,Behr.(.^.Orciitlna,Gray). St. slender, 3-12 
In. high, tram a fleshy, brittle rootstock: baaal Ivs. slen- 
der-petloled. 3-parted, coarsely serrate ; involucnl Ivs 
petioled, trifoliate, the part« 2-3-lobed, much toothed . 
sepals blue or purplish: akenes pubescent, in a globose 
bead. Moist, shady slopes. Oreg. and Wash. In gardens 
west of the Bockles. Int. 1892. 



173. B.M.1120. 



20. VlTBinitnft, Linn. Plant hairy, 2-3 ft, high, stont, 
branching at the Involucre: the petioled Involucral ivs, 
3-parted, tbe leaflets cleft and lobed; basal Ivs. similar, 
broader than long, on long petioles : B. peduncles naked 
(or the lateral ones 2-lvd. ) : fls. greanish or white, 1-lSln. 
across: akenes woolly, in an oblong head ; styles short, 
awl-shaped. June-Aug. Woods and meadows. U.S. and 
Canada. O.M.33:763. 

21. JapAnioa, Sieb, & Zucc. Fig. 90. Stately, branch- 
ing St., 2-3 ft. high : plant soft and downy, with short 
baitj : Ivs. temate, much lobed and toothed : fls. rosy 
purple or carmine; 1-3 whorls of sepals, 2-3 In. in diam., 
on long peduncles from leafy involucre ; stamens yel- 
low : akenes silky. A very useful species for mixed 
borders or for pot culture. Hardy in N. states. Sept. t« 
latefrosta. Rie^ soil,Chinaand Japan. 1844. On. 30:558. 
B. M. 4341. P.M. 14:25. A. O. 19:305. Ong. 1:221; 
3:131. G.C.III.1G:661. A.F.12:29. F.S.2;T4. Var. Uba, 
Hort. HoNOBiNiJoBiBT. The Br[iii. Whirlwind, etc. 
Two or three whorls of large, whit« sepals : fls. 2-3 
Id. across, lasting until htu^ frosts. Viek's Hag. 
14:17. Gng. 5:117. B.H.1867:ll. Var. hjbridft, Hort. 
(VBr«. roses and etegaitt, Hort.}. Radical Ivs. 5-lobed, 
often cordate; lobes twice serrate: fls. somewhat paler, 
earlier; sepals rather broader. Said to be a hybrid of .4. 
Japoniea and A. inhVotia,- produced In Royal Gardens, 
1818. U.M.B.1:17. Var. rtb», Hort. LiDT Ardilal-m. 
Probably tbe same as the type, but having Its. and fls. 
with a waxy gloss : plant 4-4 fl. blgb. 

22. multmdk, Poir. Plant silky -hairy, somewhat 
branched, H-lSft. high, from a branched, apright root- 
stock ; main involucre 2-3-lvd., others 2-lvd. or naked, 
•hort petioles, similar to the root It*., 2-3 times 3-parted 



l.hlah: ivs.l 

l.porei/ara. Mlclii. Pretty whll 
;«nada. ~4 . poiiHfBUiM 
840. J.H.ni.Mt — 
ills.'L.B.C.9!eM 



lort of bristle. B.U. ia«3.-A. n>A<nD- 
vhiUa.ViKDV. fls. lilna. S. W. U. S.— A. Irtfilio. Linn. Lvt. 
besntifoUyrmnilar: fls.whlle.lin.acrou. Tmblneian. B.U. 
esw.-^. mtifblia. Hsm. Allied to A. Japonlea. Bas oordale, 
(^-7-i««edlv.. B.M.337B. E.C.DAT.S. 

ABEKONSILA. See Syndetmon. 

AVEII0K6FHIS (Anemone-like). BatmneuUtta. A 
monotypic genua from Japan, now much planted in 
American gardens. A beautiful hardy plant for border 
purposes. Perennial herb, with erect stems ; radical 
and at«m Ivi. rather large, temately compound And 



66 



ANEMONOPSIS 



ANGR^CUM 



much ineised, similar to AetsMt : sepals many (often 
only 9), regular, petal-like, deciduous ; petals many 
(often 12), short, sessile, with nectariferous impression 
at the base; carpels few (3-4), forming many-seeded 
follicles. In general appearance similar to the Japanese 
Anemones, but smaller in all its parts, and with numer- 
ous drooping fls., about 1 K in. across, of pale purple color. 
Thrives well in rich, deep loam, in well-drained situations 
in partial shade. Prop, by division or seed, in late fall 
or early spring. 

maoTopb^Us, Sieb. & Zucc. {A. CalifSmieaf Hort.). 
The only known species. The petals, instead of spread- 
ing, form a half -closed bud-like cone within the sepals. 

- K. C. Davis. 

AVEXOPSQMA. Consult Bignonia. 

ASiTHim. See Dill and Peueedanum ; also Fennel. 

AHG^LIOA (supposed to have angelic healing vir- 
tues). UmhellifercB. A large genus in temperate re- 
gions, widely distributed. A number of them are native 
to N. Amer. See also Arehangeliea, 

Ctbrtisii, Buckley. Stout perennial, 2-6 ft., glabrous : 
Ivs. 2-temate, with quinate divisions, the leskflets thin, 
ovate-lanceolate, irregularly sharp-toothed. Pa. to N. G. 
— Qrown for the subtropical effect of its finely cut, ample 
foliage. Int. by H. P. Kelsey, 1891. 

hirrtta, Muhl. {ArehangSliea hir$iita, Torr. A Gray). 
Pubescent above : Ivs. twice ptnnately or temately 
divided, the leaflets thlckish and serrate. E. states. 
Int. 1692 by H. P. Kelsey. 

AHOELOHIA (South American name). Serophula- 
H&eece, Perennial herbs or sub-shrubs, with pretty, 
irregular 2-lipped axillary fls., in a long, leafy terminal 
raceme: Ivs. opposite, long: branches 4-sided. Grown as 
pot plants in warm glass-houses, and prop, by seeds or 
softwood cuttings. 

lalloarlsBfdlla, Humb. & Bonpl. Three ft. or less: Ivs. 
lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, sessile, toothed, closely 
pubescent : fls. deep blue. S. Amer. B.M. 2478. P.M. 
5:75. B.R. 416. 

OArdneri, Hook. Lvs. linear-lanceolate, more strongly 
toothed throughout their length : fl. purple, white-cen- 
tered, handsome : plant pubescent-glandular and aro- 
matic. S. Amer. B.M. 3754. — The plant sold in this 
country as A . grandiflora probably belongs here. The 
A. grandiflora introduced by Benary in 1897 (a g^od 
annual), however, is represented as an entire-lvd. pot 
plant : see the picture in Gt. 46, p. 612 ; G.C. III. 22: 307 ; 
Gn. 52, p. 461 ; R.B. 23: 272. l. H. B. 

AH6I6FTEBIB (Greek, vessel- fern), Maratti^ecs, 
An Old World genus of coarse greenhouse ferns, with 
twice- or thrice-pinnate lvs., and the sporangia arranged 
in boat-shaped margined conceptacles. In cultivation, 
requires plenty of room and abundant drainage. The 
only recognized species is 

0T6ota, Hoffm. Growing from an erect caudez, 2-6 ft. 
high : lvs. 6-15 ft. long, mostly bipinnate, with swollen 
rachises ; leaflets 4-12 in. long, K-lKin.wide, the margin 
entire or slightly toothed. India and Jap. to Madagas- 
car and Queensland. S. 1:399.— Known under vurious 
names in cultivation, as A. longifoliaf etc. The trade 
names, which appear to indicate species, may be re- 
garded as varieties. l, m. Underwood. 

Angiopteris grows wild in swampy places, and is of 
robust habit. If grown in pots, the pots may stand in 
2 or 3 in. of water. Although spores are freely produced, 
no seedlings are on record. Easily prop, by the fleshy 
scales at the base of each frond. Each scale contains at 
least two dormant buds, and should not be divided. 
They may be laid in sand, covered with sphagnum, and 
kept in a close case for 3-5 months. They start quicker 
in early spring. — Schneider, Book of Choice Ferns. 

AXTGOPHOSA {vessel-bearing ; Greek, in allusion to 
shape of fruit). MyrtdLcece. Five or six Australian 
trees or shrubs, sometimes cult, in glass houses in the 
Old World, but not known to the trade in this country. 



AVGBACim (Malayan name). Ore^iddeMi, tribe 
Vdndece. Epiphytes. Lvs. variably distichous, coria- 
ceous : racemes few- to many-flowered, produced from 
the axils of the lvs. : labellum exserted into a conspicu- 
ous spur, sometimes many inches long. Trop. and S. 
Afr., Madagascar and Jap. With exception of ^. falea- 
tunty the species of this genus require high tempera- 
tures in order to develop satisfactorily. For culture, 
see Orchids, Prop, by removing upper portion and 
planting separately. It should include a few roots. 

Angr»cums are valued for their winter-flowering and 
lasting qualities. The compost found most suitable is 
fresh-growing sphagnum moss, no earthy matter being 
desirable, as most of the roots are seen striking out into 
the atmosphere for their needs, and do not take kindly 
to conflnement in pots. Moisture is essential at all 
times, as Angrecums do not have bulbs to fall back on 
for their sustenance during rest or blooming, in which 
respect thev resemble the A^rides, Vandas and Sacco- 
labiums. The moss must not be allowed to become de- 
cayed, but kept living by renewal when seen to be 
necessary, usually in springtime. Some of the favoHte 
species are A, JEllisii, superbum, sesquipedale, 
Humblotii and faleatum. Cuu. i,y g. q. Obpet. 

Alphabetical list of American favorites : A. articula- 
tum, 6 ; eitratum, 9 ; distichimi, 4 ; ebumeunif 12 ; 
EUisii, 7; faleatum, 3 ; Humblotii, I i A, Leonis^ I ; 
modestum, 8 ; pertusum, 11 ; Sanderianum^ 8 ; Scotti- 
anum, 5 ; sesquipedale, 2 ; superbum, 12 ; virensj 12. 

▲. Pedicels winged. 

1. Hnmbldtil, Reichb. f.(A. LeimiSj Hort. AerdnlbXus 
Lebnis. Reichb. f.). Lvs. sword-shaped, equltant, about 
8 in. long : fls. few, white ; spur longer than winged 
pedicel ; petals and sepals lanceolate ; labellum rotund. 
Comoro Isls. 

AA. Pedicels not winged. 
B. Fls. rarely more than 6. 

2. Miqiiiped&le, Thenars {Aerdnthes sesquipedAlis, 
Lindl.). Lvs. coriaceous, oblong, about 1 ft. in length, 
2 in. wide, bluntly bilobed at the summits, dark green : 
fls. fleshy, 7 in. across, ivory-white ; petals and sepals 
similar ; labellum ovate, serrate in part, acuminate ; 
spur nearly 1 ft. long. Madagascar, in low, hot districts. 
A.G. 1892: 217. A.F. 7: 831. Gn. 2, p. 5. F.S. 14: 1413. 
B.M. 5113.— Noblest of Angriecums. 

3. faloiitiim, Lindl. Lvs. linear-lanceolate, about 2 in. 
long : fls. whitish, about H in. across ; sepals and petals 
linear, acute or nearly so ; labellum trilobed ; spur as 
long as pedicel. China.— One of the first brought into 
cultivation. 

4. diltiohum, Lindl. Plants rarely exceeding 5 in. In 
height : lvs. short, those below clasping those above at 
base : fls. inconspicuous, white, borne singly. Sierra 
Leone.— Not worth cultivating. 

5. Soottiinam, Reichb. f. Lvs. terete : peduncles 
slender ; fls. inverted, pale yellow. Comoro Isls. 

BB. Fls. numerous. 
o. Color white or yellowish. 

6. artienlitiini, Reichb. f. Dwarf: lvs. oblong-cuneate, 
4-5 in. long, unevenly bilobed : fls. white, in pendent 
racemes. Madagascar. R. 55.— A pretty species, difficult 
to grow. 

7. £lUiil, Reichb. f. St. stout: lvs. oblong: peduncles 
pendulous ; fls. white. Madagascar. Often confused 
with A. articulatumf but distinguished from it by its 
orange-colored spurs. L. 92. 

8. mod68tam. Hook. f. (A. Sanderidnumj Reichb. f.). 
Dwarf : lvs. elliptical, coriaceous : fls. whitish, in pen- 
dent racemes. Madagascar. R.H. 1888: 516. R.B. 15:217. 

9. oitr^tnm, Thenars. Lvs. oblong-lanceolate, 4-5 in. 
long, 1 in. wide : racemes of yellowish fls. Madagascar, 
in vicinity of swamps. B.M. 5624. L. 238. I.H. 33: 592. 

10. perttwum, Lindl. Lvs. ligulate : peduncles about 
6 in. long ; fls. small, white. Bourbon. B.M. 4782. 

CO. Color of fls. green. 

12. superbum, Thenars {A. ebiimeum, Lindl.). Lvs. 
coriaceous, striated, 2 in. wide, over 1 ft. long, strap- 
shaped, light green, unequal at the summits : peduncle 



ANQILECCM 

tromneartliebue ot thegt.; As. iBrge, grmn uid wblto, 
plaeed ilteniKtely h%ek to back ; itpalu Bed pct&la 
apreBdlDK, green ; labellnm wblCUh, rouad, thlckish ; 
■pur green. Vsluable ; giawa to enonncniB proportions. 
MadftgucM. B.H. 4T61. B.B. 1523. L. 236. Vor. TtTMll. 
Hart. (A. v\rent, Lindl.). Fla. Bmaller ; labellam tinged 
wltli graen. B.H. 51T0. Oaeib Aheb. 

ASOITLOA (dedlmted to Don Frsniisco de Angulo). 
Orehiditta, tTlbe I'dndta. Pseudobulbs rather tall (when 
oldl, spinane at the eummtta with the remnants of leaf 
TelDB : leaf-blades 1-2 ft. lung, protnlnentl; nerved, as 
Id Aclneta. Stanhopea and Lycaste : fls. large, sub- 
globalar, on erect scapes : habit similar la Lycaste, 
tihich is a member of the eame sub-tribe. The Anguloas 
STOW under shade of trees in leaf-mold. Borne growers 
flnd that they do well when placed under Tines. They 
are coolhouse orchids, but require a moderate rise in 
temperataredorlngthegrowingseason. Oakm Ams. 

Angnloa Is  rery Interesting genuB of cool orebidB 
that UkrlTe well in an ordinary KTcenhouse temperature. 
In which a minimum of 60° canbe maiutalDed. Tbey are 
natlTesof the Andes of Colombia and Pern. The popular 
name of "Boat Orchid' somewhat aaggesta their 
shape and general appearance, the lip. being delicately 
hinged at its baae, allowing this organ to oscillate when 
ahaken. A. Cloipeiii is the best known as well as 
tlie moat deeoratlra species, its color being clear yel- 
low. A. Sucktri is similar In structure, but the fls. 
are choeolate-brown, with a decided aromatic fragrance, 
resembling Anise. There Is also a while Tarlety of A . 
CUncfii, but It is very rare In culttyatlon, as are all of 
the white forms of well known orchids, this making 
tbem very valuable commercially. A.uniHora Is also a 
pretty plant, with white flowers, spotted with pink. Pot 
culture is best, as they require similar treatment to 
Llfeaiit SkiMuH. g. O. ObpBT. 

miUUl^ Roll A Favon. ^A.v^Ts^n^Hl,'Bon.). Psea- 



ANIEIE 



67 



times spotted within, or the labellum streaked With re 
Colombia. 0.0.111.19:423. 
A. P. 6: 60T.-Thare is a 
white-ad. rar. 

CUwnU. Lindl. Larger 
in every way than the above ; 
fls. lemon-yellow, labellnm 
tending toward white, mar- 
bled with orange. Colombia. 

Btt«k«Ti, Lindl. Smaller 
than A. CUnettii: fls. yel- 
low, spatted with crimson. 
A variety has been figured 
with the crimson or red color 
predominant |var. laHfuin- 
«o, A.F.6:607). Colombia. 



as wide at base, the npper surface varionsly fissured, 
even to the edges, presenting an irregular warty appear- 
ance : fls. central, about 1 In. long and broad, shading 
from whitieh to rose. On limestone hills in the  Qreat 
Bend " region of the Rio Grande In Texas, and eitonding 
into Mexico. I.H. 16, p. 73, and flg. 

Kotohttb«jl, Lem. (A. auledfum, Salm-Dyck). This 
appears aa a trade name, but the form Is very uncertain, 
as no type seems to be in existence. According to the 
description, it is very much like the preceding species, 
except that the upper surface of the tubercle Is not Ir- 
regularly Assured, but Is smooth, at least at the edges, 
except for the central furrow. 

B. Upper turtact of tubertlt not grooved. 

prllmitl«nm, Lem. The flat top 3-8 in. across : tuber- 
cles imbricate, but squairose-spreadlng, sharply triangu- 
lar-pyramidal and very acute, with a sharp, cartilaginous 
tip, which usually disappears with age and leaves the 
older tuberclea blunt or retuse, ii-l In. long and abont 
ride at base, tbe upper surface almost plane and 



ooth, t 



sept H 



pulver 



ofton bears a small tomentose tuft Just behind the claw- 
like tip: Ss-roae color. Hta.of Mex.-Resemblesan Aloe. 
JoBH H. Cotn/rsB. 
AHIOOZAji TM U 8 lOretik, eipanded-flotftr). Eaaio- 
dorienm. Eight or ID species of Ans' " 

' df -hardy perenn 

Jid sword-like 1 
e Amer. trade. 

AVIBAOUTHUS {Greek, vnegual acantXut). Acan- 
tkicea. A genua of six species of Ueiican and Ameri- 
can shrubs, with mostly lanceolate, entire, petioled Ivs,, 
and loosely splcate or scattered red fls. an inch or more 
long ; corolla lobes 4 ; stamens 2, eqnall&g or exceed- 
ing the corolla lobes. 

WrlshtU, Gray. Height, 2-1 ft. : Ivs. 1-2 In. long, ob- 
long- or ovate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate. S.andW. 
Tei.-Once sold by John Saul, Washington, DC. 



and petals pure white and 
lip spotted pink. New Qra- 
''■^*- Oaeu Akbb. ' 

AVEALdmn (name of 
no significance I  Cactieem. | 
Top -shaped succulent des- 
ert plants, mostly buried in 
the ground, the flat aSrial 
portion covered with angular 
tubercles bearing no spine 
Btriett^ Mexican, except '' 



Foi 



A geniw of 4 or 6 ipeoies, 

> single species {A. Engil- 
ises the Bio Grande Into Texas. It is referred 
Maralllaria by some. For A. WiltiamtH and A. 
see under Hchinocactut , section iophopXora. 

. Upper /lur fail 
bearing Jeajrii 
fncahnaimi, Lem. (A. fiiiurilum, Engelm.). Livraa 
Bock. The flat tubercle-covered lop 2-5 in. across, taper- 
ing below Into a thick root ; tubercles Imbricated and 
iq>pr«iwd, triangular in outline, M-1 in. long and abont 



AHIBE. trnbtUifera. An ai 
medicinal herb (i>i'mpiii/(ja AHltum, Linn.) of the Ori- 
ent. It is an annual, and Is easily grown from seeds in 
any warm and mellow soLl. The seeds are commonly 
aown where the plants are to stand. The seeds are used 
In medicine and in cooker)', and for flavoring liquors. 
They yield a highly perfumed essential oil. Tbey are 
mostly grown In Uediterrane an countries. The leaves are 
alaousedasBeasoDlngandgaminhlng. The plant reaches 
a height of 2 ft..beara twice-pinnate Ivs. and small yel- 
lowish white fls. in large, loose umbels. The seedB are 
oblong and carved, ribbed on the convex aide, grayish. 



the slie of carawar seed. Id conuDoa vfth all umbel- 
IKeroas seed. Anise seed doea not retain its Tiabilltf long, 
the normal lonKerlty being 1 to 3 years. 

AHKITALB. Plants vblcb, In cnltiTation, are prefer- 
ably grown from seeds euch year are commonly classed 
as Annuals. More strictly. Annuals are plants whleb 
normally live but a single season. Among Annuals are 
found a number of the most showy Bowers. As a rule, 
they are easily grown, )>roducing qulcli results and af- 
fording a variety of brilliant colors. The class Is, there- 
fore, one of the greatest value. Same of the Annuals last 
only a few weeks In bloom, others continue IhrouKbout 
tbesummer. Therearetralleraand climbers, dwarfs and 
tall growers. By a judicious selection and arrangement 
of kinds, tbe handsomest effectsmay be produced. Many 
of the showy kinds are adapted to mass effects, while the 
dwarf .growing sorts make Dne Bo wering edgings for beds 
or walks. With the latter, handsome ribbon. beds are pos- 
sible, but this requires care in the seleetlon of kinds, and 
as the use of the trimming shears is almost precluded it 
la IjesC to limit oneself to simple designs. Annuals are 
well adapted to the ooveringof bare spots of ground In 
the Iwrder. Annuals, like other Bowers, show off best 
when seen against a background of foliage. See Figs. 
91, 92. The tall and leafy kinds make excellent covers 
for unsightly objects ; see Sereeni. For climbing and 
twining kinds, see Kt»e>. See, also, JCvtrlattintt and 

In the case of others than the continuous bloomers, a 
succession of sowings or plantings Is denlrsble to pro- 
vide for a continuous display ; then as a kind twgins to 
fail its place may be tilled with young plants of the same 
or other species. The usual method of securing suo- 

elant the seedlings first to pots. The potted plants may 
B set out at any time, with but little check to growth. 
Host Annuals prefer an open, sunny situation, but 
pansles, forget- me. nots, and some others, thrive where 
they get the full sunshine tor only half the day. In all 
eases the best results are obtained only when the soil Is 
well enriched and thoroughly prepared previous to sow- 
ing or planting ; and It Is far better to make this prepa- 
ration a fortnight or more In advance. A considerable 
proportion of humus In the soil is desirable, rendering it 
less subject to baking and drying out. Cow -manure, 
stable-manure or leaf -mold, worked in liberally, will aup- 
plythls. Beds should be spaded thoroughly and at least 
a foot deep. If the surface is then again worked over to 
balf this depth, better results will be obtainable. The 
soil should not be disturbed, however, unless It pulver- 
ises readily. For the reception of seeds, the surface 
should be mellow and smooth. The seeds are sown in 
drills or concentric circles, according to the method of 
planting decided upon. Taller growing kinds are sown 



ANNUALS 

toward the center or back of tbe bed. Only the best 
seeds should be purchased, and it is generally best to 
get the colors in separate packets. In the open ground, 
seeds may be covered to a depth of four or Bve times 
their own thickness, but when sown Indoors In trays or 
pots, the rule is to cover them to about their own thick- 
ness. The positlouofeachroworkiDd should be marked, 
so that when weeds and flowers Kpring up there will be 
notroublelnseparalingthe sheep from the goats. After 
covering, the sol) should be pressed firmly over the seed 
with a board or hoe, or the feet. In soils which are in- 
clined to bake, a sprinkling of sand or fine litter over 
the surface after sowing will remedy this evil. Ever- 
green boughs placed over the l>eds until the seedlings 
have appeared will afford useful shelter from beating 
rains. It is desirable to sow the seeds thickly. When 
up, the plants may be thinned to their proper distances. 
Particular care sbould be given to this matter, and to 
keeping down weeds, or the plants may become weak, 
spindling aud valueless. No need pods should be allowed 
to form, else the vitality of the plants will be exhausted. 
The flowers may be freely gathered with advantage la 

It Is customary to divide Annuals into three classes: 
(]} Hardy Annoals are those which are sown dli«ctly In 
the open ground where they are to grow. They are vitally 
strong, developing without artificial heat, and may be 
sown from February to May, according to the season and 
latitude. Some of them, as sweet peas, may be sown 
even In the fall. For this class, a well prepared border 
on tbe south side of a fence or wall, or other sheltered 
place, is usually preferred for early sowings. From here 
the sebdllngs are transplanted later where they are to 
grow. Some sorts, however, do not bear tranaplanting 
well, conaequeully must be sown lathe places they are to 
occupy. Among such are poppies, eschscholtiia, barto- 
nla, Venus' looking. glass, lupine, malope, and the dwarf 
'—■'-- (2) Half-harty Annuals are usually sown 






.rdy 



usually not long enough to enable them i 
reach full development in the open. In the early stagi 
of growth, they need protection and warmth. Sue 
kinds are sometimes sown In the fall and wintered ovi 
in a coldframe. When once esUblished, they are h 

with slight protection. Pansles and some other L _ 

are grown to their greatest perfection only in this way. 
(3) Tender Annuals require still more warmth, and are 
started from January to May in the greenhouse or other 
suitable place. They commonly need a temperature of 
fromGO° to 70°, Thedaoger with early grown seedling!!, 
especially those started in the window, is crowding and 
want of light. As soon as crowding begins, the plants 
should he thinned out or transplanted to other trays, or 

frer)uent transplanting Is usually an advantage. Tbe 
last transplanting is preferably Into small 
pots, as then the seedlings may be readily 
set out in tbe open ground at the proper 
time, with little or no check to growth. 

Some of the staple or general. purpose 
types of Annuals in the North are the fol- 
lowing ; Petunias, phloxes, pinks or dian- 
thuses, tsrkspurs or delphiniums, caliiopala 
or coreopsiK. pot marigolds or calendula, 

clarkias, linnias. marigolds ortageles, ooi- 
Unsias, gilias, California poppies or esch- 
Bcholtiias, verbenas, poppies, China asters, 
sweet peas, nemophilas.portulmcas, sUenes, 
candytufts or iberls, alyssum, stocks or 
mattblolas, morning-glories, nasturtiums or 
tropmoluma. Other species are mostly of 
special or particular use, not general-use 
types. In the South, and occasionally at the 

tarlly year after year from self-sown seeds. 
Petunias, phloxes and morning-glories are 
examples. 

For further suggestions, see Sttdage. 
For an annotated list of Annuals suited for 
northern climates, aee Bull. 161, ComeR 
ree-crenp. '"'P- S*"' Ew«»T Wai-BKB. 



ANCECTOCmLDS 

jUKBCTOCHlLirS (Qreek, op*H lipi. Orchidattrt, 
tribe tfeotllta. A genus cultivated tor tbe beautifully 
reticulated Its., which are oval or ovate, membranaceouB 
and diversely colored. Fls. small, not ornameutal. The 
knowa species belong lo India and the Malay Arcbl- 
pelago. Although manf methods have been adopted for 
tbe successful cultivation of the b " - ' ^ _ .  . 



B been the general r 



that a 



preaeut time few Amer. collections 
apeelmen. "For a time— it may be two, or even Bve 
years— they will grow and remain In health, and then 
■nddeuly tbey go wroDg, the plants perlahing one after 
tbe other, in spite of all one can do."— W. Watson. 

BdllMll, Low. Ltb. about 2 In. long, bronze-green, 
with 3 longitudinal bands of copper-red. Bomeo- 

mkUIj, Blume. One of the r 
the gTonp : tvs. ova], large, bra 

with gold, the surface of the ivs. use veivei. java. 
B.H. 412.1. F.S. 2:79 M A. leldesu a.— Several good va- 
rieties exist. 

BtxborKhil, Lindl. Lvs. ovate, median line of pale 
Creen, reticulated and veined with gold. Java and Ind. 

Man? ipeeica are described and Scored In fo»l(n r 

ttons. but thejr are all fanden' plonU. Othsr -' 

PMT Id the Amer, trade are! A. I>audna _. 

Ipawmiidntu)— HiemarlB. — A. Ldmi. Hort.— DoMtala,— A 
i'tlWa.Hort.— MacodM.— J. Vritchiinut, Hort,— M»cod«. 



ABOXATEfcCA. See fopcii 



Oaki 



AMftllA (aboriginal name). Anonieia, CtJSTABD- 
AlTLE. Tropical trees and shrubs, cult, for their large, 
flesh]' fmita, and for ornament. Kls. perfect, solitary, 
terminal or opposite the lvs. : petals typicallj' 6, hut half 
of them aometlmea reduced to small scales or even want- 
ing: pistils many, each with one erect ovnle, united Into 
• fleshy fmit-like body or syncarpluro. Small trees or 
shrabs, over 50 in number, of Tropical America, and a 
few in Africa and Asia. Some of the species have been 
introduced into southern Florida, but they are generally 
imperfectly known, both to horticulturists and botanists. 
Aside from the species described below, various other 
Anonaa have beeen Introduced Into soathem Florida, but 
their botanical status is unknown and some of them 
are probably forms of old species. Amongst these 
Dames ore A, Mexicana, which was a catalogue name 
used by Lioddiges, the species never having been fully 
described; A, Atricana, a very obscure species founded 
by LjlnnceuB upon an American specimen, with lanceolate 
* s.; A. (Hlobafa is undoubtedly .^HiHinafn'- 



lo»a ; A.c 



carpa, .. 



rmiformU, and . 
names, or belongto other genera ; theBerihi, introduced 
by Haasoner Bros., from Brasll, is evidently a Rollinia, 
pmaihty B.ortXoptlala, For A. }ongifolia,e,ix Duguelia, 
and for .J.mH(coaa,Beeiio[Ii»l<t. Some of the species 
•re Imperfectly evergreen. See Ariabolryt. 

Anonas are of easy culture, requiring no special treat- 
ment in frostless countries. They propagate readily by 
seeds, and ore usually thus grown ; also, by ripened cut- 
tings noder glass. In the U. S. they are sometimes 
grown under glass as ornamental subjects. They should 
then be kept fairly dry in winter, for at that time they 
aasume a semi.dormant condition. They thrive best in 
heavy loam. 

X. Pttalt cordalt-ovait or obovaU,l\e Inntr onti 

B. XxleriOT peialt plainly aeult, inner ontt eUuia. 

c, Frvit htaring treat spinel. 
mnrietta, Linn. {A. AtidUea, Linn.). Soch-Sop. 

GnaltABSNA. CORBieOL, SUIRSIAK. SUSAKEA, Small 

tree, tbe aiie of a peach tree, evergreen, the young 

ffrowth scurfy-pubescent ; exteHorpetus scarcely exceed- 
big tbe Interior ones, 1-2 in. long, and yellowish or green- 
ish, the innerones yellow orred: lvs. elliptic and pointed, 
varnished above and rnsty beneath, but becoming glo- 
brtiui: fr. very large |&-8 In. long and weighing from 1-S 
Jbs. ), oblong or eonieal and blunt, dark green, the skin 
rough and spiny ; pulp BOft,whlte and juicy, subacid, with 
a turpentln»-llke flavor, Weatlndles, where It Is a popu- 



lar (mit.— It is grown with especial eieellenoe In Porio 
Rico, and is common in the markets of Key West, whidier 
it is shipped from the islands to the southward. A 
favorite drink is made from the juice. It is one of the 
tenderest trees of the genus, and Uirives only in extreme 
southern Floridaand California. Introduced In tbe Old 
World. 
cc. Fruit nearly or quite imaolh (or in A.pyritormii 
undeMcribed) . 
gUbra, Linn. (A. laurifAlla, Dnnal). Pohd-Apfli. 
Mahon. Fig. S3. Small nearly evergreen tree, with 
smooth growth : exterior petals somewhat exceeding the 



een netted, veined 



krelffn publiU' 






Nearl? H natural il». 



Interior ones, greenish : lvs. oblong-ovate or long-OVate, 
pointed, green on both sides and glossy above : tr. die 
size and shape of a Bellflower apple or an ox's beari, yel- 
low or brownish yellow, smooth, the stem pulling out 
of the fruit at maturity and leaving a very deep cavity; 
pulp cream-colored and very fragrant, fair in quality. 
Native in swamps, both salt and fresh, in southern 
Florida, and on the Indian River ; also. In the West Indies. 
B.B. 133S. SS. 1;17, 18. -The fruit, although acceptablo 
to many people, is not generally prized. 

pyrlUrmll, Boier. Climbing, glabrous : petals of the 
two series nearly equal, oblong- spatutate or obovate 
(about 2 in. long), flat, the outer ones hooded or cueullate 
at the top ; aepaJs joined half their length : Ivs. nearly 
oblong (3-6 In. long), obtnse or acutish, thick and rigid, 
somewhat shining and glaucous. Mauritius.- Said to 
have been introduced into southern Florida recently, but 
It is ini perfectly known. 

BB. ExttrioT ptiali obluit or ntarlg MO. 

palAitrlt, Linn. Aijjoatob-Appi.i. Cork-Wood. 
Mokkxv-Appls. Bitnta. Tree, 10-15 ft. high, the young 
growth smooth: exterior petals ovate, exceeding the ob- 
long Inner ones, a half -Inch or more long, and yellow, with 
a red spot at the base within, the Interior red inside: Ivs. 
ovate -elliptic or oblong, with a short, narrow point (or 
occasioually bluntisb), smooth on both sides, rather 
thick, and more or less evergreen: fr. 2 In. in dlam., yel- 
low, and somewhat roughened or scaly. Cuba to Rio 
Janeiro; also, in Africa. B.M. 4226.-Introdnced In 
Bouthem Florida, but imperfectly known In cultivation. 
Unless Improved by cultivation, tbe fmit Is probably 
unworthy of cultivation. 

BBB. Exttrior and interior petalt all atult. 

palndMa, Anbl. Shrub, with rusty-villons branches -. 
outer petals acnte, twice longer than the canescent inner 
ones : lvs. oblong-acute, rounded at the base, sparsely 
pubescent above and tomentose beneath : fr. ovate and 
tuberculate, pubescent when young. Ouiona. — Intro- 
duced Into southern Florida, where it Is yet very Ilttls 



70 



ANOKA 



AX. PllaU {txUrier) IliMar or afrlMt^, lk« Inner enti 

rnintUe {or einupieiuu* <» A.miutota). 

». Fmll imOoA or «ry ntarlt/ lo (In A . ampl€xieaitHl 

MndttBribtd). 

a. Ltt. vtlvtty btntaih. 

CIwrIinUl*,HiUer(^.(npAaIa, Alton). CnMMOTKK, 

or Chikiuova. Jauaioa-Afpli. Tree, 15-20 ft. high, 

with roung groirth Bcurfy-pnbescent : tU. opposiM 

the Its., greenish, and tngnut, the exterior pelala ob- 

long-linear and keeled on the Inner aide, velvety : Ivs. 

r oblong (about 3 In. long), obtuae or acaroely 

' r h»lry dbove and vb' 

irlcal or iligbtly Sati 



« H In. or more In dlam. ), apherlcal or Kli| 
It the enda, nearly smooth, brown ieh yelli 
*itb a red cheek, the flesh soft and rlcb. 



Pern and ad- 
jacent regloni northward, but natunliied In Central 
America and Heilco, the West Indies and parts of the 
Old World. B.H. 2011.-lt Is a welt-known fruit ot the 
tropics, and It thrives upon the Florida keys and the 
adjacent coasts. It Is also grown to a limited extent In 
■onthem California. FVult will stand transportation If 
picked green. Possibly the plants aold as A , maeroedrpa 
and A . tuat'iitlMa are forms of the Cherimoyer. See 
Cktrimoytr. 

CO. Lvt, nol vtlvtii/. 
nUenUta, Linn. CrBTAKD-Ai>pLx. Bhuace's-Hiabt. 
TUVTA DE Condi. A tree, 15-25 ft. high, with growth 
smooth or nearly so; Os.wlth the exterior petals oblong- 
linear and keeled on the Inside, acute, greenltb, wlui 
purple spots at tbe base : Ivs. lanceolate or oblong and 
pointed, glabrous above and rough beneatb, but becoming 
■mooth: fr.3-4 in. In divn., smooth, with smalt depres- 
sions, in various shades of yeilow or even rnsset, with 
n soft yellow cream-Uke pulp next the skin, snd a white 
pnlp at the middle, sweet and excellent. West Indies, 
where It Is a very popular fnilt. It thrives In southern 
Florida, where it liu lately been Introduced. B.H. £911, 
2912. 



■mplailaa&Ui, Lam. Erect shrub, glabroni : enter 
petals oblong and obtuse |l>4in. long), the Inner very 
much shorter and lanceoUte and pointed: Ivs. oblong or 
ovate, obtuse or acute |1~« In. long), thick and rigid, 
glaucous and somewhat uhlning, deeply cordate -clasping 
at the base. Mauritius and MadagBxcar.'.Said to have 
been lately introduced Into southern Florida. Little 
^'""°- BB. Fruit tuUrculaU. 

•qiumtoB, Linn. (A. einirta, Dunal). Swbbt-Sop. 
eunAB-Apput. Fig. 94. Diffuse small tree, or a shrub, 
10-20 ft. high; fli, with the outer petals oblong-linear and 



ANTENNABIA 

blurt, kstisd on the loiier side, greenish ; Ivs. tUu, ob- 
long-ovate, very sparsely hairy on both sides, bnt often 
becoming smooth, glaoeoDS : fr. egg-shaped, or of the 
fonn of a abort pine cone, 3-i In. in diam., yellowlsli 
green, and tubereulste (each carpel forming a protuber- 
ance); the pulp creamy yellow and cnstard-like, very 
sweet. West Indies to Bimill. B.H. 3095. -Muchpriied 
in the tropks, and considerably grown on the Florida 
keys, and extending north, with some protection, nearly 
to the middle of tbe state; also cultivated in California. 
Introdnced in tbe Old World. Lvi., green frs. , and seeds 
said to be used tor destroying verm^ Xi. H. B. 

AKStLUA (John Ansell, African explorer). Or- 
fAuidcea, tribe Kfiiwisa, Infloreaeence terminal : stems 
tu(t«d. Jointed, nodes conspicuous : Ivs. lanoeolate, alter- 
nate toward the sonunit of the stems, visibly nerved, 
•boat 6 In. long. The species require high temperatures 
for successful development. Epiphytes. For further 
cnltare, see OrtXidi. 

Alrlslns. Lindl. Plants 2 ft. or more high : steins 
eyUndrleal: fls.nnmeroas(40-80),yeUowiBh,vergingon 
green, marked with cnriously oblong, brown-purple 
spots ; labellnm yellow, 3-lol>ed. Sierra lieone. B.H, 
4965.-TliiB is nndoubtedly tbe type, all other forms so 
far known being departores from it of horticultural 
merit only. 

KiSMltte,Beichb. f. «7yw>btdlum 8d*dtr»onl,Bxrv.). 
Habit as above. Sepals and petals sparingly, if at all, 
spotted. Natal! Oa«s Am«. 

AMBOVU. &MAM4onia. 

AVTEHABU (psppos likened to anttnna). Com- 
p6tiU», Evuu^sTiNO. Cat'b-Eab. Small, white- woolly 
perennial herbs, with spatulate or obovateroot-lvs., and 
mostly leafless scapes, bearing small gray or white 
hea Is which remain stiff and dry. They are interesting 
for lockwork and the edges of borders, and for this par- 
pose have been sparingly Introduced In the last few 
years. They are perfectly hardy, and thrive in poor 
soil. The fls. are often cut before fully mstore and 
dried (and often dyed) as everlastings. Several spe- 
cies grow wild. Prop, mostly by division of the mats ; 
also by seeds. Allied to Anaphalls and ansphaliom. 
DitBCious. Bee Kverlailingt. 
A. Pappui 

dlmOipliB, Torr, & Oray. Tufted with apatdlate Its. 
and a sparsely -leaved fl.-st. an inch or less high, from » 
■tout, much-branched caudei. Neb. west. 

A.A. Pttpptf ot iltrilt fit. tltitktmd at tJu top, 
B. Ifot tprtadinf by ilolom, 

0«f«ri, Qray. Stoat, thick-wooUy, from a woody base: 
S.-st. 3 in. or more high, very leafy to the top : pistil- 
late heads narrow : involucre with rose-purple or ivory- 
white tips to the inner scales. Cal. N. 

BB. Spreading by itolont. 
c. Head* lolilary or in a cymoi* elutttr. 

dloloa, Linn. Basal Its. lH in. or less long, l-nerred 
or only indistinctly 3-nerved : St. 2-12 in. ; Involacral 
bracts all light giiien or light brown, with white or 
pinkish tips. N. states and Eu. — Tbe plant in the trade 
as A. iotntHldium is probably a form of this species. 
Also in cult, under tbe proper name. A. diotca. 

alplns, Oertn. Plant 1-i in. : involucral bracts in fer- 
tile heada, dark brownish green, acute. Canada, Bock; 
Hts., Sierra Nevadss. 

plantaglnlUlla. Rich. Basal Ivs. IH in. or more long, 
distinctly 3-nerved ; St. 6-18 in. high. Stoloniferous, 
making broad patches. Common Id fields and old pas- 
tures. Perhaps not in cult. 

CC. Headi looitly panieltd. 
r iMMlAs*, Hook. Light-woolly, 6-20 in. high, the sts. 
sparsely leafy, the heads mostly on slender peduDcles : 
involucre brownish. Rocky Mts. j;,. H. B. 



AHTHEMIS 

B (Qieek name of tha cbunomlle). Com- 

pitila. Chauohili. PTrathram-Uka he&Ty-KBDUd 
pUnti, annaftl. biennial or p«ren&lal, membera of a 
Urge, Old World temperate-regloii genua. Heada many- 
flowered, the dlak yellow, tbe rays white and yellow and 
(In (he common ealt. apeolea) pistillate, the receptacle 
Bonleal and chaffy, the akeues terete or ribbed, and 
either naked or be>rlug a mlnnte crown : Ivh. pinnately 
dlUMted. Two or three of the species am weeds. 
Others are excellent border plants. The true cbama- 
mlle to a medicinal plant. The hardy perennial species, 
which alone are grown In tbis country, are easily 
handled In tbe border, where ttasy bloom from midsum- 
mer till frost. They thrlTe In almost any soil, but need 
tall expoanre to sun. Prop, by seeds or dlfUlon of the 
elamps, nsDaUy the latter. 

1. Bb^i nonnally ytlline. 
UnatMk, Linn. Qolden li^BaDBBiTi. Of bnshy 
habit, 2-3 ft., with angular at. and pinnately divided, 
•Ud again pinnmtlfldoreut-toothed Its., and large, daisy- 
like, golden yellow tis. (1-3 in. aerOBS). A. Kilieagt, 
Hort. (or vta. Ktimaj/i, Hort.), has flner-cnt foliage and 
deeper yellow tla. Tbere Is also apale-rayed var. Qn. 
II3;il49. — AneieeUent hardy border plant, and naetnl at 

XA. BagncUtt. 
B. Pertnnial,- cuUivaUd. 

mSUllB.Ulta. Chahokilb. Half.spreadlngandmaeh- 
branebed, downy, the Ivb. very finely dissected : pappus 
wanting, chaff of the receptacle blnnt.— A pleasant- 
■eented herb, BomeCimes escaped from cult. It yields the 
medicinal cbamorolto fls, of commerce. For medicinal 
purposes, tbe beads (the single preterredl are cnt as 
aoon as fully expanded, and dried. Cult, also as a hardy 
border plant ; often double. 

BB. Bitnniat or annual ; icitdi. 

kTTtnda, Linn. Pubescent, not lll-s«ented; Itb. rather 
coarsely 1-2 pinnately parted; pappns aminnte border: 
heads I in. or more across: rays pistillate.— Not common. 

C6tnla,DC. BIat-webd. A common weed along road- 
aldea. Ill-scented, growing a footortwobigb, with finely 
dissected 1ti., nentral rays, and.many aster-Uke fls. 1 in. 



ANTHUBIUH 



71 



A. J^riaHtk Ttd, ttgmenU very utuqual. 

Oan6nU, Linn. Corm small: at. simple, 1-lH ft.: 

Its. about i, linear, 1 ft. or lees long : Ba. 4-6, in a 

lax spike, bright red, an Inch long, the stamens reaching 

to the tip of the upper segment. Cape. L.B.C.20: 1971. 



It.— Chmanthemnm ( 



A. Aiamt, Oriieb,— AeUll« a 
— Cladanthus.— A. eormdria, '. 



See FlotBtr. 

ABTH>BIGlrM(Qreek, rb>w«'h<fi(re). IncludesPha- 
langivm. IiHiAtta, Herbs, with tuber-like 
and racemes of rather small, white, deep-cut us. -. jmn- 
anth rotate ; anthers attached between their basal lobes, 
and the locules many-oTuled— In these characters dUTer- 
Ing from Paradlsea. Orowu In borders, where the roots 
should have a BOTer of leaves or litter In winter ; also 
In pots and under benches In coolhouses. Useful for 
lawn vaaea. Prop, naturally by stalung ; Increased also 
by division and seeds. Of eaalest culture. Qlve plenty 
of water when In bloom. A. ii»as(mm, St. Bruno's 
Lily, will be found under Paradlsea. A. picturattitii. va- 
ritgatrtm and vittatum will be found under Chlorophy- 
tum. A. Caiifomicutn of some catalogues perhaps be- 
longs to Chlorophytum. 

LUUgo, Unn. St. Bbbhard'b Lilt. Fig. 65. Btem 
simple, 2-3 ft. high, bearing an open raceme of open- 
apreading fls. I In. or less across, the segments linear- 
oblong : Iva.louR and narrow. S. Eu.and N. Afr. B.H. 
914. V»r.uilor,SlmB,i8largerlnallilB parts. B.U.I63B. 

TBminm, Linn. [A. graminifiliiim, Hort.). Stem 
branched : fls. somewhat smaller. En. B.M. 1055. 

L. H. B. 

AVTHOLfZA. (name from the Greek, of no partlcn- 
l«r application). Iridieem. About 20 (Jape and Trop. 
African cormons plants, with linear or sword-shaped 
Its. and bright fls. in E-slded spikes. Perianth long- 
tabular, curved, dilated above, the uppermost segments 
largest: stamens 3 : style branched: ovary 3-loculed. 
Cult, the same aa gladioli, being lalcen up in the tall. 
The tubers are often started In a frame or In the house 
befon planting Id the open. See Baker, Irlden. 



OiBrft, Banks. Corm large: st. 2 ft. or less : Its. nar- 
row-linear, 1ft.: fls. 12-20, in a lax splko, bright red, I-IH 
In. long, Btamensnotqulte reaching tip of upper segment. 
Cape.-Has been hybridised with gladlolns. 
AA. Periant\ Ttd and yeltotc, ttgmenU Uti unequal. 

XthUptoa, Linn. Corm large : St. branched, 3-4 ft. : 
Its. several, sword-shaped, 1 in. broad and 1-1 S ft. long: 
spike 6-9 In. loog, rather dense : fls. tS-2 In. long, red 
and yellow ; stamens reaching to the tip of the upper 
segment. Cape. B.M. 661. 

Var. minor, Llndl. (A. Meoler, G»sp.|. Dwarf : Its. 
narrow : fis. red at top. pale yellow below. 

Var. Tittlgmi, Baker (var. Wnyeti., Nichols.). Tall 
aa the type : fls. bright yellow, striped red. B.M. 1172. 

Var. Inunaiglnita, Baker. Fls. red, with dull yellow. 



a WTWO T A W TWltM (yellotc-flowtr, from tbe Greek) 



les, a perennial, of low growth, 
— ' very early bloom, and 

Hweet odor when mown. 

It Is used In mixtures of 

pasture grasses, and Is also 

spontaneous In tbe E. 

states In pastures, mead- 
ows, and along roads. A. 

Puilii, Lee. A Lamotte. 

1b an anntial species, of 

smaller else, sometimes 

used in forage mixtures. 

UTTUOlUUM (Greek, 
(ail -flower). Aroldea. 
Tropical herbs, of 200 or 
more species, cult, mostly 

showy spathes and spsdi- 
ces or for foliage. Spathe 
usually spreading or even 
reflexed, only rarely par- 
tially enclosing thespadlx. 
Differs from AlocasJa and 
allied genera In technical 
characters. Monogr. by 
Engier in DeCandolle'a 
Honographlte Pbanero- g 
gamarum,Vol.2(ie79). 

Propagation la effected by si 
rhiioma Inserted In small pots containing a n 
peat Sber, ehopped sphagnimi n~ ' ~" — 




ANTH0BIUH 

equal proportion 

peratnre □ 

d ot J&uuary la the most suitable time to Uke tb( 
CDttlllKS' AnthurlumB may klao be props^ted by seeds 
sown in a mixture of very fine fibrous peat ftod chopped 
apbMtaam mors ia 4-iDcli pots. The seeds should be 
tightly covered with sphagnum and tbe pots placed 
either In a propagating ease or under bell glasses, when 



ANTHUBIUM 

eharc«al and sand. Good drainage, and less irater thaa 

ia needed for tbe Aadreannm section, will be necessary. 
A. Sthtmrianum, although thrlTlng well in the hottest 
house, will succeed Id an interme- 
diale house. Seeds are obtained by 
pollinating tl " .... 



aaini 






[s very necessary to lodaee the seeds to 
germinate. Tbe oampost in which Anthariunis tbrlT-e 
best is a miitare of (me-thlnl fern root, or tbe fiber of 
peat iriUi the dust shaken out, one-tblrd spbagnnDi 
moss and one-third broken crocks and charcoal. The 
pots mnst be well drained, and the plants should ba 
coned up 3 or it inahes above tbe rim of the pots, and 
finished oS with a surfacing of live sphagnum nioss. 

Eatabllsbed plants will only need repotting once in 2 
or 3 years, bnl should have a fresh top-dressing every 
year ; the best time t« overhaul them is about the end 
ot Janoary, or before active growlb commences. They 
ahotiid be given a shaded position, free from draughts 
of cold air, and ordinary stove temperature. 

Like most evergreen aroida, they reqaire a copious 
snpply of water at the roots and a humid atmosphere 
during the spring and sammer months, and at no season 
of the year must tbe plants he allowed to become dry. 
Care mast also be taken not to mar the leaves by hard 
spraying. The temperature during winter should not 
fall below SB". Cnlt. by Edward J. C*SNmo. 

Anthariams snob as A. AndraanHM, A. omahtM, 
and their numerous hybrid progeny, require at all times 
a high and humid atmoaphere, Under those eonditions 
and in a good rooting medium, they ought to be eontin- 
nally in Sower. A bloom is produced from tbe axil of 
each leaf, and Immediately beneath this leaf a new root 
la produced, thick and sncoulent at first, becoming tongh 
with age, and. if not allowed to bury itself among the 
compost in which the plant grows, it eventnally hardens 
and is ot no help in the sustenance of tbe plant. There- 
fore, tbe growing point of the specimens should not be 
allowed to get too high, or the flowera will be few and 
poor. When the plant forma stems above the pot, the 
compost should either be built up around the slem, to 
catch the roots,orthe plant may be cut over.rooted afresh 
Id sand, and given a new start In a pot. The two orna- 
mental-leaved species. A, Veitchii and A. Warocque- 
OHum, should be treated In the same manner. When cut 
down, we may look for the old stocks to send ont amall 
growths, which In course ot lime may be taken off and 
pnt in small pots. All of the above are such tree-rooting 
kinds that they may, with the addition ot some rotted 
manure, be grown in sphagnum moss. A good mliture 
Is as follows: Sphagnum, chopped not too fine, one part; 
fern or kalmia roots, chopped op and tbe fine substance 
removed, one part ; another part to be made up equally 
ot sand and rotted manare. With well-drained pots, this 
tomu ta admirable rooting substance. Most ot the other 




species and their forms. Including A, Sehentrlanum 

and A. cryttallintim, will thrive better In material 
mainlycomposed of rough, Qbrous loam and peat with tbe 
fine material sifted troui It. Tbia rough, fibrous material 
should he mixed with a small quantity each of sphagnum. 



abonld be lown on tbe surface of a pau ot chopped moaa 

and sand covered with glass; tbey sometimes show signs 
ot germinating almost befoFO being gathered, ao that It 
is dangerous to keep them any length ot time before sow- 
ing. To prevent damping, the seedlings abonld t>e pricked 
off round the edge of a 3-inch pot as soon as the first leaf 
Is large enough to handle. Seeds of snah kinds aa crys- 
talllnum and regale wtU germinate well on tbe moss ot 
nepenthes baskets. cnlt. by O. W. Olitxr. 

A. Zivi. plain grMH; grmtn moilJg for t&a (kovy 

Sohannlbiiim, Schott. Fig. 96. A foot or two high, 
evergreen : Ivs. long. lanceolate (the blade 1 ft. or more 
long and petiole of nearly equal length), thick, usually 
somewhat revoiute, with a strong vein parallel with each 
edge and close to it, and many croas-veins : scape long 
and slender 1 1-2 ft.) , red : spatbe ovate-oblong, 3-1 in. 
long, spreading or defleied. Intense red (sometimes 
double, I.H. 37: 67) : spadix slender, often earled, yel- 
low. CentralAmer. B.M, 5319. R.B.23:121. A.F.S:5S9 
(In variety).— An old favorite. Runs into many forms : 
Ijpathe white, vars. dlbum, dlbum magnlficum, Idctevn, 
mdximum diium, Williamiii, Vennneum; spathe par- 
ti-colored, vara. Andegaviniii (scarlet on the back, 
white and scarlet spotted above), tnuWMJ* (white-bor- 
dered), H«!>ul«sum (double, white spotted rose). Both- 
tchildiinum (scarlet mottled white, Gn. 30; 670), Wa- 
rotqutiHum (not A. Waroequeinum) (white spotted 
red); apatbe very large, vars. gigantium, mdziiHuni, 
Wdrdii. Woddbridgci. Very dwarf is var. pi^misiim.- 
rose-salmon apathe and orange spadli Is var. Pariti- 
tnat I sharp-pointed Ivs. and spathes Is w. BimMtii. 



ANTHURIUM 

apaOd^ifUaiii, K. E. Browa. Two ft. or Bess, at«m- 
!««■ OT nearl; no ; lenf-blkde 2 ft. or leas, ri«rrow-t&D- 
eeoUte, attenuate In a Btnilght line from tjte middle to 
the base, aFuminate, bright Ereen above and gravieh 

loDK and a half or mora oa wide, erect, boat-ahaped, pale 
green or whitish ; epodlx 1 In. long and very bluDt, pale 
jellow. Trop. Amer. 

AndnstJinm, Llnd. Flp. 9T. Low Bpedes, with leat- 
blades drooping like an Alooaaiaand tordate ovale-lan- 
eeelate : epatbe cordate -oiate, thick in texture, 6-10 in. 
long, orange-red, widely open-Bpreadiog : apailix 3-4 In. 
long, yellowish, with white bond marking the lona la 
which the Btigmsa are receptive. Colombia. B.H. 6616. 
A.F.6:569; 10:1065, Gt. 38:1293. I.H. 24:271; 37:105. 
— Beautiful and popular. Runsintomany varletiea.some 
with very large apathea end others with white onea. 
Alio hybrldiied with other apeeiea. 

AA. Lvi. pTominenlly maried with vMtt or colon, or 
riUnUep bamli of gretn; cult, tnottly for foliage. 

B. Xarltingi grecH or grttnisli. 
Tlltetali, Host. Fig. 98. Tall and robust apecles (st, 
2-3 ft.): If.-bladeB pendent, like a floe Alocoaia, often 
3-4 ft. long-, cordate or eared at base, metallia green, but 
marked by deep-aunk nerrea, which arch oil the mid- 
rib : apathe 1 ft. long. horlEOntal, green : spadix 6-8 In. 
long, atraw-color. Colombia. 0.0.11.6:773. B.H.69GS. 
Mn, 8: 187. -Striking. 

BB. Karhingi vMe or etienlially to. 
WuooQiuAaiin, Hoore. Fig. 99. Very vigorous: Ivs. 
oblong -lanceolate, loug-taperihg, hanging, 2-1 ft. long, 
deep velvety green, with rib and principal veins of a 
prominently lighter shade, making handsome contrasta. 
Colambio.— A handsome and striking foliage plant. 

magnifieimi, Lind. Leaf-blade deep cordate, oval, 
2 ft. long, upper surface olive-green with white nerves j 
petiole 1-angled : apathe amall, oblong, green : apadli 
green, eylindrlcal. Colombia. 

aTttaUlnnm, Llnd. A Andr£. Like A. magnifieum : 
dlflera in petiole terete or only very imparf eetly angled, 
alnus o( blade smaller, veins wide-banded and whiter 
and very regular : leaf- blade ovato-cordate, short, deep, 
velvety green, with the midrib and two consecutive 
bands oryatal white : spathe linear-oblong, acuminate, 
green. Pern. I.H.20:128. a.C.m.21:4t7(var. tflui(re). 
tbbU*, Llnd. Leaf-blade oordate-oblong, long-cnspt- 
date, 3 ft. or lesa, at first tinged roae, but beooroing dull 
green and marked with whit« veins ; petiole nearly 
terete : apathe broad-lanceolate, greenish. Peru. 

Various bortienltnral forma and bybrida are In cult, 
in this country ; A. amdbilt. Lvs. soft roae : cryatAlli- 
num Kmagni&enm.— A. ednuum Is a hybrid of Andrn- 
annm and arnatun:i.—.4. Chanlriiri. Lva. triangular, 
with wide-spreading basal lobes : spathe ivory-wblte, 
erect : nymphnfollnmKaubalgaatnm.— .1. CCarkHimm. 
Lva. large and broad : spathe reaembiing that of An- 
dmanumbutsaimon-Toae.— ^. Ferritrimt, Lva. large, 
cordate : spathe cordate, brilliant red : omatumxAn- 
dmaDum. — ^.noritiiixIum, Linden and Andr^^Spatbi- 
phyllumfloribnndnm.--A.#»™fteIii. Lva. largeand cor- 
date : apathe deepoormlne : Andrnanum x omatum.— 
A, |7niiMj«^roagnlflcum.— i, kibridum. Lvs. large, 
lobed at base, obtuse, green,— ^. muiAicum.—A. omd- 
tum. Lva.oTalorobloDg,cordate : spathe linear-oblong, 
white, porpEe-tlnted. — .^.£f!/HofilsJdnum,varionafornis: 
Ferrlereuae K AndrBonomt— ,^. SiebreeJitiinnm. Lvs. 
much aa in magniflcum,rlrb, velvety green, with thick 
margins : apathe light green abading to eream : spadix 
large, er(meoD.—.il.(Hiim})MH(. Lva .long-heart- shaped, 
brigbtgreen with lighter velna : spathe nwiow, green: 
•padiz greenish white. 

^. •udltiM, N.E.Bnini. Lva. B-1D in.long, trlsncnlar and 
lonc-aeainlnate, grefla : spathe rsflexed. green : spadix deep 
RMn. Bni. — A. AlUnMrKi: AnfltHinnni X Onisool, - J . 
Siteri.Hook. Ln.elllptic-hn - " 



ANTHYLLIS 



73 



a In. 



1. BoboUtm, Srhott. 

I. t?reviiofntm. 

n., piper-llke. 

: spadix pujpUah known.— 



iiallvinclaiii 



^. OMmftn-iaini, Masters. Lvs. 
and HMTOwly long-pointed, «« 

B-lt in.lona.pnrpll'li outside. CI 

tbe purplish spadix. Vennnela. G).C.ni.3:MS. 
B.M.ian,— J.OtuiiBH.Hook. Leat-blade obovat*ooiong. nm 
hand ne. tapering to peliole, iceen and strongl; Usht'ielned ; 
spates lineiir-Dblaiia, often twisted, purple (as is also the 
spadix). Brsi. B.M. C833.— J, <iitl«iK. Mulen, Q.C.II.6:3C5 
— PbUodendnmtrlpartilmn.— .i.fialir^jrrrt, Hort. Climbinj: 
Ivs.B-parted. New OraoiMls. Q.C.U.ia-.m.—A.nvmphitfblium, 
Koqh, Spathe wlilte: spadixpnrple, Veneiuela.— A.purdiimtjn, 
N. B. Brown. Lvs, oblanE-biDdeolBte, thick, green : spslbeand 
spadix pnrpla. Braz. — A. rt^ndtum. Koch. Lvs, S-lobed, deep 
green. VfneEnela.— J., tplimtubim. Boll. Lvs, ovBte-rardale. 
Hhon-polnted ot blunt, tbe basal sinua narrow, bnUste and mot- 
tled green, 1 ft. or leas loni : spathe lanceolate, white ; spadix 
green, bwoming i»l]ow and brick red ; peduncles winged. 8. 
Amer. 0,0.1883,1:381. B.M.S67S. 01.33: 149,148. I.H:31:5ia. 
— J.irWitoni.Oliver. 



ABTHtlUB (Greek, meaning dtneny flotetn). Km- 
mv ViTCB. JAsumindsa. Perennial herba, or some- 
what shrubby, prised for their spikes or heads of yel- 
low, purple or white Bs. and nsnally silky pinnate foli- 
age ; olao for forage. In the Old World, prised mostly 
for rockwork. The colt, la the easiest, as the plants 
thrive even In poor soil. Prop, by seeds or division, or, 
rarely, by soft cuttings. Not generally known in U. S, 

Vidneriria, Linn. Sakd Cixtvbb. Woukdwobt. A 
foot high : Ifts. G or more : fla. normally yellow, but 
there are red and white varieties. Eu. — A deep-rooted, 
clover-like, hardy plant, excellent for aandy and light 
lands. [Tseful for forage, and, for that purpose, occa- 
sionally grown In this country. Beqnlres 20 lbs. of seed 
to the acre. 



ANTHTLU8 



1. A foot or leas hlgb, atUcy-hoan : Ifti, 

; fli.pnrple. HerbMOoaB. Eu. L.B.C.e:578. 
B4rta-IATli, Linn. Jopmrn's Beahd. Glushouae 
■Uky Bvergreen, 3-*, or even 12 ft. high, with sever*! 
to many p&lrt ot dutow. pointed Kti. : fls. itnw-eolored 
or whltisb, Id GiDver-like heada. S. Ea. B.H. 1927.-Iii 
troatlesa coontiiea, endures Be>-wind> and aalt »pnj. 
L. H. B. 
AVnABIB hudoirim, Leaoh. UHlcieta. Upas T»eb 
otJava. TbejnleeandgnmkreTlrQlentlypolsonouB, and 
It was once sappoled that no life cnuld eiiat In the nelgfa- 
Itorhood of the tree, bat this Is false. The tree has been 
grown In Ijotanlc gardena. Bee Hooker, in Companion 
to Botanical Magailna. Qn. 12, p. «0T. 

AKTIDS1MA( Oreeb , for and band, the bark of A. Bu- 
Mint being naed for cordage). Supkor&iiena. Tropical 
trees or shrubs, with simple, entire Ivs. and inoonspleuoos 
nnlsexnal Bs., In spikes : fr. a l-seeded little drupe. 

BtmiiU, Spreng. A tree with dark green foliage and 
small, round berHea of a snbaeid taste, moeb used tor 
preserves : tbe bark yields a fiber. Adapted to 8. Calif. 
andS. Pla. Halay.-Cult, in 8. Calif. 

AlTTtQOIOT (name from the Qreek). Folygonitia. 
Tropical tendril -climbers : sepals 5, colored and petal- 
like, the 2 Interior ones narrower ; stamens 8 ; styles 3, 
and ovary 3-angled ; Ivs. sjiemate and entire : Da. in 
racemes, which end in branching tendrils. 

Uptopns, Hook. & Am. Mountain Rosb. Bo8a di 
HOKTAMA. San MiOUBUTO. Probably the only species 
«nlt. in this country. Stem slender and tall, glabrous, 
<E nearly so ; Ivs. cordate and acuminatei i ' 



>, 3-5 in. long : fls. 6-lS 
raceme, handsome rose- 
Me». B.H.58I6, G.O. 
^ T97.-One of thehaod- 

hoase climbers, requlr- 
inndance of light ; qbu- 
rewnfrom seeds, bnt also 
cuttings. Id the 8. it 
\9 freely in the open, pre- 
>g sunny and hot places; 
Et the root well In wln- 
r plant deep. It la ta- 
is-rooled. Qlve plenty of 
' when in II., but keep 

(huttmaUnss, Heisan. 

[A. intlgue. Uaat.|. 
Pubescent: Ivs. broad- 
er: fls. more ntunerous, 
the sepals nearly twice 
longer (1 In. long) than 
in the last. Guatemala. 
, O.C. 11.7:789. 

L. H. B. 



losely al- 

whTcti it differs' In the 
spurlesB Ss. 

Snapdragons are flowered either in tbe open or under 
glass. The common varieties are forms of A. majui, and 
are perennial, although tbe first crop of bloom Is usually 



APHANANTHS 

tbe only one which Is desired. Uost of the varieties ot 
this species are hardy in the N. if well oovered during 
winter. Seeds sown very early in the spring, especially 
nnderframea, and traDspianted.prodnce blooming plants 
tbe same season. It la osuai, however. If eariy bloom is 
desired, to sow the seeds In Ang. or Sept. , and cover 




Snapobaoon. Over 60 

tlves to the Old' and 
New World, in warm 
temperate regions. 
Lvs. nsaally opposite 
below and generally 
entire, never com- 
pound : corolla saccate 
or gibbous at base, but 
not spurred, personate 
or closed atl 
stamens 4. Close]; 



the plants with a mulch on the approach of cold weather. 

These tall-sown planta may be tranaplanled Into pots (or 
grown Id them from tbe first) and flowered in tbe bouse. 
For forcing in this way. Snapdragons are very satiafae- 
tory. Tbe temperature and treatment required for gera- 
niums and carnations suit them well. Dwarf vara, are 
used for edgings. 

A. Common SnapdragonI, ttricltjl ereet. 

mllilll, Linn. CoimoN ott Labos Bnafdkaooh. Fig. 
100. Perennial, or practioaily a biennial under cult.: 
1-3 ft., not downy except In the fl. -cluster : Ivs. oblong 
or lanceolate, entire, sometimes variegated ; fla. large, 
long-tubular, with spreading, very irregular lobes. In an 
elongated terminal spike or raceme. In many colors and 
varieties (ranging from red and pnrpie to white), la 
forms both tall and dwarf. Medlternnean regloii ; 
nometimes running wild about gardens. A. F. 9:909; 
13:949. I.H.41:3S. A.Q.I7:379. P.E. 7: 711.-There 
are double forms. Some of thevarietal names used by hor- 
ticulturists are dlbum, blcolor, coccintum, varifffilum. 

Ortnttnm, Linn. Shall Snapdbaoon. A low, slender 

(S in. long) In the axils. An occasional weed In oalt. 
groanda, 6 In. or less high ; not cult. 
AA. 2fativ. 

OrenttUanm, Oray. Slender, S-4 ft., glabrous: corolla 
HIn. long, white or violet, lower Ifp not much larger 
than tbe upper : lower lvs. spatolale -lanceolate, the up- 
per linear. Annnal. Lower and S. Calif. Int. by Orcntt 
in 1891. 

AAA. Climbing vint. 

UkimildloldN, Qray (Maumndta aiUirrkiniftdra, 
Wllld.). Pig. 101. Climbing 2-S ft. by means of the 
coiling petiolea and pedunclea : lvs. 3-lobed, halberd- 
shape : Qs. aiillary, 1 in. or more long, violet or purple, 
handsome. Tei. to Calif . B.M. ie43.-Anracllve plant 
for the window, cool greenhonse or conservatory. 
Suitable for baskets. j^, q, p. 



rely fc 



d in I 



ration 



. Polg- 

squire high temp. 



APXKA (Oreek.und'vfiied). Oramlnrir. One or two 
European and Asian grasses of the triba AgroiHdtix. A, 
arundindeea. Hook., la a tender grass from New Zea- 
land, of erect habit and exceedingly long, pendnlous 
panicles, grown under glass ; but it really belongs to the 
genus Stlpa. Q.C. HI. 22 : 2S3. Likely to coma Into 
American trade. 

APH&HAHTHE (Greek, apkanti. Inconspicuous, 
and anlhe, flower). Urlieieta. Trees or shrubs : ivs, 
alternate, petiolate, rerrate : fis. monieoiona, inconspie- 
uous ; stamlnate In corymbs; pistUlate single, axillary: 



APHANANTHB 

tr.  drape. Three ipeeiea in J&p. and Austral. Prop 
b; leeda or perhapa in the aaine way as Celtis, and aim 
1^ grafHiig on Celtta. 

«ipen, Planch. Small tree : IvB. ovate, oblique, acu 
miual«, aerrate, 2H-1 In. lonit, rough to the touch : Se 
green lah, with the Its.: drape globular, black, aleoder 
Btalked. Jap.— Hard; tree, wid eleoder braochea, no 
mneh different In appearance from Oeltii occidenlalii 
Little known in thiB ooontry. Alfhbd Bibdib. 



APIOS 



76 



APHZLAVSBA (Qreek-m 



ae). Aeanthicea 



gandy-braoted As. Of 
Iture, if given plenty of difTused light in the grow- 
aon, and plants are not allowed to become tall and 
It Is well to grow new plants frequently. Prop. 



partialiy 



OneeeataloinadbrJohnSauL BraL O.0.III.2:6glt.— ^.nlMu, 
Hook. Cempaet : In. ovate, thlek, ihinln* cieen above, itA 
purple beneath •- Hb. vumilion-aoarlet. larffa. the bracts not 
■howy. NewOranada. B.U.G7<1. an.i8:lce7.—A. orimtdlil, 
offered In America, 1* possllily a form of gome well known 

AFtCRA (nofbiffsr, from the Greek). £tI(dc«(B, tribe 
AMnea, Shortly oauleacent small auoculents ; Iva. 
splraliy arranged or crowded along the stem : fls. green- 
ish, often striped with white, straight, tubular or pris- 
matic, with short, flat or spreading white limb surpass- 
ing the stamens. Cape region. Agave house or oactna 
house : suitable for rockeries during the summer. 
Prop. Uke Aloe. Monogr. by Baker. 0.0.11.11:717 
(18T9) ; Journ. Linn. Sac. Bot. IS: 21S. 

Iivt. OS brvad at long, aeuminatt, horUontal. 



a readily t>e brought into flower ai 



Intennediate ti 
lowed to wilt or sbi 
■nd thrive along n 



>e rested li 



el. Bequii 

1 AUamandas and Polnsettias. 

L. H. B. 

All Aphelandras like a stovehonse temperature and a 
light leaf-mold, with a liberal proportion of sand. They 
ahould not be kept very wet In wlnt«T. They propagate 
readily from cuttinge and seeds. The leading trade 
names azeA.auraHtiata, eJuysopi, I'aieinator, Satlii. 
A, ehryiopt Is one of the handsomest o( the group. 

H. A. SlIBBKOBT. 

A. Flt.intJtadtiofytllotB, 

Ohamlnonlluu, Ueei. (A, punalAla, Bull), Lvs. ob- 
lODg • lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, the 
ecDter banded with white, and white dots running oft 
towards the margin, the midrib green : fls. and spiny 
bracts bright yellow, S.Amer. I.H.29:*57. B.M. 6627. 

tgnairtea, Nees. (A. Liopoldi, Hort. A.chr^topt, 
Hort.). Lvs. large, ovate to ovat«-elllptic. acuminate, 
dark green above (pale below) , with white rib and main 
TSina : Bs. bright yellow and much ezsertad beyond the 

5 allow crenat«-dentate bracts- Braz. Attguarrdaaitaeif 
I probably not in cult., the showy plant in the trade 
(and described above) being called A, aquarrdia var. 
Zkrpoldi byVanHoutte (F.S. 9: 889).— One of the most 

BlanobetUna, Hook. f. (A. am^na. Boll). Bt. thick 
and stout: lvs. ovate-acuminate, with many pairs of cen- 
•plcuous nerves, green, the midrib, and often the main 
veins, white: &s. dork yellow, exceeding the long, entire, 
eusp-pointed red scales: spike sessile. Braz. B.M. 
7179.— Known In the trade as A. amccna, having been 
described under that name before It had flowered in 
colt. 

AA. Flt.or<tnffe,verffing to scarlet. 

unuittkMt, Lindl. Lvs. ovate-elliptic, deep green 
sdMve, light green below, strongly veined, but not parti- 
colored, slightly wavy edged; ns. orange, with a tinge of 
scarlet, the spreading tlmb overhanging the greenish 
sharp-toothed scales. Hex. B.H. 4224. B.R.31: 12. 

Var. Bmilil, Michotspn {A.B!Bilei, Carr.). Fls. with 
more scarlet : lvs. twisted, with silvery hue between the 
veins. Hex. — Show; and good. Not so tall as A. au- 
runtiata, 

AiA. J-U. rtd. 

ImaeiiMta, Und. & Andr^. Lvs. ovate to ovate-ellip- 
tic, the rib and veins widely margined with Interlocking 
tiands of white, the under surface purple : fls. largo, 
brilliant vermilion, obscuring the Inconspicuous bracts. 
New Qranada. I.H. 21:164.— Very showy and desirable. 

A. atrAnitmt, N. E. Brown. Dwarf: Ivi. very dark pwn 

«!:«;. — A. eri»(iUo.tt.Br. Lvh'. oTMe-olliDt'ic, green : flB.dsrk 
TBd.v«rTlencaDd cnrvlnc.^3 in. Lonakauwn. W.lod. B.M. 
1578.-A. iSmidna, Undeo. I>wBrrn««. ovate and longoeu- 
ulnate. with a white rib, gieen below : fli. deep yellon, Bmsil, 
■eareelreiserted btvond thered bracU. Braz.I B.M. &ie3.— 
A. MaetdiMaa, Liud. ft Rod. Said to be a form of A. atnnl- 
mot. Lvs. with white rib and main tbIiu. Btbi. 1.H.33!W3. 
—A. Mtrgaiitim. Hort. Lri. alllptio-acnminata. barred wllh 
White, porple below ; fls. jellow, the bracts strouc-toottaed. 



lDlioUaa,WUld. {Alit Mi^ldia, Haw. BavrMhia Mu>- 
Ijsa. Haw.). Lvs. denselvorowded,thln-marginsd, v^ 
acnminate, smooth, serrulate : fls. smooth. Cape. B.Uv 



1352. 



elongated, thick, acute, e 

B. Fle.ttnootk. 

lip«n,Wllld. (Aiiedipera,B»w. Haia6rikia tttpera. 
Haw.). Lvs. small, crowded, finely tuberculate, rough- 
ened on the back and margin, only the uppermost erect. 
Cape. 

praticotift, Wllld. (AOt pentdgona.SaM., not Jacq. 
Bauiirthia pentdgona. Saw.). Fig. 102. Lvs. larger, 
from slightly concave and 
angled becoming biconvex ; 
6-ranked ; finely pale-tuber- 
culate on bock and margin. 
Cape. B.M. ]338.-Includes 
several forms : Var. WU- 
denArii, Baker : Tar. bolltt- 
Uta, Wllld. (AliebullulAta, 
Jacq.); Tar. iplTtlla, Baker 
{Aide ipirilla, Saba. Ba- 
wirthia epirtlla, Haw.). 
BB. Fli, TOUj/h-tubtrtuIale. 

fplrUls, Bak. {A. imfrH- 
edla, Wllld. Aide epiriUs. 
Linn., net Haw. Batcdr- 
thia imbricita, Haw.). Lvs. 
■mall, Irregularl; dispersed, 
smooth, the margin and keel 
denticulate. Cape. B. M. 
1455. 

Other spesies are ; A. bieari- 
n4ta. Haw. (Aloe blurinnta. 
Spreng.); A.wrwMTii.Bak.lAloe 
congests, Salm.) ) A. dtlU\dta, 
Bsk. (Aloe deltoldu, Hook. r.). 

William Tbxi.b*bb. '"*■ Aplcia pontaeotuu 

_ ,3 half a doien species 

in N- Amer. and Asia, of twining, tuberous -rooted pin- 
nate-leaved herbs. Fls. in dense, short racemes : pod 
linear and flat, several-seeded. A light soil and sonny 
place are essential Co free growth. Under these con- 
ditions, the plant covers a trellis or other support In a 
comparatively short time. 

totwtAia, MHnch. GaonNDNCT. Wnj> Bkas. Pout 
to 8 ft., climbing over bushes : root bearing strings of 
edible tubers, 1-2 In. long: leaflets 6-7, ovate -lanceolate: 
fls. fragrant, chocolate -brown, the standard very broad 
and turned back, the keel long, incurved and of scythe- 
shape. July-Aug. G.W.F. 44. — Commoninlowgrounds. 
The fruit often fails to mature. Prop, by the tubers, 
2 to 4 of which should be planted together at a depth of 



.r 4 inch 



so, by s 



order, in any loose, rich soil. Llkel; to 



ds. Grows well in the wild 



ilonally ctdt- in Jap 



,-. _.. .-., , »pan for iU 

<. edible tubers. A.GI.1BB2:T7.— A.Prueiiiia. Robin- 
o Kratncky, in»y be eipeeted to appear In ili* trade, 
a single luw tuber, becoming or 7 in.Indlam.: 
"- 'luged with nue-parple or macenla. A vig- 
described :in 1896 (Bot. Gai. 26:4S1, wllh 
J. B. Fit'.i.git and L. H. B. 



fls- greBaish white, tinged with 
lUostiatlan). 



leilk <u> spur) . Onkidieta. A ^ovi 



APim. S«e Ctltry. 

APUftCTEini (Greek, 
small orcbid, with amsin . 

on k teafleBB scape, which sprlcga from a large corm-llke 
tuber. Single species. Id woods io the N. states. 

hramUa. Nutt. Purrr Root. Adah- and -E vs. Fig. 

103. Sends up a pointed green It. 2-6 in. long, whl^ 

lasts through the winter, and In spring  atalk about a 

foot high, bearing a raceme of rather large greenish 

brown S>., which are suceeeded bj 

banging, oblong-pointed pods {Fig. 

103). Hardf. Hay be grown In rich, 

loamjr borders. Interesting, but not 

AFLOPAFFVB (Greek, limpU 
pappuij. Sja., Baplopappui. Com- 
poitla. About lis species, mostly 
from California and Chill. FIs. yel- 
low, in summer and autumn. Th» 
only species known to be in Ameri- 

lannsln6ni«, Oraj. Hardy alpine 
herb, woolly, i in. high, from creep- 
ing rootalocks ; Ivs. soft, narrowly 
spatulate, or upper linear, 1^ In. 
long : rays 15-^. Hts. of Wash, 
and Mont. Int. 1889, by F. B. Hors- 
ford. 



APPLE 

or ont-of-doOTs It may have twlea that depth. Prop, 
chiefly by seeds, but Bs. should be pollinated and kept 

-"■   least U hours afterwards, and seeds not 

be allowed to become dry. Var. Lafringsl, Hurt. (.1. 
Ldgr/tngei. Hort. ), is a rare and beautiful variety, with 
violet bracts and Ivs. violet beneath. It props, slowly. 
R.H. 18U3;380. j,. h_ g 

AFFLE, RoiArra. TheapplelsnaUvstO Bouthwestem 
Asia and adjacent Europe, it has been calttTattd from 
time Immemorial. Charred remains of thefmlt are found 
In the prehistoric lake dwellings of Switserland. Now 
widely cnltlrsted and Immensely variable, It is grown 
In every temperate climate, and is the moBt Important 
commereisl potuological fruit. 

The apple has come from two original sMms. All the 
common apples are modiflcatlona of Pyrvs Utaltti (see 
JVmi), a law round-headed tree, with thick and faiiy, 
IrregulaFlydentale.sbort-sMmmed leaves and fairly com- 
pact clusters of woollystemmed flowers. The erab- 
apples are derived from Piinu ftaeeofn. commonly known 
as the Siberian crab. This species Is probably of mora 
ooriberu or eastemorigla than the other. It Is of smoother 

seutlslly glabrous long-stemmed leaves, and more open 
elastersofglabroDS-stemmedflowera. Thefmitls smaU 
and hard, and the calyi- lobes fall at maturity, leaving tha 
eye or basin of the fruit smooth and plain. Hybrids be- 
tween these species have given the race of large-fruited 



those of tb« den 



B linn 



AFOCTarnE (Oreek for doij-iaM\. 
Apotynieta. Doo-banb. Ihdiam 
Hup. TonghperenniBlherbs,chiefly 

of N. Temp, lone, with oblong or 
ovate opposite Ivs., milkweed-like fls. 
in small cymes, and slender follicles 
orpods. About25speclea,3or4natlve 

MldnMamildlimn. Linn. Three ft. 
or less high, usually glabrous, the 
brsochee spreading : lobes o( corolla 
revolute and tube of corolla longer 
than the calyx : Its. oval or ovate, 
sbort-petloled : eymeslooie: fls. bell- 
like, white or pink. N. sUtea : com- 
mon. B.M. 280. D, 189. -Sold by 
dealers In native plants. Useful for 
the hardy border. 

Mnnibinmn, Linn. Branches erect 
or nearly so: lobes of corolla nearly 
erect, the tube not longer than ealyi: 
ivs. ovate to lance-oblong, short- 
petloled : cymes dense: fis. greenish 

known to be in the trade, but apt to 
be confounded with the above. 

AFOVOetTOV (Greek name, re- 
ferring to its habitat In the water). 
Naiadicta. AboutZOtroplcal orsob- 
IM. rroitof Aplec- tropical water plants. Fls. in twin 
tnim kvemale. terminal spikes, wholly naked, but 
Nearly natural stie. niblended by a double row of petal- 
like bracts. 
dlitiohTTun, Thnnb. Capi Pohti-weid. WatibHaw- 
THORN (from the fragrance). Forked spikes 4-8 In. long, 
with several pairs of pure white bracts, borne on the 
emersed ends of long scapes ; fls. very fragrant, with 

Surple anthers : Ivs. with very long petioles, the blade 
oatlng, oblong- lanceolate, round-based, parallel -veined, 
3-6 in. long. Cape of Good Hope. B.M. 1393. F.R. 
1:46.1. P.G. 4: 10ti,-A charming and interesting plant. 
In a protected pool, especially If it can be covered in 
winter, the plant Is hardy In the N,, blooming nearly all 
■nmmer. Removed to tubs in the fall, it blooms nearly 
all winter; or it can be grown permanently In tubs or 
deep pans In the house. Requires about 2 ft. of water, 



ia. Cep 



I apples 



-e native to NorihA 
ind P. c 



srica. 
re ot in- 



teroit to the pomologist. The 
states crab, and Is the more promising. In characters of 
growth, leaves and flowers. It baars a striking resem- 
blance to forms ot Pynii Matu: The fruit is spherical 
or spherical -oblong, short-stemmed, very hard, and re- 
mains green-colored. The fruit of the eastern-stales 
crab, P^rtii coronaria, is diatinetly flattened endwise, 
and Is long-stemmed. The leaves are deep-cut and often 
tbree-lohed. There are no improved varieties ot this 
eastern species, and no authentic hybrids between it and 
the common apples. The fruit Is sometimes used by set- 
tlers, but It has little comestible valne. Pyma loentit 
has produced a number of promising hybrids with the 
common apple, and this mongrel race Is known as Pyru$ 
SouUxrdi, The Soulard crab la the best known of these. 
Its value lies only In Its eilreme hardiness. The pomo- 
logical value of the native orabs Is prospective. For a 
completer acconnt of the native apples, see Bailey, Evo- 
lution of our Native Frulla. 

The most perfect apple reeion of this country— consid- 
ering nroiiiictlYeness, qnallty, long-keeping attributes, 
longevity of tree-Is that which begins with Nova Seotls 
and extends to the west and southwest (o Lake Michigan. 
Other imporiant regions are the Piedmont conntry ot 
Virginia and the bigblands of adjacent sUtes, the Plains 
regiona, the Osark and Arkansas region, and the Pacifla 



I 



II 

Z > 

I 



APPLE 

T«g1on, the Imst Mmpiisiafc the foothills In Csllf omln and 
the «>untT7 to the northwKrd. All parts of the United 
Sutes north of Florida and tbs Qalf borders, and eiclud- 
iDi; the wftrm-temperate pu-ti of the Sonthnest and the 
Pacific coast, are adapted to the apple Jn greater or iBaaer 
degree, North America Is the leadlog apple -((rowing 
couDtry of the world. A full crop lor the Uciited States 
aDd Canada, of all kinds and grades, IB probably not less 
than 100.000.000 barrels. The apple Is a coamopolitan 



APPLE 



77 



t thrive 



;, it is I 



moDly neglected. The plants which are most difficult to 
eultlrate are the ones which are best oultivated. 

The apple was early Introduced into this country. In 
the early days It was prised ohlefly for cider. It la an 
■ncleo t and commoo Dotlon that any apple is good enough 
for elder ; and this Is one reason for the neglect in which 
the apple plantation Is commooly allowed to stand. The 
best rCHults In apple-growing are to be expected when 
the land is tilled. The reasons fortiUlngthe orchard are 
those which apply to other crops.— to make plant-food 
available, to extend the areala which the roots can grow, 
to coDserre moisture. It is especially Important, In our 
bat and sunny country, that the roots extend deep enongb 
to escape the disastrous effects of drought. The Ideal 
treatment of orchard land is to fit the ground deep before 
tha trees are planted, to plow deep for a year or two or 
three In order to force the roots down and to thoroughly 
ameliorate the soil, and to practice shallow tillage In order 
to eonservs moisture. [See Tillagt.) Since trees make 



TfaeIr value lies In tbe better drainage of water and air. 
Tbe trees may be sot Id either fall or spring. Forty feet 
apart each waf la tho atandard distanee for apple trees t 
but some varieties, as the Wag- 
oner and the crabs, may be s 

Plains, trees may be set close 
as tbey do not attain such gre 
size as in the norlheaatei 
sUtes. Id general. It Is best 
devole the laoit to apples alon 
but persons wbo are willing 
give the plantation the best < 
care may plant other trees 
between the apples, as All- ^ 
ers. The more diverse the ^ 
kinds of trees which are 
planted together, the more 
difficult It Is to give the 



1. Apple badly attacksd by 



109. A (Dod Now York ancle nchard at U yeaia. 

mostoftbeirgrowtheariy in theaeaaon, the tillage should 
be begun as soon as the land is fit In spring; and It may be 
discouclnued by midaummer or August. This cessation 
of tbe tillage allows of the growiog of gome cover crop 
or Caleb crop (see Oovir Crops) late in the season. In 
order to secure humus and to Improve the phyxical tex- 
ture of the soil. It the land is well handled In tbe first 
few years. It will not be necessary to turn a furrow in the 
orchard thereafter, but merely to loosen the surface In 
tbe spring with a spading barrow, spring-tooth harrow, 
or otber tool, in order to reestablish the surface mulch. 
Tbe only reawns tor tumlag a furrow will occur when 
the land is so hard that the surface tools cannot mellow 
the surface, or when It Udesirableto turn under a green- 
manure crop. Even hard lands may be got In such con- 
dition, by means o( tillage and green -manures, that they 
may be worked up with harrow tools wben the orchard 
comes into bearing. Plowing the orchard, therefore, has 
two legitimate objects : to mellow and ameliorate the 
land to aconslilerable depth, so that the roots may forage 
deep; to turn under a cover crop, Tbe former purpose 
should not be necessary after the first fewplowings. An 
incidental object of plowing is to facilitate the making 
□t the annual surface mnlcb ; and this mulch Is to save 

The apple thrives In a variety of soils, but It is most 
productive and longest-lived on land which has a con- 
siderable original admixture of clay: that is. In a clay 
loam. Lands which yield good crops of wheat and com 
may be expected to be good apple lands. If otber condi- 
tions are right. Rolling, Inclined, or somewhat elevated 
lands are generally considered to be most desirable. 



of the shorter-lived varietlea of apples make excellent 
fillers In the apple orchard ; and In special cases dwarf 
apples may be used. 

It should be the general purpose to till the apple 
orchard throughout Its life; butwhenever tbe trees seem 
to be growing too rapidly, tbe plantation may be seeded 
down for a time. That is, tillage Is the general practice; 
aeeding-down Is the special practice. For the first few 
years, annual crops may be grown in the apple orchard ; 
but every year a more generous open space should be 
left about tbe trees. Till as often as the land becomes 
crusMd or baked. On strong soils whicb are well han- 
dled. It Is rarely necessary to applv concentrated fertll- 
iiera until the trees are old enough to bear. What fer- 
tilisers are then needed, and bow much to apply, are to 
be determined by the behavior of the trees. It the trees 
are making Ineufflclent growth, and the foliage lacks 
color, one or all of three things may be the trouble ; tbe 
trees may need wat«t ; they may be suffering from In- 
aectsordisease; theymaylacknltrogen. If Itlslhought 
thatthey lack nitrogen, this material may be supplied In 
the form of nitrate of soda, sulfate of ammonia, or the 
unbumed animal substances, as blood and tsukage. Two 
to three hundred pounds to the acre of the nitrate of soda 
or sulfate of ammonia are liberal applications on well- 
tilled lands. If the trees are making vigorous growth, 
the probability is that they are not In need of more nitro- 
gen. Potash and phosphorlo acid may then be applied. 
Three hundred pounds of muriate of polAsb, or other 

under ordinary conditions. As a rule, all orchards In 
full bearing should have a liberal annual application of 
fenlllzlng materials. In the East, apple trees should be 
In profitable bearing at ID years from planting, and 
should continue In that condition for 30 years. 

The two staple enemies of the apple are the apple- 
worm (tbe larva of the codlln-mothj, and tbe apple-scab 
(Pig. 106). These are readily held in check by spraying, 
—with arsenical poisons for the worm, and with Bor- 
deaux mixture for the scab. (See Spraying.) Spraying 
for the worm should he performed as soon as the last 




petals fall ; for the scab as soon as tne bads are well 
burst (Fig. 107). In badly Infected regions and on very 
susceptible varieties. It may be necessary to spray first 
for the scab before the buds swell. Since there are insecta 
{as canker-worms, case-bearers, bud-moth) which appear 



tieforethe flmreraopeD, ItUadvliabletoadd Parli glean 
or other ftrsenlcalpoison to the Borde»iii mlituTe *t ibe 
•krl^ Bpimffug. The number of tdmei to tpnj depends 



APPLESEED 

hardlneai oan be SMnred. (6bo Grattast.) InBuila, 
>eedllnj{a of Pjfmt baecata are naed lu atoeks. The; 
prevent root-kill log, ftnd gtve em-lie r fralt-beuing. Ap- 

flea *re dnufed by worklDS tbem on tuIous kloda of 
■radlse and DoqcIu ttocks. These itocks are merely 
□aturally dvart forms of tbe commoQ apple, and wblcb, 
In Borae remote time, hare originated from sof da. Dwarf 
apptea are maeh kto'^'d i" Borope, nhere small-area cul- 
tivation end wall-tralaiiiR are common, but tbey are lit- 
tie kDown In America, Apple trees are uaoally planted 
when two or three yean old. 

Tbe varieties of apple trees actoally on sale In North 
America lu any year are not far from 1,000 kinds. Each 
great geogrsphleal area has varieties which are partlon- 



i 



nthe northi 
there sre tew o( tbe eastern-states a; 
Varlelles have been InCrodDced frOD 
expectation that tbey will be adapted 



npon the thoronghness of the work, the pests to b« eom- 
batted, and tbe season ; bat it Is a fcood rule to expect 
to apra; with the combined Bordeaux and Paris green 

rolxtnre when tbe bads burst, and again when tbe petals 
have fallen. In tbe Plains country, less sprsylug may 
be necessary for the fangous diseases. 

The apple commonly bears on spurs. The frult-bnd is 
distinguished by Its greater else (usually somewhat 
thicker than Its branch), Its greater width in proportion 
to its length, and more conspicuous pubescence. It Is 
also distinguished by Its position. A frait-bud is shown 
In Fig. t08. A fml^9car is shown near tbe base of tbe 
branch. If this frait was borne in 139S, tbe side branch 
grew in 1899, from a bud which came Into existence In 
laOH. If we go back to tbe spring of 1898, the matter can 
be made plain. A cluster of flowers appeared. One 
Bower set a fruit (Fig. 109) . This apple Is at the end of 
the brancblet or apar. Tbe spur cannot increase In 
length In the same ails. Therefore, a bud appears on 
the side (Fig. llOj. The trait absorbs tbe energleB of 
the spur. There la little noarlshment left for tbe bad. 
The bud awaits Its opportunity ; the following year It 
grows Into a brancblet and makes a fruit-bud at Its sod 
(Fig. lOB); and thereby there arises an alternation in 
tmlt-bearlng. 

The apple Is budded or root-grafted npon common 
apple aeedllnga. TheseaeedllngsareDSuallygrownfrom 



sippi valley, 
'hich thrive. 
ila with the 
region; bat 
- them- 



selves. Varieties of local origin, coming from varions 
stem types, are now providing that coontry with satis- 
factory apples. In the aeleellon of varieties, one should 
be galded by this adaptation to the region, and by the pur- 
pose for whlcb tbe fruit is designed to be grown. Con- 
mended lists of 
the atate hortl- 
caltantl socie- 
ties ; ask per- 
sons who have 
had experience 
in the given re- 



rletles In North 
America are Al- 
bemarle Pippin, 
American Gol- m, xba ft 
den Russet, As- 
trscban, Baldwin, Ben Davis, Blue Pearmaln, Duchess 
of Oldenburg, Fameuse, Ollllflower. Gnvenstein, Janet, 
King, Lawver, HsJden's Bluab, Missouri Pippin, New- 
town Pippin, Northern Spy, Peck's Pleaeant, Pennock, 
Rhode Island Greening, " 
BeanCy, Sbockley, Twenty ( 
Wealthy,WlllowTwlg,Wolf_.. ._. 
York Imperial. See Plate 1. Bald- 
win and Ben Davis, tbe former of 
Inferior quality a: . 
worse, bold tbe anpremacy In 
American market apples. Tbe 
apples of tbe eastern and central 
country tend towards flattened e. 
oblatfl shapes (Fig. III). The typi- 
cal form of the so-called long o 
conical American apple may b. 
seen In Fig. 110. The apples of 
Europe are often distinctly attenuated and ribbed at the 
apex (Fig. 112): and this form is also accented in the 
regions beyond the Rockies. 

Three books devoted wholly to the apple have ap- 
peared In North America : Warder, Appies, 1867 (the 
best]; Todd.AppleCulturiBt, 1871; Bafley, Field Notes 
on Apple Culture, 1886. Consult, also. Vol. 25, Nebraska 
State Hortloultarsl Soelety, 1894 ; Tbe Apple, a report 
of tbe Kansas State Horticultural Society, 189B. Nearly 
all the fmit manuals devote space to the apple. 

L. H. B. 

APFLISKEII. lOHinrT. An Interesting and eccen- 
tric character, who sowed apple seeds in tbe wilds of 
Ohio and Indiana between I80I and 184T, His real name 
was Jonathan Chapman, He was bom In Boston In 
1775, and died in IS47. For 4S years he walked bare- 
foot thron^b the wilderness, and was never harmed by 



m|^ 



I may be lU. Aa Iiish apple. 



seeds obtained from cider mills. In tbe East, budded 
trees are preferred. In tbe West, root-grafted trees are 
preferred, largel; because own-rooted trees of liuown 



3ngh the wilde 
wild animals, € 
sack. In which bi 



ilsd In 



le made holes for the i 
gs. He would never kill any creature, end considered 
runlng and grafting wicked. Swedenborg and the 



witll P- 




APPLESBED 

New Testament ha rud aloud ia nuuiy frontier Iok 
oblni. He had man; peouliarltles, but was alwafi 
welcomed and respected everywhere. In the war of 
1812 he aaved maoy lives by warning the eettlera ot 
Bull's anrrender and the approach ot the led i an s. He 
lived to Bee trees bearing frnlt over a territory of 
100,000 acres. The atory of this self-BaerlflcIng and 
useful man 1» told by W. D. Hftley In Harper's, 
43:830-836 (ISTl). W. M. 

APRICOT. Soiieea. The aprieot Is a fruit some- 
what intermediate between the peach and the plum. 
The tree la a round-headed, spreading grower, with 
dark, somewhat peach-Uke bark, and very broad or al- 
most circular leaves. The fruit, which generally ripens 
in advance o( both the peach and pinin, Is peach-like In 
shape and cclor, with a smoother skin, rich, yellow flesh 
and large, flat, smooth Btone. The 
flesh Is commonly less juicy than 
that of the peach, and, aa a rule, 
perhaps, of cieher qoallty. The 
apricots are of three species, all 
probably native of China or Japan. 
The common apricot ot Europe 
and America Is iVumii Armeni- 
aca ; fr. variable, but smooth at 
maturity, red or yellow, the,aweet 
and firm flesh free, or very nearly 
BO, from the large, smooth, flat 
■tone : tree with around, spread- 
ing top, and a reddish, oberry-like 
or neach-Iike bark: lvs.(Flg. 113, 
right) ovate or round-ovi " 
 short point and, sometimes a 
heart-shaped base, thin and bright green, smooth, or 
very nearly BO below, as are the gland-bearing stalks, the 
margins rather obtusely and mostly finely serrate : fla. 
pink-whil« and borne singly, sessile or very nearly so, 

E receding the leaves (Fig. 116). The Ruaalau apricot 
I a hardy but smaller-fruited race ot this species. The 
Japanese apricot, In Japan grown tor flowers rather 
than for fruit, Is iVunuf Uwnt: fr. small, yellowish or 
greenish, the flesh rather hard and dry, and adhering 

tightly to the pltMd stone ; tree like the ci '-- 

but with a grayer or greener bnrk and  
Ivs. grayish gieen, generally narrower (Fig. 113, Jeft) 
and long-pointed, more or less hairy along the veins be- 
low and on the shorter mostly glandless stalk, thick In 
leitnre and prominently netted beneath ; fls. fragrant, 
borne singly or in 2's, and sessile (withont stalks). 
Only recently introduced Into this country, chiefly under 
the name of Bungoume plum. The third species Is the 

Surple or black apricot, JVunu5 daiycatya, which Is 
ttle cultivated : fr. globular and somewhat plum-ltke, 
with a distinct stem, pubescent or tuity even at ma- 
turity, dull dark purple, the sourish, soft flesh clinging 
to the plum-like fuEiy stone : tree round-headed, with 
much the habit of the common apricot, with Irs. ovata 
and more or less tapering at both ends, thin, dull green, 

appressed -serrate, and hairy on the veins below : Bs. 
large and plum-like, blush, solitary or In 2's, on pubes- 
cent stalks a bait Inch or more long, and appearing In 
advance ot the leaves. See iVunus for related species. 
The aprioot-pinm, I\tinui Sinvynil, is discassed nnder 

The apricot Is as hardy as the peach, and It thrives In 
the same localities and nnder tbe same general cultiva- 
tion and treatment, but demands rather strong soil. It 
is grown commercially In New York and other eastern 
states. There are three chief reasons why the apricot 
'  remained in comparative obscurity In tbe East : 



APHICOT 



79 



le common aprtco 
od duller foliage 



^ricotB which are chiefly prized in the eastern states 
are Harris, Early Moorpark, and St. Ambroise for early ; 
Turkish or Roman (Fig. 114), Hontgamet, Royal and 
Moorpark for mid-season and late. Or the Russian race, 
the best known are Alexander, Gibb, Budd, Alexia, 
Nicholas, and Catherine. 

The ideal soil for tbe aprieot seems to be one which 
is deep and dry, and of a loamy or gravelly character. 
Tbe roiltng loamy lands which are well adapMd to apples 
seem to be well suited to the apricot. It the exposure 
and location are right. The apricot seems to be particu- 
larly Impatient ot wet feet, and many ot the failures are 
due to retentive subsoils. PartienUr attention should 
be given to the location and exposure ot the apricot 
orchard. In tbe East, the best results are obtained if 
the plantation stands upon elerat«d land near a large 
body of water, for there the spring frosts are not so 
serious aa elsewhere. Oenerally, a somewhat backward 
exposure, if it can be obtained, is desirable. In order to 
retard blooming. Apricots will be sure to fall in frosty 
localities. Tbe apricot should always be given clean 
culture. For the first two or three years some boed 
crop may be grown between the trees, but after tliat 
the trees should be allowed the entire land, particu- 
larly If set less than 20 feet apart. Cultivation sbonld 
be stopped late in Bummer or early in the tall. In order 
to allow tbe wood to mature thoroughly. The trees are 

Eruned Inessentially the same way as plums. The fruit- 
uda are borne both upon spurs (two are shown In Fig. 
H5|. and also on the wood of the last season's growU, 
OD either side ot the leaf-bud, as shown in the twiu and 
triplet buds above a in Pig. 115. Each bud contains a 
single naked flower (Fig, 116). As the fruit begins to 
swell, the calyi-ring is forced off over tbe top (Pig. 117) ; 
and ^e Injury from curcullo may then be expected. 

When grown nnder tte best conditions, the aprieot 
may be considered to be nearly or quite as productive 
as the peach. Like other fruit trees, it bears in alter- 
nate years, unless the crops are very heavily thinned) 
but It can never be recommeaded for general or indis- 
criminate planting. Only the best frult-groweni can 
succeed with it. Apricots are to be considered aa a 
dessert or tancv fruit, and, therefore, should be neatly 
packed In small and tasty packages. The most serioua 
enemy of the apricot is the curcullo, the same Insect 
which attacks the plum and peach. It scema to have a 
particular fondness for tbe apricot, and as the fruit sets 

less the most vigilant means are employed of fighting 

The Insect must be caught by jarring the trees. In the 



apricot ; the fondness of the curcullo for the fruit. To 
these may be added tbe fact that we have not yet ar- 
rived at an understanding ot the best stocks upon which 
to bud tbe apricot ; but this difflculty may be expected to 
disappear as aoon as greater attention !s given to the 
fruit and our nurserymen begin to propagate 11 
Blvely. Aside from the above difficulties, there are prob- 
ably no reasons why apricots should not be grown in the 
East as easily as planiB or peaches. The Tarletles ot 



114. Apiicot, the Remaa ' 



<%). 



on plums and peaches, but the work 
are thoroughly doue than upon those 
ts. The Jarring should begin as soon as the blos- 
B fall, and continue as long as the insects are nu- 
aus enough to do serious damage. It will usually be 



80 



APRICOT 



APRICOT 



necessary to catch the insects for three to six weeks, two 
or three times a week, or, perhaps, even every day. The 
work must be done early in the morning, while the cur- 
cnlio is indisposed to fly. The operation consists in 
knocking the insects from the tree by a 
quick jar or shake, catching them upon a 
white sheet or in a canvas hopper. The 
catcher most commonly used in western New 
York is a strong cloth hopper mounted upon 
a wheelbarrow-like frame, and running upon 
two wheels. The hopper converges into a tin 
box, into which the curculios roll as they fall 
upon the sheet. One man wheels the device, 
by barrow-like handles, under the tree, then 
drops the handles and jars the tree ; or some- 
times two men go with a machine, one wheel- 
ing it and the other jarring the trees. This 
device is used extensively by practical fruit- 
growers for catching the curcuiio on the vari- 
ous stone fruits. 

It is not yet certain what are the best stocks 
for apricots in the East, in commercial or- 
chards. It is probable that no one stock is 
best under all circumstances. The apricot 
root itself seems to be impatient of our cold 
and wet soils, which are drenched by the drain- 
age of winter. It needs a very deep and rich 
soil, but it is doubtful if it is safe for the 
East. The common plum (not myrobalan) la 
an excellent stock for plum soils, and the apri- 
cot does well either nursery-budded or top- 
worked upon it. Peach is probably the com- 
monest stock, and, for peach soils, it is prob- 
ably ttte best that can be used. If the apricot 
thrives upon various stocks, it is thereby 
adapted to many soils. 

The apricot is often trained on walls, where 
the fruit reaches the highest perfection. Care 
should be taken that the wall 
does not face to the west or the 
south, or the early-forced flowers 
may be caught by frost. An over- 
hanging cornice will aid greatly 
in protecting from frost. 

L. £[. B. 
The Apricot in California. 
—The apricot is one of the lead- 
ing commercial fruits of Cali- 
fornia. It was introduced by the 
Mission Fathers, for Vancouver 
found it at the Santa Clara Mis- 
sion in 1792. However, there is 
no relation between this early 
introduction and the expansion 
which quickly followed the Amer- 
ican occupation, because the Mis- 
sion Fathers had only seedling fruits, while the early 
American planters, shortly before the gold discovery, 
introduced the best French and English varieties, and 
were delighted to And that these sorts, asually given 
some protection in the Old World, greyr with surpris- 
ing thrift of tree and size of fruit in valley situations 
in California in the open air. Upon these facts the apri- 
cot rose to wide popularity. The acreage has steadily 
increased during the last fifty years, and with particu- 
larly swift rate during the last twenty years, until the 
number of trees at the present date ( 1899) is about three 
millions, occupying upwards of forty thousand acres of 
land. This notable increase, and the present prospect of 
much greater extension, is based upon the demand which 
has arisen for the fruit in its fresh, canned, dried and 
crystallized forms, in all the regions of the United States, 
in England and on the Continent, where, by reason of 
its superior size and acceptable manner of curing. It bas 
achieved notable popularity. The year 1897 was the 
greatest thus far in amount of dried product realized, 
viz. : 30,000,000 pounds. The year 1895 was greatest in 
amount of canned product, which reached upwards of 
360,000 cases, each containing two dozen 2H-pound cans. 
The shipment of fresh apricots out of California during 
the summer of 1897 was 177 carloads. 

The chief part of the apricot crop of California is 
grown in the interior valleys. In the low places in 




115. Fnait-buda of the 
apricot. 

Borne beside t&e leaf- 
bud, as on the peach, 
and also on spurs. 



these valleys, however, the fruit is apt to be injured and 
sometimes almost wholly destroyed by spring frosts, al- 
though the trees make excellent growth. In foothill 
situations adjacent to these valleys, there is also serious 
danger of frost above an elevation of about fifteen hun- 
dred feet above sea level, and the tree is rarely planted 
for commercial purposes. In southern California the 
apricot succeeds both in the coast and interior valleys. 
But along the coast northward, excepting the very im- 
portant producing regions of the Alameda and Santa 
Clara valleys, eastward and southward from the Bay of 
San Francisco, the apricot is but little grown, owing to 
frost troubles. In respect to these, the apricot is some- 
what less subject to harm than the almond, but it ia 
less hardy than the peach, and has, therefore, a much 
narrower range of adaptation. The average date of the 
blooming of apricot varieties is about two weeks later 
than that of the almonds. The apricot is adapted to a 
wide range of soils, because to the rather heavy, moist 
loams which its own root tolerates, it adds the lighter 
tastes of the peach root, upon which it is very largely 

gropagated. However, attempts to carry the apricot 
pon heavier, moister soils by working it upon the plum 
root have not been very successful, owing to the dwarf- 
ing of the tree; and the movement toward the light, dry 
loams, by working upon the almond root, has failed be- 
cause the attachment is insecure, and the trees are very 
apt to be snapped off at the joining, even though they 
may attain bciaring age before the mishap occurs. The 
apricot root itself is a favorit-e morsel with rodents, and 
is for that reason not largely used. Our mainstay for the 
apricot, then, is the peach root, and the soils which this 
root enjoys in localities sufiiciently frost-free are, there- 
fore, to a great extent the measure of our apricot area. 

Apricot trees are produced by budding on peach or 
apricot seedlings during their first summer* s g^wth in 
the nursery row, from pits planted when the ground la 
moist and warm, at any time during the preceding win- 
ter. When there is a great demand for trees, planting 
in orchard is sometimes done with dormant buds, but 
ordinarily the trees are allowed to make one summer's 
g^rowth in the nursery. The trees branch during the first 
year's growth from the bud, and usually come to the 
planter with a good choice of low-starting branches, from 
which to shape the low-headed tree which is universally 
preferred. The method of securing such a tree is iden- 
tical with that already described for the almond, but the 
treatment of the tree after reaching bearing age, in its 
third year, is very different from the after treatment of 
the almond. The apricot is a ram- 
pant grower and most profuse 
bearer. Unless kept continually in 
check it will quickly rush out of 
reach,and will destroy its low shoots 
and spurs by the dense shade of its 
thick, beautiful foliage. There is 
continually necessary, then, a cer- 
tain degree of thinning of the sur- 
plus shoots and shortening of the 
new growth to continue the system 
of low branching, to relieve the 
tree from an excess of bearing 
wood, and to avoid small fruit and 
exhaustion of the tree, resulting in 
alternate years of bearing. In the 
coast regions, where the tree makes 
moderate wood growth, it can be 
kept in good form and bearing by 
regular winter pruning. In warmer 
regions, where the tendency is to 
exuberant wood growth, the main 
pruning is done in the summer, 
immediately after the fruit is 
gathered. This has a tendency to 
check wood growth and promote 
fruit bearing, and where the main 
cutting is done in the summer, win* 
ter pruning is reduced to thinning 
out shoots, to prevent the tree from becoming too dense 
and to lessen the work of hand-thinning of the fruit later 
on. In addition, however, to the most intelligent prun- 
ing, much fruit must be removed by hand when there 
is a heavy set of it, in order to bring the fruit to a size 




116. Flowen of tho 
apricot. 



APRICOT 

Mtiffaetory to ifalppers of eannerB, and to reach tbe 
highest gridn, if drf ing Is pnctlced. Calitonil* apri' 
cot orcharda are all ftrown with clean tillage, for the 
mail] pnrpoie of moUtare eonservatloD. Id rcEiona o( 
good rainCall and sufflciently 
retentive loama no IrrlvBtlon Is 
required; good tillage will xut- 
' flee for the production nf Uriie 
fmit and perfection of fruit-buda 
for the fallowing year. As the 
trees are becoming older and 
bearing larger crops the demand 
for moisture increases, and the 
e of irrigation water Is grow- 




.t thf. 



, and No. 



ind fre 



st be of good merchantable quality, 
loe snippers ana canners require well-colored but ouly 
firm -ripe tmlt. because Imth the long rail transportation 
and Che canning process require it ; soft-ripe fruit will 
neither can nor carry. Foe drying, riper fruit 1b uned, 
and yet over- ripeness has to be guarded BKiilDSt to avoid 
too dark color. For canning, the fruit must ba carefully 
hand-picked ; for drying, much Is shaken from the 
trses. The drying process coniista in cutting the fruit 
tn halves loniritndlnally, dropping out the pits and plac- 
ing the halves cavity nppermost npon light wooden 
trays. Breaking or tearing the fmlt open will not do ; 
it must show clean-cut edges. When the trays are cov- 
ered iMy are placed in a tight compartment, usually 
called a "sulfur tHX," though It rosy be of conslderabte 
■lae, and the fruit is exposed to the fumes ot slowly 
bnming sulfur, to ensure its drying to the light golden 
color which Is mott acceptable to the trade. The pro- 
duction of the right color Is the end in view, and differ- 
ent dryers regulate the amount ot sulfur and the length 
of axposnre aceordlnic to the condition of their fruit and 

it of what it needs. The exposure varies 

tionr to two or three hours, according to 

_, After BulfarloKi the trays are taken to 

open gTDuiiiJ, and tli« (mlt Is cured in the sao. Only a 



leir judgment of what 
rom half an hour to t< 



verj small fntetton of tlie Califoml* prodnot of evapo- 
ratedaprlcotslseiiTAdtnuieTaporator. It requires about 
six pounds of fresh apricots t« makeaneponnd of etired 
fruit. 



lug. In I 

one irrlKation Is sufflcleut, and 
that Is given after fruit gather- 
ing, to carry tbe tree through tbe 
last half ot Its sesson's work. In 
the regnilarly irrigated regions of 
the state, water Is periodically 
applied throngh tbe growing sea- 
it and at such Intervals as the local 
climate and soils require. 

Though probably all the gooil varieties of the apricot 
in the world have been introduced into California during 
the last half century, and scores ot selected seedlings 
of local origin have iieeu widely tested, the varieties 
which have survived the tests and are now widely grown 
are comparatively few In number. Host of the rejected 
varieties met this fate because of shy bearing, and those 
which now constitute the bulk of the crop are very regu- 
lar and full bearers under rational treatment. A local 
seedling, the Pringle, was tormany years chiefly grown 
for Uie earliest ripening, but this has recently bean 
largely superseded by another local seedling, the New- 
castle, which Is ot superior slie and about as early. 
Tbe European varieties. Large Early and Early Qoldeu, 
ar« flne In a few localities where they bear well, and do 
better in southern California thin elsewhere. The unl- 
Terul favorite Is the Royal ; probably three-fourths of 
all tbe trees in tbe state are of this variety, though re- 
cently tbe area ot tbe Blenheim has been Increasing 
largely. The Hemsklrk stands next to tbe Blenheim In 
popularity. The Peach Is laritely grown in the Sacra- 
mento valley. The beat apricot grown In California Is 
the Moorpark ; In slie and lusciousness, when well ri- 
pened. It heads the list. It is, however, rather shy In 
bearing, and Is forsaken for this fault [u most regions. 
It shows the IwBt behavior In the Santa Cloravaltey, and 
Is there retained, la spite ot frequent lapsei, because of 
the bigb prices which It commands at the canneries. 
About a dosen other varieties are carried in small num- 
ber by the nurserymen to meet limited local demands. 

Apricots for canning and drying are graded according 
to siie : Extra, not less than 2H Indies In diameter ; 
2 inches ; No. 2, V/i inches ; No. 3, 1 Inch. The 



re animal life would make a lietter eqnlllbriBm. 



A moderate estimate of the yield ot apricots might be 
placed at seven and one-half tons to tbe oore : extreme 
yields are far away from this both ways. 

Tbe apricot Is, as a rule, a very healthy tree in Cali- 
fornia. It is, however, subject to Injury by scale Insects 
of the leoanlum group In some parts ottbe state. Dur- 
ing recent years there boa been Inoreoaing Injury by a 
shot-hole fungus, which perforates the leaves and makes 
ugly pustules upon the fruit. Such fruit Is unflt for 
eantiing except the fruit be peeled, which la little done 
OS yet. It also makes low-grade dried product. Tbla 
fungus con be repressed by fungicides ot the oopper 

"'"•■ EdWIBD J. WlOSHOH. 

AQQABira. An aquarium, to be In a healtby eondl- 

' '■ itain living plants— oxygenators— which 

BBSary as food, as flah cannot live oufoodonl^. 



tlon, should contain 



The aquarium must be kept clean. The sediment ahould 
be removed from the bottom with a dip tube twice a 
week, and the Inner side of the glass cleaned with a 
wiper once s week. Encourage the growth of the plants 
at all seasons ; admit plenty of light, but no direct sun- 
shine. There should also be a few tadpoles and snails 
In tbe aquarium. These are very essential, as they are 
scavengers, and devour the confervold growth that fre- 
quently aecnmu I ates on the plants. In fall, give a thor- 
ough cleaning and rearrangement of the aquarium, so 
that all are In the best coDditioD possible before winter 
sets In. In March 
It should be care- 
fully looked over, 
and undesirable 
plants removed or 
transplanted. Ad- 
ditions may be 
made,oranyehange 
if necessary, FoL 
lowing are some of 
the best plants to 
place In the aqua- 
rium, all of which 
can be easily and 
cheaply procured 
from dealers who 11 
make a specialty of 

aquatics: Cabomba viridi folia {C. Caroliniana), tbe 
Fanwort (sometimes called Washington Fish Grass, 
being found in quantities in D.C. and southward), Is 



82 AQUARIUM 

ft tooiC bMtitlfal Mid Interastlng pluit of a light graen 

color. The leftC U (kn-Bhkped, composed ot fllHnent* 

or libg, mnch Uka a ikeletonlied lekf. jMdieigia Mu- 

ttrttii 1> kIbo a beautiful pl&al. bb well M a Tslaable 

oiygoiwtor, harlng dark green, kIobbj foliage, the 

under side of tho leaf bright red. ValliiHeria tpiralii 

is tbe veil known 

eel gTKi* ; Ltb. atrap- 

Uke : root creeping 

and ipreadlng ; fla. 

Btrietlf dlceeioat : 

» very intareatlng 

plant in large aqaa- 

riums. Soffiltaria 

aemlilea ValUaneria. 



KbiiCIhel 



■a wider 



letlmea used, la Bti 
Boldier or water aloe. Tl 
pretty, bat the large plaiiti 



long, of a 

tM. ParnMiMDt aqDariiun made brigbt grean color. 
si wood and slaia. anil It makea better 

growth in winter, 
which la very dealntble. Xgriophglliim verticillatum : 
Itb. plDnately parted Into capillary dlrialoDS ; foliage 
and atem of a bronay green ootor. This, with 2t. hrtt- 
ropkyllum, BB well as Cabomba, are aold by dealers la 
bnnchea, bat eetabllahed planta are preferablo for stock- 
ing tbe aquarium. The above plants are wholly sab- 
merged, growing under the anrtaee of the water, and 
are of the moat importance tn the oqnarium. Another 
submerged plant that doea not reqaire planting, and 

otfi aloidei. the water 

youag plant) are very 
e Btiif and the edgei of 
dangerous, being armed with aplnes. Nu- 
meroua floating planta are adapted to tbe aquarium, 
bat too many must not be la evidence, or the Bah may 
become Boffocated. The Aiollas sre very pretty, and the 
flah will occssloaally eat the planta. Tne ealvinla is 
another small plant often Been In tbe aqnarlnm, bat 
ander favorable eondlllona It grows verr rapidly, aad 
forma a complete mat, which must be avoided. The Eu- 
ropean and American frog's-bita {lAmttobiuin Spongia, 
Bydroctiarit Moraut-rana) are very attractive plants, 
tbeir long, silky roots reaching down In the water. The 
water hyacinth, JCickhamia craiiipti, var. major. In a 
■mall state la a curious aad pretty plant, but does not 
continue long In a good condltloa, generally resulttog 
from too much shade aad nnnat' 
nral ceodltions ot atmosphere. 
This plant li of benefit to the 
aquarium In the breeding sea- 
son, as the roots are receptacles 
for flab spawn. The water 
lettuce {Piitia Stratiolti) Is 
another very attractive plant, 
but It should be avoided except 
where the water 1b kept warm, 

WlLLlAU TbICKIB. 

Aquarium B are rapidly In- 
creasing la popu larlty for home 
use, and are ot great service la 
nature study. The following 
points, together with the illus- 
trations, are taken from Life 
In an Aquarium, Teach era' 
Leaflet No. 11, publiBhed by the 
College ot Agriculture, Cornell 
University, Ithfloa, N, Y.: A 

Gnnanent aquarlom need not 
an expensive affair. The rec- 
taogular ones are best If large 
flshea are to be kopt, but they 
are not essential. A simple 
home-made aquarium of glaaa 
and wood Is described In jack- 



AQUATICS 

for the ends. Three-eighths of an Inch from the edg» 
OD either side, with a saw, make a groove il inch de«> 
aad wide eooagh to receive loosely double-Btrengto 
glass, Groove the end boards aad fasten them to the 
bottom with screws, ao that the groaves will eiaetly 
match. Partially All the groovea with soft putty, or. 
better, aqnarlnm cement, and press Into each side a 
pane of glass. By making the bottom board 11^ lachea 
long, aa ordloary 10 x IZ wladow pane will be the proper 
sUe. When the glass Is pressed to the bottom ot tbe 
groove, draw the two eads in at the top until the glass 
is held Hrmly and then fasten them in place by narrow 

top ot the glass and screwed to the end pieces. These 
strips also protect the hands from injury while working 
with the specimens lu the aquarlom. Before fiUlug with 
water, the Inaer surface ot the bottom and ends should 
be well rubbed with oil or parafQne and the grooves 
laslde the glass well packed witb puttv." After the boi 
Is mads it woald be well to let it sUud in water for a 
day or two. The woodea sides will swell and tighten 
the joints, and leakage will be less probable. 

AQVlTICS. America Is the most highly favored conn- 
try In the world for the cultivation uf Aquatic plants. 
Cotiections can eaaUy be made to furnish a display of 
flowers from April to October in the open without artl- 
Seial heat. 

All Aquatics require a rich aoil, and this without limit, 
a depth ot water trora I to 3 teet, and ample space to 
spread their succulent leares. In a natural pond, where 
there la aa accumulation of bumus overlaylAg a clayey 
subsoil, nothing more Is wanted, but on a sandy or 
gravelly bottom It is necessary to place a layer of rich soil 
12 to 18 inches deep, la artlflcisl ponds, built of masonrY 
(Fig. 122), a layer ot rirh soil la necesnary It tbe planta 



mbiuu 






■oil best suited tor Aquatics Is a turfy loam, inclining 
to heavy, and thoroughly rotted cow-manure, two parts 
of the former to one of the latter, and, where poasible. 
It should be composted some time before using, and 
tamed over two or three times to thoroughly incorporat« 

other thoroughly rotted manure may be used. The next 
bestfertlllzeris pulverised aheepmanure.but, this being 
less bulky and stronger la proportion, should not be used 
■s freely as other mannres ; one part sheep manure to 



■» Nat' 



Study, B 



a being sllgbtly 
altered); "Use an inch board 
UK inches wide and 12 Inches 
long for the bottom, and two 
boards of the same thickness 
and length, \0H Inches high. 




I. Working drawlact for making box 



l>oiie, horn BhaTingB, etc., shoDid : ' ' 

extreme e»sei>. and then very cautionaly. 

UuTH or Wursti,^ In natural pond b, water-lilies are 
found growing In water from a (aw imhes to 4 and 8 
feet deep, bat In artificial ponds adepthof 12 to ISlncheB 
wili be found BuiBclenI for most Nymphnas, and 18 to 21 
inches Is a good depth tor Victorias. In constructing an 
aitiflcial pond, a depth of 2 to 2S feet is ample. Water 
to the depth of 12 Inches above the crowns of the plants 
Is BnfQclent, and a boi containing the soil may be 12 inches 
deep. Thus a pond 2 feet in depth is deep enongh, and 
will allow a man, with hip boots on, to walk between the 
plants with ease. For a small pond, less than 12 feet 
over, a plank laid across will suffice for all operntionB. 

PuoncTiON. — Where severe frosts are prevalent in 
winter, and Ice 12 to IB Inches in thickness Is found, 
there will be dan^rof the roots frees leg. In such cases, 
an additional depth of 6 Inches will be a great advantage, 
and a protection of bracken, salt bay, Rreeu manure, 
leaves, or any other non-conducting materials should be 
used to protect the masonry. In severe weather, against 
expansion and breakage. 

PuNTmo.— All hardy Nyniphieaa may be planted any 
time between the Ist of April and the In t of September. 
Those planted early, other things being equal, will give 
good results the same season, while those planted late 
will get weU established before winter, and will be in 
excellent condition to start at nature's summons early 
the following spring. The hardy Nymphfean differ con- 
siderably as to rootstocks. Those of the native varieties 
are long and of a spongy, soft texture, and rambling in 
growth, while tlie European species have a much larger 
ood very firm jrootatock, and grow more compact. In 
planting, all that is necCHaai? is to press the rootstock 
firmly into the soil, and if there is any danger of the 
root rising to the surface, place a brick or any weight 
upon It, to keep it In position until anchored by its own 
roots. Tender NymphsMw should not be planted until 
the latter end of May or beginning of June, according to 
location. They should not be planted out before Coleus, 
Altemanthera, and other tender bedding plants. They 
require to be started Indoors, and will be grown In 

fots, which are much handler to plant than roots of the 
ardy varieties, and can l>e planted under the water with 
ease and facility. Nelumblums should not be planted 
nntll about the 1st of May. Southward the season la 
earlier. The existing conditions should be such that 
tubers sball start atonce into active growth. They should 
be already "started" before setting out. The tubers 
sbould be laid horiEontaliy In a slightly excavated trench 
and covered with 2 or 3 Inches of soil, using a weight, 
l( necessary, to keep the tubers in position. Plants, 
established in pots or pans, are very convenient for 
planting, and may be purchased whei 
loDger be procured, and can be planted 
the season with good results. 

The Ficloria Stgia has always been i 
among waCer-lllles, and few oaltivatora could indulge in 
such a horticultural luxury. To grow It satisfactorily, 
• large surface space with a greater depth of water is 
neceasary than for other aquatics, and a higher tempera- 
ture is needed at the early stages. It can be cultivated in 
the open air, hut arllflclal heat must usually be applied 
and protection afforded, so as to maintain a temnerature 
of 85° P. This applies more particularly b 
y. Btvia and V. Ear'-' '- — 



uonth later In 



'. Randi. In 1B98 the Introduc 



Triekeri brought the Victoria within easy reach and cul- 
ture of all lovers of aquatic plants. F. Triekeri Is en- 
tirely distinct from other known varieties, and can be 
grown in the open alongside of Ngmplicea ZamibarentiM 
and jV. Oevonietiiia , and under precisely the some OOn- 



US. Lawn pond of m 



*. wttB maaon-work marcin. 



dltions. When planted out about the middle of June, 
the plants grow rapidly, and will develop their gigantic 
leafage and magniUcent flowers in August, and continue 
to do ao until destroyed by frost. 

Ensmies.— Aquatics, like other plants, have their ene- 
mies In the line of insect pests, though In a less degree 
than most plants. Aphides are sometimes troublesome, 
or at least ver^ unsightly. These, however, have their 
enemies, especially the cocclnella {lody-birdl, insectiv- 
orous birds, etc. Where these do not keep them down, 
a weak application of kerosene emulsion will make a 

especially In a small artificial pond, where an overfiow Is 
u^ing a little force, and drive the insects off the plants, 
the hose will drive them out at the overflow pipe. Re- 
migrated northward, causing some annoyance. The larva 
of the moth ( Hydrocampa pmprialit) eats the leaf, and 
also cuts out pieces of the same, which It uses for protec- 
tion, thereby greatly disfiguring the plant, and at the 
same time making it difficult to get at the enemy. The 
best remedy for this and the Nelumblum moth, which is 
very much like It, Is a lamp trap. Any ordltiary lamp 

E laced near the plants at night, and standing in a shal- 
iw vesessl containing kerosene, will attract the insects, 
which, on striking the lamp, fall Into the kerosene and 

troublesome, especially where Nelumblmns are grown. 
They will eat the tubers In winter and early spring, and 
will make sad havoc with banks. They will also eat the 
roots of some Nymphnas, The best remedy for these is 
the steel trap. A sporadic disease has also made lis ap- 
pearance. The loaves are affected with spots, which, 
under a damp, warm atmosphere, spread rapidly. Such 

the affected leaves to shrivel up. This greatly weakens 
and checks the plants. This disease yields readily to a 
weak solution of Bordeaux mixture. The same remedy 
Is also very valuable in ridding the pond of all con- 
fervoid growth. 

Tub Ci'LTCBB should be resorted to only from lack of 
space, or when no other method can be adopted (Fig. 123). 
FVirthis system of culture, Nympbnas sbould be selected 
that are moderate growers, yet free-ttowering, and other 
miscellaneous aquatic plants. The tubs should bold 
from 4 to 12 cubic feet of soil for Nyntphwas, accotdlug 



to the vHietr, Bome being moderate growers, others Tig- 
orau. mA ro-lm«. Wuaaam Tiuc«b«. 

[The best book on the American culture of Aquatics is 
The Water Garden, by Wm. Tricker, N. Y. 1897, pp. 120, 
to which the mailer 1b referred for eitensive cultural 
direcliona and for tlgts of AquMle plaDla. For botanical 
descriptions of the Tarious kinds of Aquatics, with brief, 
special cultural direi^tlonB, the reader may cannult the 
CrcLOPiDiA or Aukbioan EnBTicuL.TURi, under the 
rarious geaei»,xaff'umpKaa,Nelumbitim,miid i'icloria. 
-L. H. B.J 

AQDlLtOU {from aqtiilegut, wMer-drawer, not from 
Ofutlo, eagle). Banunculdcta. Columbih*. Bardrper- 

enulal herbs of the northem hemisphere ; mostly with 

faniculate branches, terminated bf showy flowers, and 
-3 tcrnately-compound leaves, commonly glaucous) the 



leaflets roundish ami obtusely lobed : fls. larpe. showy, 
usually In spring or early summer ; sepals 6, regular, 
petaloid ; petals concave, produced backward between 
the sepals, forming a hollow spur ; stamens numerous: 
fr. of about G many-seeded follicles. About 30 distinct 
species. The Columbines are among tbe most beautiful 
and popular of all hardy plants. Seeds sown In pane, in 
coldframes in March, or open air In April, occasionally 
bloom the flrst seasoD, but generally the second. The 
different species should be some distance apart, \t pos- 
sible, if pure seed Is desired, as the most diverse species 
hybridiie directly. They may be propagated by division, 
but hotter by seus. Absolutely pure seed 1» bard to ob- 



AQUILEOIA 

tain, except from the plants in the wild state; and some 
of the mixed forms are quite Infnlor to the true species 
from which they have come. A. eirrulta, glandulota, 
and vutgaHsare likely to flower only two or three years, 
and should be'treated as biennials; but jd, tmlgarii may 
be kept active tor a longer period by transplanting. A. 
Gray, Syn. Hora of N. A,,VoI. 1, Part I, Pasc. 1, pp.<2-M. 
J. 6. Baker, A Bynopsls of the Aqullegia, In Oard. Chnin. 
II. 10:19, 76. Ill, 203 (1878). E.C.Davis. 

A light, sandy soil, moist, with good drainage, shel- 

Ihe stronger species, when of nearly full-flowering siie, 
may be transplanted into heavier garden soil, even neavy 
clay, and made Co succeed; but for tbe rearing of young 
seedlings, a light, sandy loam is essential. The seed of 
most Columbines Is rather slow In germinating, and It is 
necessary to keep the soil moist on top of the ground 
until tbe younK plants are up. Acoldframe. with medium 
heavy cotton covering, is a good plaeeto grow the plants. 
The cotton retains sufBclent moisture to keep the soil 
moist on top, and still admits sufBclent circulation of air 
to prevent damplng-off of tbe young seedlings. When 
large enough, the seedlings may be pricked out Into 
another frame for a time, or, by shading for a few days 
nntil they get a start, they may be set Into tbe permanent 
border, or wherever they are to l>e placed. 

F. H. HOBBFOKD. 

Tbe following Is an alphabetical list of the species de- 
scribed below : A, alpina, IS ; atrala, 9 ; atrvpurpuna, 
Miq.,6; alTvpururta, Wiild., 4; bieolor,10; btanda,9; 
Buergerlana,e; cemlea, 15; earutea.ytr. flaviitciiu,5; 
Calitomica, 11; Canadensis, 5; (7an<id(Rj(t, var. aurta, 

13 ; CanadetuiM, var. (ormeta, 11 ; caryopbylloldes, 19 ; 
chrysantba, 13; tlabellata, T; flavttctmjh; flavitlKrra.h; 
formosa,!!; Oamrriatui.VI; glandulosa, 17 ; Jonesii. 1; 
lactiflora, 3 ; leptoceras, FIscb. & Mey., B ; Uptoeera; 
Nntt., 15 : liptocirat, var. ekryiantha, 13 ; longissima, 

14 : Mocranflia, 15 ; Olympjca, 9 ; oiysepala, 2 ; Slblr- 
tca. 10; Skinnerl, 13; Skijtntri.\»i.\ybrida,Vi: iptci- 
Dsa, 10 ; tlrtUiUi.9: Stuartl, IB; fniiKOfa, 11; viridlflora, 
4; vulgaris, B; H->»maHtitana, 9. 

A. Sipali not more Ihan % or ^in, lotto; expuHded 

ri..lorlHin.india«,. 

a. Limb ot pital iliorier Ikan th* lepal. 

Ing, soft pubescent : tufted root-lvs. 1-2 In. high from 
the stout, ascending branches of tbe rootstoek, biter- 
natcly divided; partial-petioles very short or none; leaf- 
lets very crowded : fls.blue; sepals oblong-obtuse, equal- 
ing tbe spurs and twice the length of the petal-limbs 
and head of stamens : talllcles glabrous, large, nearly 
1 in. long ; styles halt as long ; peduncles lengthening to 
about 3 In. in fr. July. Wyom. and Mont. G.F.9:365. 
2. azyitpalB, Traut. & Hey. Plant 2H tt., slightly 
pubescent at>ove : radical Ivs. long-petioled, secondary 
>,_._, ,._ . ._ t.__ 'mnceolate, much 



sepals blue, 



exceeding In length the petal limbs, wbloh a 
long, whito, rounded -truncate ; stamens not protruding 
tieyond the petal limb : spur knobbed, bent inward, 
shorter than petal-limb : follicles pubescent, with styles 
their own length. June. Slberla.-Inlg9BF. H.Horsford 
said : "The flrst lo bloom with me, and one of tbe most 
attractive in the list. It la one of tbe most dwarfed ; 
fls. large, blue, yellow and white : it comes so much be- 
fore the others that Its capsules, as a rule, all fertilise 
before any of the other species come into flower." Only 
recently introduced. 

1. UotitUra, Kar. & Elr. St. I>ift. high, glabrous 

ilowernart: nai r-- 

Ifts. 



3. UotitUra, Kar. & Elr. St. l}iH. high, glabrous In 
le lower part: partial-petioles of root-lvs. l>i-2 In. long; 

..ts. sessile or Bhort-Btalked.l in. long, many lobes reach- 
ing half way down; St.- Ivs. petioled and compound: fls. 
abuiit 3 to a St. : sepals nearly white or tinged with blue, 
over >iin. long, narrow; pet^-llmb half as long aa sepal; 
spur ^In., slender, nearly straight, not knobbed at tip; 
stamens equal In length to the limb. June. Alt^ Mu., 
Siberia.— A desirable species, but not much used. 
BB. Limb 0/ petal about tqual U> lepal, 

4. vilidUUra, Pallas. St. I-l>ift. high, finely pubes- 
cent throughout, several-Ad.: thepartial-petlolesofroot- 
lrs.l-2in.long; Ifta. sessileor the end oneshortty stalked. 



AQUILEGIA 



AQUILEGIA 



85 



lobes rather narrow and deep ; lower st.-lrs. petioled, 
bitemate : sepals oblong, obtuse, aseending, greenish, 
equaling the broad, greenish petal-limb, but not reaching 
the head of stamens ; spur straight, slender, Kin. long, 
not knobbed : pubescent follicles as short as their styles. 
Summer. E. Siberia.— Not so much used as the follow- 
ing Tariety : 

Var. atroinnptoea, Vilm. (A, atropurpiirea, Willd.). 
Limbs of the petals deep blue or lilac-purple, and the 
sepals and spur somewhat tinged with the same hue. 
B.R. 922. 

5. Canadfoflis, Linn. Common Columbine of America. 
Fig. 124. Height 1-2 ft. : primary divisions of petioles 
of root-lvs. 1-2 in., having 3 divisions ; 2 or 3 of the st.- 
Ivs. petioled, bitemate : fls. several to a st. ; sepals yel- 
lowish or tinted on the back with red, about ^^in. long, 
not reflezing ; limb of petals a little shorter, yellowish, 
truncate ; spur %\n, long, nearly straight, knobbed at 
the end, bright red throughout ; stamens much protrud- 
ing : follicles ^in. long, with styles half as long. May- 
July. Stony banks, etc., east of Rocky Mts. Int. 1890. 
B.M. 246. L.B.C. 9: 888. Mn. 6: 21. B.H. 1896, p. 109. 
G.W.F. 1. There are some beautiful hybrids of this 
and the blue species. Var. nikna, Hort. Plant 1 ft. high 
or less : fls. like the type. 

Yar. IlaT^BceiiB, Hook. A pale-lvd. yellow-fld. variety. 
Very pretty. Int. 1889. This has often been called A, 
flaveaeenSf Wats.; A. ecBrulea, var. flavescena, Lawson; 
and A. flavifloraf Tenney ; A, Canadensis f var. flavi- 
fiora, Brit. B.M. 6552 B. 

6. BuergeriiUuk, Sieb. A Zucc. (A, alropurpikreaf 
Hiq.). More slender than A, vulgaris; 1 ft. high, 
finely pubescent toward the top ; branched to form sev- 
eral heads, bearing 2-3-petioled, bitemate Ivs. ; partial- 
petioles of basal Ivs. yi-1 in. long, with 3 sessile divis- 
ions : fls. yellow, tinted with purple, 1-1 M in. in diam.; 
sepals ^in. long, acute, spreading ; spurs erect, nearly 
straight, as long as the limb of petals, and about equal- 
ling the sepal; head of stamens equal to limb in length: 
follicles pubescent, ^in. long, style half as long. Early. 
Japan.— Brought from St. Petersburg, 1892. 

AA. Sepals about 1 in. long : expanded fl. about t in, 

in diameter. 

B. Spurs shorter than the petal-limb, and incurved. 

7. fUbelUta, Sieb. & Zucc. Stem 1-1>^ ft., few-fld. : 
partial-petioles of root-lvs. 1 in. or more, Ifts. nearly 
sessile ; st.-lvs. large and petioled : fls. bright lilac, or 
pale purple or white ; sepals 1 in. long, obtuse ; limb of 
petal half as long, often white in the lilac-fld. form ; spur 
shorter than the limb, slender toward the end, much 
incurved ; stamens not protruding beyond the petal- 
limbs : follicles glabrous. Summer. Japan. R.H. 1896, 
p. 109. Var. ni^-Alba, Hort. (var. f lore-alba j Hort.). 
Fls. pure white : plant dwarfish. R.B. 15 : 157. 

BB. Spur at least as long as petal-limb. 
c. Stamens short, not much protruding. 

8. leptoedrai, Fisch. & Mey. Stem several-fid., about 
1 ft. high : partial-petioles of root-lvs. over 1 in., Ifts. 
sessile ; st.-lvs. petioled, bitemate : fis. violet, with the 
tips of the sepals greenish, and tips of the short petal- 
limb yellow ; spur slender, slightly curved, 3^ in. long, 
not knobbed ; stamens protruding a little beyond the 
limbs of petals : follicles slender, glabrous, nearlv 1 in. 
long. Summer. E.Siberia. B.R. 33:64. F.S. 3:296. - 
LitUe used in America. 

9. TUlffixls, Linn. (A. stelldta, Hort. A. atrAta, 
Koch). Common C. of Europe. Stems 1^-2 ft. high, 
many -fid., finely pubescent throughout : root-lvs. with 
3 partial-petioles l>^-2 in. long, secondary branches 
certain, ultimate leaf -lobes shallow and roundish, tex- 
ture firm ; lower st.-lvs. petioled and bitemate : fls. 
violet, furnished with a claw, acute, 1 in. long, half as 
wide ; petal-limb ^in. long, equaling the head of sta- 
mens ; spur about same length, stout, much incurved, 
knobbed : follicles densely pubescent, 1 in. long, style 
half as long. Summer. Eu., Sib., and naturalized in Am. 
On. 12, p. 288. Var. fldre-pldno, Hort. Fls. much dou- 
bled, ranging from pure white to deep blue. Here be- 
long many horticultural varieties with personal names. 



Var. VervaBne&na, Hort. (var. foliis-aiireis, Hort. Var. 
atrovioldcea, Hort.). Lvs. with yellow variegated lines. 

Var. nivea, Baumg. (var. dlbay Hort.). Munstead's 
White C. Often 2-^ ft. high : a great profusion of large, 
pure white fls. for several weeks in early spring. 

Var. Ol^pioa, Baker (A. Ol^mpica, Boiss. A. Witt- 
mannidna, Hort. A. bldnda, Lem.). A flne variety, 
with several large flowers ; sepals light lilac or bright 
purple, 1 in. or more in length ; petal-limb white. I.H. 
4:146. R.H. 1896, p. 108. 

Var. h^brida, Sims. Much like the last variety, but 
with stout, lilac-purple spurs as long as the sepals, only 
slightly incurved. Probably a hybrid of A . vulgaris and 
A. Canadensis. B.M. 1221. 

10. Sibfrica, Lam. {A. bieolor, Ehrh. A. Oamieridna, 
Sweet. A, specidsa^ DC). Stem l>4-2 ft. high, many- 
fld. ; often nearly glabrous throughout : partial-petioles 
of root-lvs. 1-2 in., sometimes showing 3 distinct 
branches ; terminal Ifts. 1 in. or more broad, lobes rather 
shallow and rounded ; lower st.-lvs. petioled and biter- 
nate : fls. pale or bright lilac-blue ; oblong sepals fully 
1 in. long, spreading or reflexed a little ; petal-limb half 
as long, equaling the head of stamens, uid often white ; 
spur rather stout, Hin. or more, very much incurved, 
£>r even coiled : follicles glabrous, 1 in. long, style Hin. 
Summer. E. Siberia. S.B.F.G. II. 1: 90. Var. fldre-pldno, 
Hort. (A. bicolor, var. flore-pleno, Hort.). Fls. much 
doubled by the multiplication of both the limbs and the 
spurs. 

Var. speet&bills, Baker {A. speetdbiliSf Lem.). A 
large, bright lilac-fld. var.; petal-limbs tipped yellow. 
Amurland. I.H. 11:403. 

cc. Stamens long, protruding far beyond the petal-limb. 

11. lormdsa, Tesch. {A. Canadensis, var. formdsa, 
Wats.). Habit as in J.. Canadensis ; root-lvs. and st.- 
lvs. like that species, but fls. brick red and yellow, or 
wholly yellow, and sepals larger, quite twice as long as 
petal-limb ; spurs more spreading, somewhat more slen- 
der, and often shorter. May-Aug. Sitka to Calif, and 
E. to the Rockies. Int. 1881. B.M. 6552. F.S.8:795. 
Gt. .32 : 372. R.H. 1896, p. 108. G.C. 1854 : 836. Var. h^- 
brida, Hort. {A. Califomiea,Ytix. hybrida, Hort.). Fls. 
large, with scarlet sepals and yellow petals ; spurs 
spreading, long and slender. A supposed hybrid with 
A. chrysantha. F.M. 1877:278. Vick's 1:33 f.2. Var. 
rtbra pldno, Hort. (var. Hore-pleno, Hort.). Fls. as in 
var. hybrida, but several whorls of petal -limbs. Var. 
niLna Alba, Hort. Fls. pale, often nearly white ; plant 
not exceeding 1 ft. . 

Var. tnmolita, Baker {A. truncdta, Fisch. A. Cali- 
fdfnica, Lindl.). Fls. with short, thick spurs and verj' 
small sepals and a small petal-limb. Int. 1881. F. S. 
12: 1188 (as ^. eximia, Hort.). 

12. Skixmeri, Hook. Stem 1-2 ft. high, many-fld., gla- 
brous : root-lvs. long-petloled, with both primary and 
secondary divisions long ; Ifts. cordate, 3-parted ; sev- 
eral st.-lvs. petioled and bitemate : sepals gr^en, keeled, 
lanceolate, acute, never much spreading, %-l in. long ; 
petal-limb greenish orange, half as long as sepal; spur 
brigt red, tapering rapidly, over 1 in. long ; stamens 
protruding far beyond the limb ; styles 3 : fr., at least 
when young, bearing broadi membranous, curled wings. 
After flowering, the peduncles become erect. July-Sept. 
Mts. of Nor. Mex. B.M. 3919. P.M. 10: 199. B.H. 4: 1. 
F.S. 1: 17. Vick's 1: 33 f. 5 (poor).— A handsome plant, 
requiring a light soil in a sunny border. Var. flore- 
pleno, Hort. Fls. double. Gt. 34 : 57. Very flne. 

BBB. Spurs very long, several times the length of 

petal-limb. 

13. chrsrs&ntha, Gray (A. leptociras, var. chrysdntha, 
Hook.). Fig. 125. Height 3-4 ft.: root-lvs. with twice 
3-branched petioles, Ifts. bitemate ; st.-lvs. several, 
petioled : fls. many on the plant, 2-3 in. across ; sepals 
pale yellow, tinted claret, spreading horizontally ; petal- 
limb deep yellow, shorter than the sepals, and nearly as 
long as the head of stamens ; spur rather straight, very 
slender, divergent, about 2 in. long, descending when 
fl. is mature : follicles glabrous, 1 in. long ; style half 
as long. May-Aug. N. Mex. and Ariz. Gn. 16: 198. B.M. 



86 AQUILEGIA 

6073. G)n.Sl,p.3a3. B.H. 1896: 108. F.R.2:169. Ot. 
33:84. 0.0.1873:1501. P.U.18rj:88. Vick'a 1:33 t.3. 
F.S. 2a:S108. V>r. QmTteotiU, Hart. (A. airta. Junk. 
A. Canad^RJlJ, v»r. aiiwa, RomI.). Fli. fellow, tinged 
with red ; spun incui^ed. and shorter than In the type, 
at. 21:734. Vu. Ubk-pltu. Hurt. {vu. gtandiflSra 
dlba,HoTt.]. FIs.verypalB yellow or nearly white, with 
two or more whorls of pelal-limba. Int. 1889. VIck's 
12:311. Var. aiu, Hort. (.1. Uptoeirai, vsr. litea, 
Bort.). Like the type, but plant always small, not ex- 
ceedlDKlX ft. Var. Jataohkul, Hort. About the same 
hclKht as last : f)s. larn, yellow, with red spurs. TboDgbt 
to be a hybrid of J. eSryianHaXS*!""*", hence some- 
ttmes called A. Skintieri, var. \ybrlda, Hort. 

14. longlulnia. Gray. Tall, aomewbat pabescent with 
■Uky haln. or Bmootblsh : root-lva. blt«niate, even In 
the petioles ; Ifts. deeply lobed and cut, green above, 
glaucous beneath; nt.-lvB. Blmllor, petloled : fls. pale 
yellow, sepals Isnceolate, broadly sproadlng, t In. or 



white or yellow. The trae form of th 
taruUaxA.c)kiyiatilka. Qn.6),p.3g5. R.H. 1896:108. 
A.0.15:3ia. On.l6:198. 1.H.43: 61 (1896). Var. fUra- 
pUnOi Hort. Fis. longer and very showy, more or less 
doubled toward the center, 
no. Spun inturved and hardly langtr than pelal-llMbt. 

10. alpliw, Linn. (IncLvar. t«p^rfra, Hort.). Fig. 126. 
Stem nearly 1 ft. high, finely pubescent upwards, 2-S- 
fld., bearing petloled, bitemate Ivs.; partial-petioles of 
baial-lvs. 1-2 In. long, with 3 nearly sesElle divisioui, 
deeply lobed : eipanded B. I >{-2 In. across, blae, rarely 
pale or white ; aepala li^i in. lonv, halt as broad, acute ; 
petal-limb balf as long as sepalB, often white ; spur 
stout, incurved, same length as the limb ; head of sta- 
mens not protruding: '■ fidllcles pubescent, 1 in. long ; 
style much shorter. May-June. SwitierUmd. L.B.C. 
7:657. On. 9: 17. 

17. cUndoUM, FUch. Fig. 127. Stem I-IS ft. high. 



ingll 



e, the H 



llada dumntlia (X }k'- 

.tulate pelnla a little shorter, at 
-■ — irwllha 



n. AquUacIa alnlna tX H 



'. AauUecla irlanduk 



sore, always hanging. DlBtingulsbed from 
A.chri/taKHia by its longer spur with contracted orifice, 
by the narrow petals, and bv the late sesaon of flower- 
ing. LateJulv toOct. 1. Rjivines S.W.Teiaa Into Mei. 
G.F. 1:31.— The seed must be obtained from wild plants, 
as those cnlt. usually fail to produce seed ; hence not 
much used. 
AAA. Sepalt m-lM or ei'*n t in. long : erpandrd fli. 
SH-S in. '« diam.; sriinKni not protruding. 
B. Spurt long and not inturved. 
15. OKTtlaa, James {A. Uptatirat, Nutt. A. Mo- 
trdntha. Book. & Am.). Stem 1-1>4 ft., finely pubescent 
above, bearing several fls. ; lower st.-tva. large and bi- 
temate ; basBl-lvs. with long 3-branched petioles ; Ifts. 
3-lobed on srcondary stalks : fls.2 in.across.whitleh, but 
variously tinted with light blue and yellow; sepals often 
blue, oblong, obtuse, twice as long ss the petal-limb; 
spurs long, slender, knobbed at the end, rather straight, 
but eurving outward ; head of stamens equaling the 
petals: follicles pubescent, 1 in. long ; style ^i in. Apr. 
-July. Lower rot. regions, Montana to N. Mei. B.M. 
4407. On. 16: 198. Mn. 6 : 61. Vick's 1 : 33 f. 4. B.M. 
M77. F.8.5:531. Var. Um, Hort. Fls.of same alie but 
entirely white. Int. 1883. Tar, hfbrldk, Hort. Sepals 
some shade of blue or pink, or miied, and petals nearly 






--- with 3 

sions; 1ft. -segments narrow and deep ; Bt.-lvs. tew, 
bract-like : Bs. large, nodding ; sepals bri^t tllac-I'lue, 
ovate, acute, about IH in. long and half aa broad; petal- 
limb same color, but tipped and bordered with creamy 
white, less thanhaif the length of the sepals, very broad ; 

spur very short, % in., stout, much incurved ; s" 

not protruding : follicles 1 in. long, 6-10 ii 
densely bairy, with short, falcate style. Allied tr 
pi'na, but a taller plant, with shorter spurs, larger fla,, 
and a greater number of follicles. May^une. Altai 
Mis. of Siberia. B. 5:219. P. W. 1871: 353, «n. 15:174; 
45, p. 193. Ot. 289f. l.-One of the handsomest. 

Var. jnoflndk, Fiscb. A Lall, Fls. rather smaller than 
in the type ; petal-limb white, more truncsle at the tip ; 
stamens as long as limb. B.R.33:19. F.S.5:535.-A 
Hue variety, with some tendency to double. 

IS. StflKtl. Hort. A recorded hybrid of A.glaniu- 
lota X A . vuigarii, var. Olympiea. Fla. very large and 
beautiful. It very much resembles the latter In form of 
sepals and petals, and the former in shape of spurs and 



e given lo a. 
of colors, i 



ARABI3 

ASABIB (Arabia). CraeUtra. Boce-cbkbh. Smiill 
p«TeiiDl»l or »nnn«l bcrbg, wltb white or purple fla., 
grown mostly In lockwork. Pis. moatl; In lermlnsl 
■pUea or racemes, Bmsll, but often many, or appearlnfc 
tor a oonaidenble period of time : alllques long, Une&r, 
Sat: MIffnu 2-lDbed. !□ temperate regions, seTersI na- 
tlre to this country. Usually prop, by dlvliloD ; also 
by seeds and cottlngs. Hardy, requiring plenty of sun, 
and thriving even In poor soil. The following four 
■peeles are perennials: 

A. FU.fnrpltorrott. 

mmUla, Bertol. (.J.r^ea, DC.). Afoot high, with a 
raUier dense raceme of pretty fls. : ivs. oblong, sssslle 
(the radical ones with a long, narrow base ) , prominently 
and distantly blunt-toothed, sparsely pubescent. SprinK 
and summer. Italy. B.H.324G. 

AA. FU.iokite. 

___pirIlUUla. VII 
tadic 

sessile, not olaaplng : fli. In a short oluBt«r, the calyx as 
long as the pedunole, the limb of the petals linear- 
oblong and erect. Ed. 

UUda, 8ter. {A. Caxedtiea, WUId.). A tew Incbss 

Sr aurlcalate-olaspieg, all angle-toothed near the top i 
. In a loose raceme, the calyx shorter than the pedicel, 
the petal-IImb oval and obtuse. Ea. B.M. 2D1G. Aluo a 
Tariegatad var. {Ot. IG: 106). — Blooms early, Is fragrant, 
and Is well adapted for rookwork and edgings, and for 
eoTering steep banks. 

•Iplma, Lion. Pis. smaller than In the last, plant only 
•lll^tly pubescent and hairy ; Ivs. somewhat clasping bat 
not anrlctilate, small -toothed nearly or quite the entire 
lengtli,theoaullneoneBpalnt«d. Ea. B.H. 226. — Blooms 
Tery early, and la one of the best rook plants. There Is 
a dwarf form (tuna eomposla, Gt. 14:203); also a va- 
rlegBl«d variety. 

J.armitd, Smp, PU. rose Tsirbuc to wblM : In. pinnatlfld, 
'.deep-toothed. Ea.— ^. bUphaT^phvlUt.'B.oQ^. 



Linn. t. FU. whlUi : Its. >hiiiliia, obovale, clMpLng. There la a 
Tarleaaled form. En.— jl.nulllu, St«T. Pis. white: Ivg.pnbeB- 
cent.urie-tooihed, the lawei one* rounded and loDK-stslked, 
Bo.— J. pdrte. L*m. Fls. white: Its. toothed, the ndlFsi 
ODf* oTIen parted, the st. Its. ohltnur-llnear. En.— ^ 
Wald. A KlT— A. pnwDrrena.-A. profllmru. "* 

Fli. white : Its. dilate, those on the at. entire w 

olhsra slalked : stolonlfenniB. A isrleasted var. En.- A. 
Wrao. R. Br. Annnal. hidir: fls. Israe. pnrple; Ivs. oblonc- 
OTate to ronnd-oblong, the upper ddss claiplnc, rather ooane- 

tooihed. Kb. B.u.saai. 



7sld. A Kit. 



L. H. B, 



AXACXX. See Aroidar. 



AKACHIS (Greek, without a ratMi). LtgutHinita. 
PkANtT. OooBXB. SametlmeB grown In the economic 
bouse of botanicBl gardens. The genas has eeven spe- 
cies, ol which six are BraiUlsn. Fls. 5-7, yellow. Id 
a dense, axillary, BeaBlle splkA. As a hothouse annual, 
the seeda ot tbe Ooober may be sown In beat, and the 
plants potted In sandy loam. For outdoor culture, see 
Ptatiul, by which name the plant is commonly knowo. 

hypog m a. Linn. 0ns ft. or less high : Ivs. sbmptly 

f innate, with two pairs of leaflets and no tendril. Mn. 
:10S- Procumbent. 



[A, Inclndlng DImorphdnthul (derivation ob- 
■cnr«|. Araliitea. Psrennlal herbs or shrobs : Ivs. bI- 
temate, deeldnouB, large, decompound : ' fls. small, 
whitish, in Duibels, usually forming large panicles ; 

Sstals and stamens 5: berry, or rather drupe, 2-5-Beeded, 
lack or dark purple, ftlobulsr, small. Soma of the 
Arallas are bardy outdoor deciduous herbs snd bushes; 
Others are fine stove plants, botanieslly nntlke the true 
Arallas aa defined above. Alfbid Rihdeh. 

There are about 3S kinds of tender Arallas Id cult. 
Some of them are of robust growth, and make handsome 
specimens tor greenhouse snd hothouse decoration when 
grown to a height of 10 or IZ ft. ; otbers of more dell- 
Mte and slender growth, such as A. Ohabrieri (really 



ABALIA 87 

an Elnodendron), A. eoMciima (see Dilarbrta), A.ele- 
gantiitima and A, Vtiiehii, var. irraellliHa, are moat 
beaatlfnl as smaller plants, say fnim 1-3 tt. In helgbt. 
These Bmall plants are very tieantltnl aa table plecea, 
and are not surpassed in delicate grace and lymmelry 
by any plants; A. t'eifcAiJ, var-ffraeiJiimn, is oneot the 
very finest ot the dwarter- growing kinds. The mora 
robnst sorts are usnally prop, by cuttings. In the usual 
manner, or by root cuttings, as Boavardlas are. Thu 
more dellcat« varieties, as A. Chabrieri, elegantittima , 
etc., do best when grstted on stronger-growing varie- 
ties, like A. ffuitrog^d, J. relicHlofo IwhlchlsanOreo- 
panail. etc. The slender-growing sorts reqalre light, 
rich soil, made ot equal parts of sandy loam and peat or 
leaf-mold. They require plenty of water and a moist 
atmosphere. They are much subject to attacks ot scale, 
which may be removed or prevented by frequent care- 
ful sponging with a weak aolution ot seal-oil sosp, Dr- 
tree oil, or other like Insecticide. 

Cult, by ROBEBT Cbaiq. 

Tbe gtasshonse species are much contused, largely 

becauae some kinds receive trade and provisional 

names before the Ss. and frs. are known. See Acantha- 

patiax tor A . Maximoiciciii, pentapkylla, and ricinifo- 



poHica, papyrif*ra, and Biebotdil; Oreopanax tor A. 
reticulata; PolytciattorA.Iati/olia; SeindopSyHum 
tor A. Ambeinentt. Other related genera are Hepta- 
pltnrum, Monopanai, Oreopanax, Panax, Pseudopanai. 
A. Tendtr tvergnen Araiiai, groicii only under glan. 
{By tame ngardid a» belonging to other gtntra.} 
B. Lvi. digitalo. 



7-11 leaflets ellipHo-ls 

undulate, and serrate margins and a pate midrib, o. 

Sea lalands. Certificated In Eng. in 188L (On, 19, p. 

457). R,H. 1891, p. 22G.-Slender-stemmed, of beautiful 

habit. 

Vtltohil, Hort. LeaOets &-11, very narrow or almost 
filiform, undulate, ablnlng green above and red beneath. 
New Caledonia. — One uf the best and handsomest spe- 
cies. Var. vraoilllna, Hort. (A. graeiliHa. Linden, B.H. 
1867, p. 38). Leafiels 
still narrower, with a 
whits rib. R.H. 1891, 
p. 236. On. 39, p. S65. 
Very desirable. Origi- 
nally described as A. 
Sratitina (tA in-lined), 
which name haa been 
mistaken for graeil- 
lima {very graceful). 
•leKBntlstima,yeltoh . 
Petlriles mottled With 
white: leaflets 7-11, fil- 
iform and pendulona. 
New Hebrides.— E«- 
cellent. 

leptophflla, Hort. 
Slender plant: leaflets 
fli I form and drooping, 
brosdeoed at the eitremittea, deep green. Auatralasla. 

Beglna, Hort. Qraceful ; petioles olive, pink and 
brown : Ifts. drooping, roundish. New Hebrides. 

Onlll07lel,Cogn.& March. Flg.128. Leaflets 3-7(dlgl- 
tate-Uke), ovate or oblong, irregularly cut on the edges 
or obscurely lobed, while -margined and Hometlmes gray- 
splsshed : st. spotted, erect. New Hebrides.- Rapid 
grower, showy, and good tor pots. 

monatrtaa, Hori. Leaflets i-7, ovate-acute, deeply and 
often oddly cut, broadly white -margined, also gray- 
spotted : Ivs. drooping. S. Sea I si. B.H. 1891, p. 22S. 
Gn. 39, p. 665. 

tilleiUlla, Moore. Stem erect, purplish, whlte-apotted : 
Iva. fern-like (whence the name); leaflets 3-7 pairs. 
lance-oUong and acumliiate, long, deeply notch -toothed. 



in. Anila QuiUoylet. 



deep green and purple ribbed. PolTiieal*. 1. 
R.H. ia»l, p. 224. Gn. 39, p. 66S. A.U. 19: 



of the beat. 






. 


A. Ohabriiri. Hort 






■nd ; He P«adop»nu 


.-A. (*nrtM» 




l™. dieiuM. ifae 


rt>. oblonrliiiMiiUlB 






Auatnl.-J. nd- 




uU-Uks pl>Di 


«ILhr 


OHlTPitckcd.bald 


0lUK..''"i;e Ivi* "^on 






ODdulaW ftt ths 


msrgtnB." On™ offeroc 


bj e.al.-J 


0.1-d 






S dwnlT bifld 




ierve^i and rdu 


bniini. S.S.U].-A.iiuereifdlia.Kon 


L^fl 


HS.iiniuW: 1t«. 


opEUHlte. Now Brilnln 


-J. nKunda 


Hort. 


L«f of 1 Unsla 










PolynMi».-J, •prnibilit, Hort.-A. 


llki'to 


..'-"d. iplffididta- 


»i«w. Hort. Lt,. pldn 


te, the l«flel 




cr«n. NewClB- 


dont».-A, Irnidte, H 








the ImAfU oblongl»ae 


wUt^IndTlS' 




See P.i». Sam« a[ t 


B.boveprobn 


bijbel 




»nd Qther Bene™. 






L. H. B. 


*i. flardK or (™« 


Arali 




B. Prickly ikrub* o 


w«ilf t0H> 




trt. bipinnalt. 


t-d ft. long : •> 




Bi, in 


a larse, broad. 



tpoHiid panicle : ilyU 

■linAM, Linn. Anoblica TBkc. Hsbculib' Club. 

Divil's Waleiho-btice. SlemB very pricklT, 10 (t. 

hlgti ; ITB. 1^-2S ft. long, usnall; priekfy ibove ; Ift*. 

ovate. Berrate, 2-.3K In. long, RleacouB >Dd nearlf 

f;labrausbeQeatb, mostly distinctly pelloled; veins curv- 
Dft upward before the margin. Aug. S. acates north to 
Tenn. S.S. 5: 211. On. 50, p. KB.-Tbe Btout, armed 
sterna, the large Ive,, and tlie enormous clustera of fla. 
give thli gpeciea a very dialinct aubtroplral appearance. 
Not quite bantjr north. 

01lin6iX*li, Linn. (A. JapSnica, Hart. A. Matid- 
tXirica, Hort.). Chchibi Anoelica Tree. Stems leaa 

{iriekly, 40 ft. : Iva. 2-4 ft. long, usoally wlthoat pricklea ; 
rta. ovate or broad ovate, coaraely Berrate or den- 
tate, nsnally pubeaeent beneath, nearly eensUe, 3>i-G In. 
long ; veins dividing before tbe roarKin and ending In 
the polo ta of the tee Ih. Aug., Sept. China, Japan. — In 
general appearance very roueb like the former apeciea, 

c... L__.,__ •■—-'- hardy north. Or ..-.-- i- 

T BOil. .... _. 

, St, with few 



Sieb. A Zueo.|. Lva. often prickly' above ; Ifta. gla 
brons beneath, except on the velna, dirk green above. 
More tender. Var. llHldallflrieih Rehder [Diynorptidyt- 



ARAUCARIA 

tkH( MandiliiritMi, V.a\m.). 8t. prickly : ifts. pu- 
beacent only on the veina beneath, more sharply and 
densely aerrate than the foregoing var., and hardier. 
There la also a form with variegated lva. (l.H. 33: 609). 

BB. Pnarmed ktrbt ; itfUt united at the bale. 
c. UmbeU tmmeroui, in elongated puberuloui panl- 

rMemtu, Linn. Spikbhako. Height 3-6 ft. ; glabrous, 
or allghtly pubescent : lva. qainately or lercately de- 
eompouQd : leaflets cordate, roundiah ovate, doubly and 
aharply aerrate, acaoiinate, uaually glabroua beneath, 
2-6 In. Icn^ : tis. greeniah white. July, Aug. E. N. 
Amer. westtoHinn. and Ho. B.B.2:506. 

CalUdnioa, Wats. Height B-IO ft.: resembles tbe 
preceding: Itt*. cordate, ovate or oblong-ovate, 
shortly acuminate, aimply or doubly aerrate: panicle 
loose ; umbela fewer, larger, and with more numeroua 
rays. Calif. 

COnUta, Thunb. (A.idulii, Sleb. & Znec.). Height 
4-S ft.: Ivs. temately or qulnately decompound, pinnn 
somellmea with 7lfis.; Ifts. cordate or rounded at the 
base, ovate or oblo tig-ovate, abruptly Bcuminate, un- 
equally aerrate, pubeacent on tbe veina beneatb, 4-8 
In. long. Japan. Gt. 13: 4:12 aa .l.nicciiiDJii, var. fioEkd- 
Untniii. R.H. 1H96, p. 5a. A.O. 1S9S, pp. G, T. 

CaeheniriM. Decne. (A. Caikmeriana , Bort. Saul 
1891. A macmphilla, Llndl.j. Height 6-S ft. : lva. 
qulnately com pound, plnnn often with &-9 leaflets ; leaf- 
lets uaually rounded at the baae, oblong-ovate, doDbl; 
aerrate. glabrous or bristly on the veins beneatii, 4-8 in. 
long. Himalayas. 

cc. Umbeti teveral or feic on slender peduntU$ ; 
ptdictli glabroue ! 1-3 ft. kign. 

Llipida, Vent. Bbistlt SASsapARiLLA. WtldEuier. 
Height 1-3 ft., aanally with abort, woody atem, bristly : 
Ivs. blplnuate ; Ifti. ovate or oval, rounded or nar- 
rowed at tbe baae, acnte, aharply and irregularly ser- 
rate, 1-3 In. long : umbels 3 or more In a loose corymb; 
fla. while. June, July. From Newfoundland to N. Caro- 
lina, west to Hlnn. and Ind. B.H. 1085. L.B.C. 14:1306. 

nndieaUla, Linn. Wild Sabsapabtlla. Smau. 

Spikenabd. Stetnleaaor nearly so ; nsu&lly 1 leaf, I ft. 

bigh, with 3 quinately pinnate divialona ; Ifta. oval or 

ovate, rounded or narrowed at tbe base, aeaminale, 

flnely serrate, 2-S In. long : nmbels 2 or 3 ; fls. greenish. 

Hay, June. Newfoundland 

to N. Carolina, west to Ho. 

B.B. 2:506. 

A. auiMQfuaUa. Deena. * 



nfr. Unsymmetrical 



AX&UClBU (Chilian 

oatne). Conitera. tribe 
Amucdririe. About 15 ape- 
' eles of S. Amer. and the 
Anatrallan region, grown for 
their striking aymmeirlcal 
habit and Interesting ever- 
green foliage. In the 8. some 
species will thrive in the 
ia not t«o dry. but in the N. all 
nly. Lva. stilt, sharp-pointed. 

. several Inches In diameter. 
ne gigantic forest trees in their 
reated, the genns Includes Co- 

L. H. B. 
ucarias in cultivation. Moat ot 
n in limited numbers in private 
I. The kind a most popular In 
in and its varieties glavea and 
A. eictlia, probably ^.'iO.OOO 
:h pots are annually sold in the 
all imported In a young atate 

lere the propagation and grow- . 

le the leading specialty at many nnr- 



ARAUCARIA 

serlea, of whicb tbere are over TOO In that one cltf. Tbe 
ind« □( tbe world hu been supplied (or many jehn 
from Gbent. Some of tbe large EDftlleh growers bave 



IM. Oood ipeclmi 

begrnn to grow Ihem In coDsidenble quHotltleB In tl 

pa«t Ave year*, but It la likely that Ghent will be tl 

main Bonrce o( supply for : *" ' '' 



1 in tbe near future, the high pHc 
being the i^reatest drawback. The Arauca: 
" ' "1 aymmetrlea! evergreen in a- 



i for I 



3 ia 



ItlvB 



enUl 



plant for bome decoration. It la particularly popul 
Cbrlstmas lima, and la then aold In KreaC quantities. 
A raaearlaa are propagated from seed and from cutllr"*- 
the latter make tbe moat compact and bandaome a| 
meUH. To make symmetrical apecimens. take 
tings from the leading shoots (see Fig. 129). If i 
aa house plants, they Ihrire beat In a cool room, w 
the temperature Is nor over SO" at niiiht, and 
ahonld be placed near the light. In summer 
grow best If protected by  shading of light li 
placed about an Inch apart, which will admit air 
at tbe same time break the furce of the suD'a T 
They do well In any good potting compost, and sh 
be ihified about once a year (In the spring) into la 
pots. The cntllngs sbonld be planted in light 
comport or sand in tha fall or during the winter 
I greenhouse, with moderate bottom 



heat, 



will r 



which the J may b 
addition Xo A. n 
following attractiv 






irlOw 



after ' 
In 






iwn In 



>ogh a 



nail qi 



nature, does remarkably well aa a room plant, and 
hard; In Florida and many of the most southern ati 
A. Golditana, a very distinct and handsome form, 
father scarce at preaent ; A.tliaani (a form o: 
BTaziliana') , an elegant form of dwarf and eiceedi 
graceful habit, and a most beautiful talile plant. 

Cult, by RoBEBT Cbai 

A. Ia:». lormoitor Ihtm) awl-litt. 

•letlu, R. Br. NOBTO1.S Island Pine. Figs. 

131,133. Plant light gr^n : branches frondoae, tbe 

onrved and sharp-pointed , rather soft, and dei 

S 'laced on the horixontal or drooping branchlets. 
oik Isl. F.R.2:411.-The commonest spec lea In 
coantry. being much grown as small pot specimens. 
blae-green form Is cull, as A.glaira. There ia also 
•tning-growlng, large variety, with very deep green I 



ARAUCARIA 89 

UtgelA.robiila), Id Its native wilds tbe tree reacbes 
 heliht of over 200 ft. and a diameter of even 9 or 10 
ft. The solid, globular cones are 1 or S in. In dlam. 
F.S. 22:3304-5. -An excellent bouae plant, and keeps 
well In a cool room near a window. In summer It may 
be used on the veranda, but must be shaded. 

Gdnninchami, Sweet. Planta less formal and sym- 
letrical than A . rjtrlia. the upper branches ascending 



oriiontal ; 



I. stiff a 



isrp- 



polnted, straight 01 
form {A. jlaUca): also a weeping form. Austral., 
where It reaches a height of 200 ft., yielding valuable 
timber and resin. Locally known as Hoop Pine, More- 



Pine 



mg, Cnml 



Coonam. 

Coakll. R.Br. (J.cofumndrii.Haak.). Branches dis- 
posed aa Id A. ezccIjK.but tree tending to shed the lower 
ones ; yonng Irs. altemale and rather distant, broad 
'and slightly decurrenl at base, slightly curved, mu- 
cronate ; adalt Ivs. densely imbricated, short and 
orate, obtuse ; cones 3-4 in. In dlam. and aomewbat 
longer. New Caledonia, where It reaches a height of 200 
ft., making very straight and Imposing sbafta. B.M. 
463fi. A.F. I2:5S9.-Named forCaptainCook. 

AA. Lvt. broadtr. Hiualty plant and imbricaltd , 
B41el, Muell. Leafy branchlets vary long : Ivs. oval- 
el Uptle, imbricated, plane or lightly concave, arched to- 
wards the branch, nearly or quite obtuse, v'"' ' 



lorsal n 



ve. Var 



t ages. When 
1 the Iva. 



young, tbe branches are often drooping a 

BubulBte(Tar.f)<)ivm<trpAii, R.H.1860,p.350. There la 
a var. epMpaefa). New Caledonia. Reaching 50 ft. in 
height. R.H. 1S66, p. 392, andplate. LH.22:2Di. The 
tlgure In O.C. 1861 -.aOS.iaA. Mitllen, Brongn. AOris., 
a broader- leaved species. 

Ooldleina, Hort. Like A , Jiulei, and perhaps a form 
of It ; Iva. In whorla, dark green, variable ; branchea 
drooping. 

BidwlUU, Hook. Fig. 133. Bather narrow In growth, 
especially with age, the branches simple : Iva. in two 
rows, lance-oratfl and very sharp-pointed, tbiek, firm 
and shining. Austral., where it attaina a height of 



K raised plant, etowt 



and atteallon. 



90 ARAUCABIA 

ISO ft., and U known u Baags-bDiita. B.H. 1897, p. 
GOO. O.C. in. 16: 4SS, ahowlog tbe pineapple- like cone. 
—One of tbe beat and buidsonieit apocieB for pot cnl- 

BmUiins, A. Rich. Bnnehea verticlllate, aomewbat 

Inclined, rmlied at tbe enda, tendlsg to disappear below 

at the plant grows : 

Its. alternate, obloDK- 

laneeolate, Bom e what 

decarrent, mnch atten- 

' nated aind Tery nharp- 

polnted, deep fcreeo, 

iooaelv Imbricated : 

eODO iBTKe and Dearl; 

globnlar. S. Brax.. 

IXX). reaching a helgbt of 

100 tt. F.S. 21:2202. 

A. iUeam, Hart., la 

a form with very 



and more crowded 
and often glaacous 
Iva. Tar. BIdoltidna, 
Oord.. Ii a mor« robast 
form, with larger and 
longer Iva. 
imbrlekta, Par, 

r 

B'a, at first t . 

wlUi np ward -curving 
(■omeClmeH down ward- 

deSeied, tbe If.-ghln- 
gled branebleta in opposite paira : Iva. imbricated and 
porslstlng, oven on tbe trunk, ovate-Ianceolata. very 
atlff and leathery and abarp-polnled, an inch long and 
hall as wide, bright green on both aldei ; cone 6-8 
In. In dlam. WeBtern slope of tbe Andes In Chile, 
reaching a belgbt of 100 ft, P. S. IE: 1577-80. H. H. 
1893. p. 153 ; 1897, pp. 271, 319. Ot. U: 115. O.C. III. 
2I:Z88; 24: lS4.-Hardr Id the 8. Tbis Is tbe specie 

-■-■-'-  wn In tbe r-~   •   

ft. high It 

AXBOKIOULTUSB, The culture of trees. It is a 
generic term, covering the whole subject of the plant- 
ing and c«re of trees. More spe«lfle terms are »i/!ritul- 
tan, the planting of woods ; orchard-eultiiri, the plant- 
ing of orchards or fruit trees. 

ABBnTUBlBnclentLatinname). Srieitia. Trcesor 
shrubs : branches BTUooth and usually red : Ivs. ever- 
green, alternate, peliolate : fls. monopetilous, ovate or 
globular, white to red, about Mln. long, in terminal 
pauloles ; fr. a globose, many-seeded berry, granuiose 
outside, mostly edible. About 10 specieain W.N. Amer., 
Mediterranean reg., W. Eu., Canary Isl. OmamcDtal 
trees, witb UEaally smooth red bark and Instrous ever- 
green foliage, of grest decorative valoe for parks and 
gardens in warm -temperate regions ; especially beautiful 
when adorned with tbe clnsters of white fls. or bright 
red berries. They grow best in well-draltied soil in some- 
what sheltered positions not exposed to dry winds. Very 
handsome greenhouse shmbs, tbriving well in a sandy 
oompost of peat and leaf soil or light loam. Prop, by 
■eeda sown In early spring or in fall, or by cuttings from 
mature wood in fall, placed in sandy peat soil under 
glass; they root but slowly. Inereased also by budding 
or grafting, usually veneer-gratting, if seedlings of one 
of the species can be hod for stock. Layers usually 

A. Panicles thort, nodding .- tva. umalty lerrale. 

DntdO, Linn. STttiWBEttBY TrU. Prom 8-15 ft.: 
Ivs. cuneate, oblong or oblong-lsnceolate, 2-3 In. long, 
glabrous, green benenCh : fls. white or red, ovale : fr. 
scarlet, warty, JilD. broad, Sept.-Dec. S. Eu., Ireland. 
L.B.C. 2:123. Var. Integirrlma, Sims. Lvs. entire. 
B.H. 23le. Var. rtbT«, Ait., and var. OMimi, Hort. 



ARCHON'rOPHtENlX 

(Go. 33.p. 330), have red fls. -Very beautiful in aatuinn, 
when the tree bears its large, aoarlet fruits and at the 
same time its white or rosy fls. 

AA. PanicUi »rtet : tvt. HiiuIIy aiUirt. 
Kinzied, Pursb. UuisOHA. Occasionally lOOft.hlgh: 
truuk with dark reddish brown bark : Ivs. rounded or 
sllgbtly cordate at tbe base, oval orobtong, 3-4 in. long, 
glabrous, glauoona beneath : fls. white, in S-6 in. long 
paaleles : fr. bright orange-red, !4la. long. Spring. 
W. N. Amer, B.E. 21:1753, as A. prieetn, Dougl. 
" " 6:2:fl. P.M. 2:147. G. P. 3:515 ; 5, 151. Mn,3:85. 



-The 

of tbe genus ; 

AtUAnlea, Sarg, <A. Xalapfntli, var. Aritinica, 
Gray). Tree, 40-SO ft. : trunk with light gray or nearly 
white bark : lvs. niually cuneate at the base, oblong- 
lanceolate, lK-3 in. long, glabrous, pale beneath : Se, 
white. In loose, broad panicles 2-3 in. long : fr. globose 
or oblong, dark orange-red. Spring. Arli. Q.F.4:318, 
S.S. G:233.— The contrast between the white bark ot the 
trunk, the red branches, and the pale green foliage 
makes a very pleasant effect : fr. and fls. are also very 

A. AndnMbH, Una. From 10-M ft.; lvs. eval-oUanc. nn- 
alljF entliti, yelloHlih anen boMath ; fls. rellowiah white : fr. 
brlchtred. Greece, Orient, B,11.20Z4. B.R.2:U3.-A.anilrodt- 
taidei. Link (A, Andraeluu X IlDeda. A. hrbrlda. Eer, A. 
temtltDllii, Lndd. I , Lvi, serrate : panicle* dimplnE : I 
white, B,R,8:aU), L.B.CfliSHI.-A.CanarUiufi.UndrHel^ 

panlrles erect i fla. i^eenish white. Canarr i> 

A. citn*in*r», HBK. Helaht20(t,: lv».oblon, _ 

nle.dnmj beneath: fls, white, Uei,-A, fifMda. Eer, — A, 
arachnoldei.— A. lauri/AIvo, Hook,— A, Hesiieil,— A. lavrilb- 
jia. Undl,-A, XalapeDilB.-J,m<)lIii, HBK, Bhnb or small 
tree : Ivi, dblonf, tnrmte, pubescent beneath : fls. while, often 
timed creeniih red. Mei, B.M, USK,— A,;>UJ*a, Qrah.— Pn^ 



Helaht 



XaiapintiM,B 



I, Poinh,— Atetosiaphiloa to- 
— AictoaUphyloi Uva-UrsL- A. 
», Unfll.), Helaht lO-aoft: Ivi. 
uvKi ur oTBLc-jBiweuini«. eatire or crenaCelj serrate, ^bruos 
or downy beneath : Am, reddish : corolla sbrnpItT contracted 
above the middle, Mei., Tax. 8,8. S:ZS2. B,R, £5:<7, 

AUBBD RbHDKB. 
ABBUTUS, TK&IUSa. See Epigaa. 

ASCEAITQtLICA (Greek chief anjtl, fnim fancied 
medicinal virtues). Untb'.Ui'em. A few scrong-smeil- 
iDgooarseherbscloBelyailied to Angelica, but dilferlng • 
in technical characters associated with the oil-tubes ia 
the fruit. 

oBlolnUI*, Holtm. A European and Asian biennial or 
perennial, known also as Angelica Anhangetica. Stout 
herb, with temately decompound lvs. and large umbels 
of small fls. Tbe stems and ribs of tbe lvs. were once 
blanched and eaten, after the manner of celery, and 
tbey are atill used in the making of sweetmeats. Little 
known In this country, although it is offered by Ameri- 
can dealers. Its chief value to us ia its large foliage. 
Seeds may be sown in tbe fall as soon ae ripe, or the 
following spring. 

ABCHOVTOPHC^HIZ (Greek, ma}fH< phvniz). Pal- 
micta. tribe Aricrni. Tall, spineless palms, with stout, 
solitary, ringed caudlces : lvs. termlcsl. equally pin- 
natisect ; segments linear- lanceolate, acuminate or bl- 
dentste at the apex, the margins recurved at Ibe base. 
sparsely scaly beneath, tbe midnerves rather promi- 
nent, nerves slender ; rachls convex on the back, the 
upper surface slreogly keeled ; petiole channelled 
above, sparsely tomentose ; sheath long, cylindrical, 
deeply flssured ; spadlces shori-peduncled, with slen- 
der, fleinose, glabrous, pendent branches and branch- 
lets : spatbes 2, entire. long, compressed, deciduous : 
bracts crescent- shaped, adnate to tbe spadix ; braetlets 
persistent ; Rs, rather lai-ge : fr. small, globose-elllp- 
soldol. Species, 2. Austral. They are beautiful palms, 
requiring a temperate bouse. Prop, by seeds. The 
Srnforlhin rlrtinns of gardeners belongs here (see 
Ptythoaperma for picture of It). For cult., see Palmi. 



AHCHONTOPHCENIX 
. L»af itgminli vhilith underntalk. 

I. Wandl. A Drude (Ptgchoipirma Atex- 
dndnte, F. Maell.). Trank 70-80 ft.: Iva. aeveral ft. 
lon^ : nehlB very broad and thick, glabraas or slight]; 
wnrfy ; le^taiHDti nnnierons, the longer oses ij^ ft. 
loDK, J4-1 In. broad, aeomlnate and eDttre or allKbtl; 
notcbed, green above, aihy glaneouB beneatb, Queenn- 
land. F.S. 1B:1916. 

AA. Ltal ttgmer.tt grttn on both lidti, 
Wnnlnghamll. H. Wendl. Se Dmde {Ptychoipima 
CuHHiHghanii, H. Weudl,). Trunk and general habit 
like the preceding, but the aegmentB acuminate and 
entire or acarcel; notched. Qneenaland and N. S. W. 
B.M. .»! « S..»«U. .I.„n.. j„„ „ s„„ 

ABCTIUK (from Greek irord for btar, probably al- 
IndlnK to the shaggy bur). Compdiita. Bdrdock. A 
few eoane perennials or bleimlalB of temperate Go. and 
Aaia, some of them widely distributed as weeds. Invo- 
lucre globnlar and large, with booked scales, becomlDK 
a bur: receptacle denaely setose : pappus decldnoua, of 
brletlea: Its. lurge and soft, wbltlsh beneath: plant not 
prickly : Ss. pinkish, in sommer. 

Uppa, Linn. (I^ppa mijar, Onrtn.). Couuok Bur- 
dock. Tbe Burdock is a cominon and despised weed In 
thli country, althongh it is capable of making an excel- 
lent foliage mass and sorecn. In Japan it is much cult. 
for its root, whleb has been greatly thickened and ame- 
liorated, affording a popular vegetable. It I* tbere 
known as Uobo (see Oeorgeson, A.Q. 13, p. 210j. 

ASCTOaTAFHTLOB(Greek, AearandjrnifK). SrieH- 
eca. Uani&kita. Shmbs or small trees: Its. alternate, 
evergreen, usually entire, rarely deciduous : fls. small, 
oreeolate, mostly white, tloged red. in terminal, often 
pulcleil racemes, in spring : fr. naually smootbi a red 
berry or rather drupe, with 1-10 laeeiled, separate oreo- 
berent cellK. About 30 species InN. and Cent. Amer., 
2 species also in N. Gu. and N. Asia. Handiome ever- 
green sbrubs, though generally with less conJipicuoaB fla. 
and fra. than thoKe of the allied genus Arbutus. Some 
Cent. Amer. (peciea, however, aa A . arbuleides, OTBUta 
and poli/olia are beBUllfnl in flower, and well worth a 
place in tbe greenhause or In the garden in temperate 
regions ; of the American apeciea, A , Pringlti. vitcida 
and bieolor are some of the handsomest. Only the trail- 
ing species are hardy north. For culture, see Arbutui. 
Includes ContantiapkntU. 



tva-Oni, Spreng. Beakberrt. Lts. oboTBt«-ob- 
long, tapering into the petiole, retuse or obtuse at the 
apex: fls. small, about ^In. long, white tinged with 
red. Northern bemiaphere, tn V, Amer. south to Mei. 
Km. 2: 431. -Hardy trailing evergreen abnib, like the 
following valuable for covering rocky alopea and aandy 
banka, Cuttlnga from mature wood taken late Id sum- 
mer root readily under glaaa. 

Vavadinils, Qray, Lve. obovateorobovate-lanceolate, 
abruptly patloled, acute or roucronato at the apei : fls. 
In sbort-alalked elasters, white or tinged with red. 
Calif., in tbe higher mountains. 

AA. Xrtel ihrubt .■ Ivi.uiually i~t in. long ! tU.ln 

noitttf yuany-tld. panicled racemei. 

B. Lvi. glabrDHt, rartig mlnulelj/ pttbeictnl, 

c. Fedieeti glabnuz , 

pAnsena.HBE. Prom3-10ft.; glabroua or minutely 

pubescent : Ivs. slender-petloled, oblong-lanceolate or 

oblong-elllptlc, acul«, entire, green or glauoexcent : fls. 

In ahort. umbel-like cluntera : fr. glabrou-. about Win. 

broad. Mex., Low. Calif. B.R. 30:17. B.M. 392T. 

Kanianita, Parry {A. pUngetn, Authors). Fig. 134. 
Shrub or small tree, to 30 ft. : Ivs. ovate, usually obtuse 
and mucrooulate at the apex, glabrona, dull green : fls. 
in prolonged panicled racemes : fr. glabrous, tj-Sln. 
broad. W.K. Amer.,tromOre.aouth. G.F.4:571. 



ARDISU 



91 



CC. Pedicel! glandular. 

glafiea, Lindl. From8-26ft.: Iva.oblongororblcular, 
obtuae and mncronulate at the apex, glancescent or pale 
green : fla, in prolonged panicled racemes ; pedicela 
glandular : fr. minutely glandular. Calif. Int. 1891. 

Vlieida, Parry. From G-IS ft. : Ivs. broad ovate or el- 
liptic, abruptly mucronulate, acute or rounded at the 
base, glaucoua : fla. In slender and spreading, panicled 
raeemaa ) pedicels viscid ; corolla light pink : fr. de- 
pressed, about !4ln. brond, amoolh. Ore. to Calif. 



ttt pHbtiftnl ,- branelileli modify 
briilly -hairy. 
I, Dongl. From 2-6 ft.: Iva. obtong-lanoeo- 
late or ovate, acute, sometlmea aermlate, pubescent be- 
neatb, pale green : fls. in rather dense and short, nan- 
ally panicled racemea ; pedicels short : fr, puberuloiM, 
glabrous at length. W. N. Amer. B.R. 21:1791. B.H. 
3320.-1116 hardiest of the erect speclea- 

Prlnslel, Parry. Shrub : Iva. broad-ovate or elliptic, 
usually abruptly mucronulate, pubescent, sometimes 
glabrous at length, glaucous : panicled racemes pedun- 
eled. usually leafy at the baae. many-fid. ) slender pedi- 
cels and oalyi glandular-pubesoent : fr. glandular his- 
pid. CatIf.,ArlE. 

Meolor, Gray. From 3-4 ft.; Ivs. oblong-oval, acute at 
both ends, revolute at the margin, glabrous and bright 
green above, white -tomeotoae beneath : fis. In nodding, 
rather denaa racemea ; pedicela and calyx tomentoae ; 
corolla >i In. long, rose-colored : fr. smooth. Cslif. 

^.atplnn.Sprena. Prostrate shrub : Ivt.decldaons. obovata, 

talDS of' northern hemltpbere.— A. arftutotd^Hemsl. Five la 
Btt.: Ivs. laimeoUle-oblaDg. farrusin«>iulr pnbeaeent Iwneath: 
Gaatem. Bit. ^9:30.—;!, argiUa. Znce. 



njttda, 



. Fiv8 



:. B.M. 3004 <H 



iniclei 



1, CaliKmia 



. 8. Mex 



cemes, Mex. 



ated. Calif, Mn. B: 231.-A, nUido, Benlh,-/ 
liWiia.HBK. MBlghl l-Jtt.: Iva. llnear-Unce. 



eatb; fls. red. I 



ABCTdTIS (Greek for btar'g ear, alluding to the 
akene). Comp6$ita. Herba with long-peduneled heads 
and more or less white-woolly herbage, of 30 or more 
African species : akenes grooved, with scale-like pappus: 
involucre with numerous Imbricated scales : receptacle 
bristly. One Bpeclea, treated aa an annual, la sold in 
this country. 

brevtaelpa, Tbunb. (A. lepUirhhia, var. breviicApa, 
DC-J. Stemless or nearly BO (din. high), half-bardy, read- 
ily prop, from seeds, and to be grown in a warm, sunny 
place. Lrs. uHusUy longer than the scape, inolsed-den- 

ler and orange rays. 

ABDlBIA (pointed, alluding to the stamens or corolla 
lobes). MyriinAeea, Large genus of tropical treea and 
shruba, with 6-parted laoraetlmea 4- or 6-parted) rotate 
corolla, fi Btamena attached to tbe throat of the corolla, 
with very large anthers and a 1 -seeded drupe theaiie of 



92 ABDISIA 

t, pea. Lve. entire, dentate or ereoatc, tblek and over- 
g|i«en ; fla. white or roae.DBuall]' in c;pniei. Ardiaiaa 
are grown in botbuuses or eonserratoriea, and bloom 
most of the ;ear. 

There are aboat a doien ArdUlas In cultl ration ; only 
two, howeier, are growD Id quiotlt; In America,—^. 
creniilata (red-berried| and A, Japoniea (whtte-ber- 
rled). The former U tbe more beauiifn] and valnable. 
It is DDe of the huidBoDiesit berr;-beBiin)r plantii, uid la 
very popular, particularly at Cbristmas time. Tbe A. 
Japotiica is not nearly bo sbowy nor bandsooifl &■ A. 
erenataln, and for this rett«OD is not bo generally ktowd. 
ArdiBlaii are readily grown from seed, wblcb should be 
BOWD In the Bpring- ; the BeedllngB will bloom the fol- 
lowlnir spring, and tbe berries will be well colored by the 
next CbrialniRB. They will thrive in almost any good 
potting compost and la a winter night temperature of 
about 50°. They are most beaotlfnl when about 2 feat 
high, after which they geoerally lose thulr bottom fo- 
liage, and present a na^ed or "leggy" appearance. When 
they ^t Id this stale It is well l« root the laps over 
again, which may beat be done without removing them 
from the plant, by making an loclsioD in the stem and 
covering the wounded part with moss, which should be 
tightly wrapped with string and kept damp ; the mosa 
wiiibe mied with roots In about a month, when the tops 
may be cutoff and potted, thus obtaining most beautiful 
young planta, covered with foliage to the bottom. This 
process will not Interrupt the blooming at all; they fre- 
qnently set an abundance of buds while undergoing tbis 
operatloD. The crop of berries od aD Ardlsla will re- 
main on the plant for more than a year. If the plant be 
grown In a cool temperature, say not exceeding 60° at 
night In winter. Two full crops of ripe berries at one 
time are not uDuaual. Ardlslas may be propagated also 
from cDttlDgs of half -ripened wood ; early spring Is the 
best time to strike them. The greatest Insect enemy of 
theArdisla Is the large brown scale -, freqaent sponging 
of the atems and Ivs. with strong tobacco water Is the 
best preventive. Cnlt. by Robsbt Cuaio. 

A. Fit. red or roie-entortd. 

erennUta, Lodd. (A.CTittdta.Slrat, A.criipa.Borl.). 
Fig. 135. As cnlt., acompact and neat shrub, wiib lance- 
oblong, wavy -margined, alternate ly^ and drooping 
clusters of small coral-red frs. Sweet-scented. Prob- 



ABECA 

make them into satisfactory plants. Well-grown planta 
should bear (rait In a year from the seed. The seed 
may be sown whenever ripe. Tbe fruits often bang on 
for a year and more. Hardy Id the South. 

hbmllla, Vabl. Lvg. lance-oblong, shining : fra. shin- 
ing black- India. 

dllTeri, Haat. Lvb. nearly BBSsUe, recurved, oblanceo- 

let« and acuminate, 6-8 in. long, entire : fie. pink, in 

large, dense heads, like an Iiora, the limb rotate, Hia. 

across. CostaRlca. 0.0.11.8:681. — Elegantstoveplant. 

AA. Fit. white. 

Iap6lllM, Blame. Lvs. short-oblong or somewhat cn- 
neate, whorled, serrate : flg. on red pedicels In drooping 
racemes: berries white. Dwarf. Jap. Probably hard; 

poljDtphata, Wall. Lvn, bright green, red or wln«- 
oolored when young, opposite : fr. black. E. Ind. 
AAA. Fla. blaek-dolUd. 

Pfekerlngla, Torr. & Gray. Glabrous, S-9 ft.: Iv(. 
ovate to lance-oblong, entire, narrowed (o a petiole : 
panicle many-fid. ; corolla lobea oval and becoming re- 
lleKed: (r. as large as peas. E. Fla. Int. 1891. 

A.. nmbMdta Is offered In ihig amntrr u couiIdk from India. 
The A. umbtllata. Baker lot the botanltti). Is a MadscaKar 
plaui, anil it li doubtful if LI 1h in •■nit. In this conntn, SpMlea 
with white fl>. are A. acuminata. Wllld., B.M. Krrs ; capi'fdia. 
OnU': mamilUta, "nance : puncfdla, Roibi.; Tifliu. Wall. 
Sperias with red or reddlth fis. are A. tHocroedrpo. Wall., 
B.M. «»J : pmieuliUa. Boxbg,, B.M. 23W i umlAta. Swaru , 
WtiUckii.DC. , „ f. 



AKtCA (from a native nt 
tribe Arieiir. Spineless pa 

ceapltoae In a ring ; Ivs. t( 
the segments lanceolate, a 
margins recurving at the b 



e In Malabar). Palmicfit, 
IS. with trunks Botitary or 
nlual, equally plnnatinect. 



, plica 



wltb I 



be upper 
out anu omu or trLjucikiu auu many-parted : rachis 3- 
slded, convex on the back, the upper face acute, the 
base and petiole concave: sbesth elongated; spadii 
broad or narrow, the spreading branches at length pen- 
dent : apalhes '6 or many, papery, the lowest complete, 
tbe upper ones bruct-like ; Bs. white : fr. medlom or 
large, red or orange. Species, 24. Trop, Asia, Halay 
Arch., Trop. Austral, and New Guinea. The name 
Areca Is one of the most familiar of all palm geners, 
but most of tba well-known species are now referred tc 






I. lull. 



I, the 



r kind, 



ChryfalidiKaTpm ivttKrnt. A . Cat: 
dramn both very quick in germinating. They form very 
 Its for a moderate sized greenbouMC 
:b DiclyatptriKa. For A. Madagnteui- 



imi,, 



e Diipii. 



\ AUmm, W. Hill. StH. several from the same rhiiome, 

. 9 ft. or more high, slender: Ivs. li-li ft. long ; segmeiiis 

acute, several confluent, especially at apex. Queensland. 

Oltethn, Linn. Bktel NvT, St. solitary, 40-190 ft.: 
Ivn. 4-t) ft. ; leaflets numerous, 1-2 ft., upper cDnflaenI, 
quite glabrous : fr. lK-2 In., ovoid, smooth, orange or 
Bcart.'t. Asia and Malayan Islands. 

tlMUannl, Hurt. Resembles a red-stemmed Cbrysa- 
lidocarpUB : young Ivs. verv dark red. bpcomltii- ?reen: 
fronds slender, arching. « 
A.Q. 20:233 (1899). 

ttlandra, Roib. Trunk 40-50 ft. high, 1 ft. (hick, cy- 
lindrical : fronds 8 ft. long ; segments with 6 primary 
nerves about lline apart; petiole about 1 ft. long. India. 

A.dlba. Boir.—DictiDspemia alba.— A. £aii(n. Hook. (.— 
Bbopalostjlls Bsneri.- ~ " 



rving plDi: 



— Plnan 



lOemi 



— Dj^is plnnRtlfron;.— J., ffrdriifi. 



— Plnanca |Ta- 



I3i. Ardlsla crsnalatB<XK). 



Orlir.— 



.afllsn 



45°). Best plants are obtal 
plants should be given bol 
rapidly. If they become s 



. from seeds. The young 
n heat and kept growing 
ted, it is very dilllcult to 



ril6ra.aort,-Dic-Ijo>pennart 
phoeuiiL nihra.— J . SandmAna 



:, Tradenamel- J. Ailwiw, 
i.— A. olerAcea, JH<|.~Oreo. 
, — Nenia Wendlandlana. —A. 



l.ribra. Borj, — Ae 

Trade name t —j1 .•dptila, 
,_._.._.._ _.., , tpeeiAta. Hart, Trad* 

VeruiuilfJm, Hort.-Hyophorb* VersehaffekiL. 

Jabed q. Smith. 



ARENARU 

ABZSAKIA (anna. Band, where many of the ipeclea 
grow). Caryophnllittea. Low herbs, mostlr with white 
Hb., usosJly forming mMa, and suitable for Toekwork or 
alpine gardens. Oni; the perenniai species ire com- 
monifcult. Of euieit culture in almost an; soil. Prop. 
b7 dlTision ; also by seeds, and rare epecii^s sometimes 
1^ cuttings. The species inhabit temperate and cold 
regloas. The stamens are usually 10 ; styles » or 4 ; 
petals 5 as a rule, entire or emargtnato. Nearly 200 rec- 
ognised species. UonogT. by F. X. Williams, Joum. 
Unn. Soc. 33; 326 (1S97-8). 

A. Lvt.vvaU or laneeolaU. 

B«l*«ilM. Linn. Very low (3 In. high), with small 
ovate glossy Its, Balearic Is,, Corsica.— Not hardy in 
latitude of New York City. 

nuMTophtlU, Hook. SCs. decumbent and angled, pu- 
bescent : Its. lanceolato or elliptic, mostly acute ; pe- 
doDcles slender, 1-5-fld. Lake Saperior to the Pacific. 
Int. 1881, 

AA. Iiei. linear or awl-liki. 
B. Stpali obttite. 

OntnUndita, Bpreng. Annnal : very low, forming 
mats, the decnmbeiit or erectlsh sts. bearing 1-5 fls. : 
Its. linear and obtuse, Hin. or less long : sepals and 
petals blunt, the latter sometimes notched. High alti- 
tudes and latitudes, but coming to the sea coast In parts 
of N. Eng., and ranging down the mountains to N, Car. 
Int. 1884.— A neat little alpine. 

KTaminlUUft, Schrad, A foot or less high : Its. long 
and Aliform, rough -margined : lis. in 3-forked loose pU' 
bescent panicles. En. 

BB. Sepali paitiUd or iven awn«d. 

KiudlfUra, Linn. Variable : S In. or less high ; Its. 
flat-awl -shaped. 3-nerTed and dilate : Ss. solitary or in 
Z's or 3' s, long-stalked. Gu. 

mostina, Linn. Smaller; Its. linear or nearly so: fls. 
large, solitary, Tery long-stalked. S. W. Eu. 

T«ma, Linn. iAUine vima, Bartl.). Dwarf: 1-3 in. 
high: Its. linear- snba late. Bat, strongly S-nerred, erect: 
Bs. on BljForm peduncles, with strongly 3 -nerved sepals. 
En. and Hocky Mts. - Eicellent litUe rock plant. Var, 
ewapltAu, Hort.. Is a compact, leafy form. 

MuletU, Wats. Sis. 4-0 In. high : Its. stilt and sharp, 

plancous, fas.   - •- - "  

Int. 1889. 

FrinUinil. Dougl. Sts. 3-6 In. high, nearly or quite 
glabroQ!! : Irs. In 3-6 pairs, narrow- subulate, shup- 
painted : Hs. In dense cymes at the top of the st. W. 
""■ ""■'»"■ L.H.B. 

ABiSOA (derivation doubtful). PalmAcea, tribe 
Sritea. Spineless palms, with the thick caudci clothed 
above with dead, Qbrous leaf-sheaths, at length bearing 
rigorous shoots. Lvs. terminal, elongated, unequally 
pinoatiaect, the linear or euneate somewhat petiolate seg- 
ments pmmorse or obliquely divided at the apei ; mid- 
veins prominent i nerves parallel ; margins Irregularly 
toothed atKiTotbe middle, recurved at the base and one or 
the other of them auricled. pale below: petiole plano-con- 
vex, with the margin spiny : sheaths short, reliculste- 
tlbrons, the margin crenate : spadlx large, with short 
reHexed peduncle and elongated, slender, pendnlous 
branches ; spathes numerous, attached to the peduncle, 
membranaceona, deciduous : bracts and braotlets broad : 
fls. brown or brownish green or purplish; (r. yellow, 
fleshy. Species 6. Trop, Asia, Malay Archipelago, New 
Guinea, and Trop. Austral. j^bed G. Smith. 

Armga taeekariltra , In a young state, Is sarpossed In 
beaoty by n - --  - *■- - ..... 



ABOEHONE 



93 



old, b 



w their  



s we]], s 



that period till they begin to Qower (which they do from 
the top of the stem downwards in the aillsot the leaves), 
they are among the most striking subjects for high and 
roomy conserTatoriea. The temperature should not be 
allowed to fall below 55° F. during the coldent weathpr. 

6. W. OUVER. 



oModUtU, Blart. Trank20-3« ft.high, 1-lKft.thlck: 
fronds 9-13, 12-16 ft. long : petiole thickly spiny : seg- 
ments INin. Hurt, 2-3 ft. long, IK^ in. wide, alternate. 
lanceolate-linear, unequally acutely dentate, attenuate, 
2-aurlcled at the base, the lower auricle the larger, 
glaucous beneath ; branches of the spadli short, lax, 
nodding. Java. 

uooharllera, Lablll. Trunk 40 ft. high : petioles 
smooth : segment.i fasciculate, in 4's or 6's, llnear-ensl- 
form, 1- or 2-auricled at the base, the lower auricle the 



J A BID 6. SlUTH. 

ASBTSOBA (the nymph Aretlmta). OreMdieta. 
A few species of handsome terrestrial orchids. Pi. rap- 
ing, the sepals and petals lanceolate and nearly alike, 
arching over the column. 



erect scape, the Up recurred and bearded. 1 
Car.,N.andW.; not common. May, June. Mn. 5:141. 
O.W.P. IT. — Reqnires a moist and shady, cool situation 
and open, parous soil. A shady nook on north slope of 
rockery, where it can be watered In dry weather, is an 
Ideal place. Prop, by the solid bulbs. 

J. B. KKU.EB. 

ASSTIA. See Dowi/Iaiia. 

ABOEKOHB (fanciful name). Papavtrieta. Aboe- 
HONV. A few AineHcan plants, mostly herbs, with prickly 
sepals and pods. 3-6-lobed stigma, coarse often white- 
spotted foliage, and yellow Juioe. Annuals, or cult, aa 
annuals. Easy to manage from seeds sown where the 
plants are to stand, or transplanted from pots. They 
need a light soil and full sunny exposure. Monogr. by 
Prein, Joum. Bot. 33: 207 et seq. 

A. Fli.f/elloicaryelloiiiiak. 

Xezieknk, Linn. (A.tpteiiia. Hart.). Pricklt Poppy. 
Fig. 1.%. A moderately prickly -stemmed herb, 1-2 tt 
high, sprawling, glaucous : lvs. coarsely slnuate-pln- 



it often purple. W. Amer. 



136. JLttte 

natiSd : fls. seasile or nearly so. the petals obovate and 
an inch or less long, orange or lemon -colored. Trop. 
Amer., but nalurallied In E. and S. states and In the 
Old World. B,M. 213. 

Var. oohrolaboa, Lindl. Petals yellowish white, and 
style longer. Tei. B.R. 1313. 



94 ABOEHONE 

AA. Fli.vhite (rartlji ptirjiU], 
ffnndlllAn, Sweet. Olnbroua aod gUacoug, 1-3 ft. 
hl^.dmostdestitDleof prickles: Iva. Blniute-piiiit*til)d, 
the lobes only weekly 8plae«ceiit : bnteta icattered along 
the fl. branches: c*paulB v»iTP8 scarcely crested. S.W. 
Uei. B.R. 1261. L. B.C. IB: IMS. B.H. 3073. 
ciTBi, Link i 

1. kUucous i . , . _. . , .... 

bneta aggregited beluw the fla, : petals large (rarely 
parplej; capsule valves crested or sploy. Mei. to Colo, 
Var. Ujplda, Praln. (A. Afipida. Oray). Petals 
rounded ; sepals and capsule densely prickly : plant 
hispid. Wyo. and Ark,,W. and 8. L. H. B. 

ASOTBtIA [liivrrg, referring to the under side of 
the lvs.|. CoHfolinilitrn. Tender climbers from the 
orient, allied lo IpomcEa. Lva. uaually laree, silvery, 
lomentoae or villous beneath : cymes usually few-fld. 
They require too much room before flowering to be popu- 
lar here. A.cHneata is one of the dwarf est and most florif- 
erousklDds. Light, rich soil. Prop. bycnCtlngsoraeeda. 

tilfaUIU. Wight. Lva. heart-shaped : fls. white and 
violet. Prop, from seeds. E. Ind.-Int. 1S90 by Pel«r 
HendenoD ft Co. 

ABIA. See 5orbu>. 

ABIbAiU (Qreekmade name, of no partlenlar aig' 
nlfleanee). Ardiden. AboutSO widely distributed herbs, 
With tuberons rootn. and a apathe rolled In or convolute 
■bout the spadli below, and often arched over it : fla. 
unlseiual. the plHtillate on the lower part of the spadiz, 
and each consisting of a 1-loculed ovary, and generally 
ripening Into a showy berry. Some species are native, 
Bud several of them are hardy In the open ; others are 
cult, undercover, as recommended for Amm (which see). 
HonogT. by Engter In De Candolle's Monographln Pha- 
nerogamamm. Vol. 2. 

A. LeaHtU 7-11. 

Dne6ntiiiin, Schott. Dragok-boot. Sending up a 
aolltary leaf 1-2 ft. high, pedately divided into oblong- 



137. J*ek-la-tfaB-PuI|.K, Aiinema tricbyUum (X %). 

lanceolate pointed Ifts.: spadiz loDg-pOinted and pro- 
jecting beyond the greenlah spathe : scape much shorter 
than the leaf. Low grounds tn E. Amer.— Occasionallj 
grown In borders and rockwork. 



AA. Ltaflet* S. 

triphfllsm, Torr. JACE-iN-TBs-Pinj>iT. Imiiiak Tub- 

HIP. rig. 137. Usually dioecious : lva. usually 2, with 

Dvate or elUptlc-ovate Ifts.: apadii club^baped and 




covered by the arching purplish spathe. Common In 
woods. O.W.F.SS. D. 2Bl.-Taberorcorinflattishand 
large, very acrid, often employed as a domestic remedy. 
Berries red and showy, ripening in early summer. 
Planted in a moist, shady place, tbe Ivs. remain nntit 
fall ; but In exposed places they die down early in sum- 
mer. This and the last are very interesting native 
plants of easy culture, propagated by tubers and by 

SmbrUtoni, Masters. Prinobd Cai.i.a. Leaf solitary, 
the petiole a ft. or less high, sheathed below ; Ifts. broad- 
ovate and acuminate, short-stalked ; scape as long as 
the petiole, bearing a large, purple-limbed, white- 
atreaked, long-pointed spathe ; spadii ending In a long 
and gracefully drooping, feather-like appendage. E. 
Ind. 0.0.11.22:689; 111.15:763. B.U. Tl»l. Mn.B:59. 
—A handsome and striking pot-plant, blooming in sum- 
mer. Grow in rich soil. Dry off the tnlier when the Ivs. 
turn yellow after flowering, and keep dry in Band or 
earth until spring. 

Other specln are: A. on^molum, Hemil. Lfti.S, broad-ovate, 
acuminate: ipsthe amall. parpliah and str^ihed, archinji over 
the short ipadli ! incEestg A. tripbrllnm. MaUeea. B.U.TZll, 
— J.ccmeCnnum.Scbott. Leaf solilary, with ID or more Ifts.: 
■path* eolorad. tailed. India. B.M.SBU.-A.eumUum. Hook. 
—  '-^ -j1. soi<d(um, N. K. Br. Leaf soUtarr, ■'" " 



iftt. 



spatha mnile Inside. ^ndU, B.M.Oi&T.— A. Ort/rirkti. 
tt. Lvi.S.lfU.a.nearlT orbicular: spathe verr Urie. with 
■eadlngar' — .-..'-..■*'-.. . .__..->—-. __._,_.. 



H broad, and rich 



-k purple,; 



id wriokladlimb B 

li Ereea veins, India, lt,ii,iHUi, (tneor tue nanil- 

til Arluraau.—A.ntpfnt/uAdtt.'MoH^ Leaf pedate, 

irrowlfls,: spalbeanrirlHl. India, B.X.6Ue.—A.Hngnu, 

t, Lftfl, 3. ovate. acuminate: apathe piiri>le, arched, Japan, 

.pi hatdy in Ibe open. On,3T,p,G77,-A, BUboUii. De 

—  rlngens,— A.»p«(4«HB,Mort. Lftt. 3 : spaths laroe 

^ ' IDE, atrliv-like tip. 

, U81 (sa A. 
ile iru.: spathe 

L^ soUIar;, pedsle. 
tith : spadii ilender. 
rinoens, pmbabL; all 
N. L. H. B. 






ally I. with Hversl ormsny iru,! spathe pnrple outside 
dU longlalled but erectlah, |reenlah, India, B.H,U81 

red d hh, 2T««n, ribbed : spadix purple : 
iDlndis. B.a.MH.—A.WTiMi.iiemtl 



the above ipedes i«qnlre pat cu 

AHISASim (old Greek name). Ardidea. Three or 
four variable species of Arum-like plants of the Medi- 
terranean region. Differs from Arisnma, its nearest 
ally, in having the margins of the spathe connate rather 
than convolute, and In other technical characters. For 
culture, 1 '  " ' 



ARISTOLOCHIA 



95 



vilfin, Tarfc. {Arum ilntdmrn, Linn.). A. foot 
higb : Its. cordkte or somewhM hutate, long-Btalked ; 
■pathe purple, Incurred itt the top.— Bu mmj tornlB 






. Cm be grown u 



IS open mth pro- 



AKIflTOLdCEIA (uiiroed for soppoted medicliiftl vlr- 
tnes). AriMtolockiica*. Bibtbwobt. Hany apeoiei of 
tropical and temperate regloui, 
remarkable for the very odd- 
■baped Bb. Tfae coralla is want- 
Ing, bat the calyi is corolla like, 
tubular, Tarlously bpnl, and CDm- 
monly tumid above the ovary ; 
itamFDS eommonl; D, short and 
adaate to the style IPI^. 140). 
Mostly woody twiners, the grat- 
er part of them known 1o cult, 
only la warm glass-faouaes. Uany 
species are eTergreen. The fen- 
der species are cult, for Tbe strik- 
ingly Irregnlar and grotesque fl>. 
MonogT. by Duchartre In Dt- 
Caudolle'e Prodromns, Vol. IS, 
Parti {18M). L. H. B. 




il Dutcbmaa's Pip*. AilatokicbU macnphylla. 

Showlni the Dvary at a, 
welUnc of tbe ealn-tub* at b. Natural sUs. 



at the top : fls. terminal, solitary, S-shaped, much en- 
larged above the ovary, greenish. E. states.— Occasion- 
ally cult. Roots nsed in medioine. Repulsd remedy tOT 
snake bites. 

OlenuitltU, Linn. Two ft. or less tall, glabrous ; Ivs. 
renlform- pointed, dilate on the margins : Bs. ailllary 
and clustered, straight, greenish. £u. — Barely cult., 
and aeaaslonally escaped. 

AA. Woody, twining. 
B. Cultivattd in tht optn, 

macrophjllft, Lam. (A. Sipho, L'Her). DtTTCBMAN's 
PiPI. FlgB. OS, 139, 110. Very tall, twining, glabrous : 
Iva. very large, broadly reniform or rounded, becomlug 
glabroUD : da. solitary or 2 or ;i together In tbe axils, 
U-shaped, enlarged above the ovary, with a 3-lobed, 
spreaUlDgUmb, purplish. £. states. B.M. 634. Q.W.P. 
43. Gng.l:53. G.P. 6:609 (habit). -An eicellent vine 
for porches, the great Iva. affording a dense shade. 

tomentAu, Sims. Much like the last, but very tomes- 
tose : tvs; leaa rounded : fl. yellow, with refleied lobea. 
N. Car. to Ho. and 8. B.M. 1369. 

CaliUmlM, Torr. Silky pubescent, &-10 ft. : Irs. ovate- 
cordate, 2-i in. long, obtuse or acutish, short-petioled : 
Os. U-shaped, little contracted at tbe throat, the limb 
2-lobed, with the upper lip of 2 broad, oblnae lobes and 
a thickening on the inner side. Catlf. 



BB. Gretnhffuie 

, Flowtr-limb ol 
rldleulft, N. E. Br. Very sleude 



irm hov 



B lobii 



Bnull. 



, stlfl-halry through- 
out ; Iva. round -reniform, cordate : fls. axillary and 
aolltary, 2 in. long aside from the Umh, with a long aae 
at the base of the tube, pale yellow with dull pnrple 
Teining ; Umh of two spreiMliug, defleied, ni - - ' ' 
glandular, reminding one of donkeys' ea 
B.H. 6934. Q.C. II. 26:361. 

cc. FlBver-limi amplt and flowing. 
BJiUbllera, Hart. & Zuec. {A. labiAta, Sims). Gla- 
brous : at. striate : Ivs. reniform, obtnseand deeply cat 
atthehaae, pedalely 7-9-nerved, long-stalked: fls. loDg- 
stalked, B-10 In, long, strongly 2-llpped ; the upper lip 
short and laneeolaM, acute or acuminate ; the lower lip 
(which, by position o( fl. may seem tobethenpper) very 
large, dilated at base, and produced Into a long, boat- 



ardy climbing vine 
for shade or screen purposes. No Insects or other trou- 
bles aeem to mar Its deep green foUa^, for which It Is 
most v^ned, as the fls. are small, siphon- shaped, and 
inconsplououB, In early spring soon after the Its. are 
formed. There are many tropical Arlstolochlas, tbe fls. 
of some of them being of eitrsordlnary si"" "' — ' 



It they 



It of tl 



>lBSt 



>r being so suggestive of putridity 
as to make Its proximity apparent to all, and*eTen to 
dscelre the flies aa to Its origin. One of tbe most gi- 
gantic varieties Is A , granditlora, var. Stiirtevanlii. 
Another fine species is A. Qolditana ; but the best of 
the tropical kinds for general culture In glass structures 
Is A. tUgant, as It la very easily raised from home- 
grown seeds, flowera the Brst year. Is very decorative 
as a climber, and has no odor. We And It very easy of 
culture In rich soil, and it is evergreen, as, Indeed, are 
tnnstof the tropical kinds. The Arlstolochlas are of easy 
culture, requiring only good loam and careful attention 
to keep them thrifty and tree of iDBeets. They can be 
trained on trellises, pillars, or rafters. Host of them 
require a rather warm temperature, but If In pots Ihey 
may be flowered In the conservatory. The large-growing 
species require much room, and do not bloom, as a mle, 
until they are several feet high. Prop, readily by cnt- 
ilngs In a frame. Except as oddities, most of tbe Arlsto- 
lochlas are of little value. 



, Btrb 



Cult, by E.O. Orpit. 
I, not tlimbing. 
iBoiKiA Snakeroot. Height 3 
with short rootstocks and aro- 
o lanceolate, cordate, acuminate 



I. I.ODElludliuil aactloo 



96 ARISTOU)CHIA 

llm>ed («b«tiee the ni,rae, from tj/mba, a boat) nioallr 
2-lobed proJeetloD ; fl. creun; while, marked mnd 
blotched witb muoon. Braill. B.H. 2M5. P.M. ti:63 
as A . hiiperbdrea. Pail. 

BrMlUintU, Mart.ftZQ<M.[^.Drtiiaoc^j)haIa. Book.]. 
Qlabrous: Ivb. cordate-renlform, obtnBc, with deep ainua 
at base : peJnnole S-IO In. long, I-fli.: fl. very laree, 
dingy yellow, wltb marks and retlculstlons of porplfl, 
the limb strongly flipped ; upper Up 6 In. loDg:. Itn- 
ceolatr-aeuminate, projecting^ from tha Inflated head- 
like lube like the long beak of a bird, hairy vlthln ; 
lower Up OQ a stalk 2 In. long, tben expanding Into  
Battened, wavy, beaQtitnllT' marked limb t-6 In. aeroas. 
Braill. B.H. 4120. Gn. 
49, p. 2B9.— A most odd 
and interesting apeelei. 
not infrequent In fine 
eatabllsbmentB. 

KTaiidUUi«, Swarta 
(A.e\eaa, Llndl,). P»l^ 

IC<N - FLOWEB. GOOBS- 

Fi^wiR. Plg.Ul.Downr 
climbing shrub : Ivs. 

dunelea opposite a leaf, 
ate, exceeding the petiole,!- 
tbe fl.-bud la "bent like a >i| 
la the tube, so as to rese: 
the body and neck of a I 
while tba limb, in that ■' 
resembles the bead and I 
thrown back upon the bod 
a pelican when that bird 
rest, whence the name' (H 
In B.M. vol. 71J : the Kreal 
panded cordate-OTaf- •'— ■- 



and Blender eiliab 
icenteil. W. Ind., Cent, ai 
Amer. R.M. 4:iSB-<). B.R. 2: 
F.S. irSWl-a. G.F. 3:S' 
A.P. 10:157. G.C. III. IS 
ang.3;23. Ua.60:ST8. V 
son, Is the form chiefly ki 
large-fld., and with ataU '■ 
Doohartre (A. giganlia, 
odorona, with a short-talli 

Ooldie&na, Hook. Glabrc 
triangular-cordate, sRumln 
He. very large, greenish o 
and blotched inilde, the 
stralghtish and 8 in. long, 
bent over and a foot Iodi 
spreading limb a foot or 
tinctly 3-lobed.eacb lobe b 

sumens 24. W. Afr. B.J_. .__. , 

21:337. Q.M. IB90:2S6. 

ilegrant. Masters. Slender, glabroas, tbe fle. borne on 
the pendulous young wood r Ivs. long-atalked, renlform- 
eordate, 2-3 In. across, with wide sinns and rounded ba- 
sal lobes, the tip obtuse: fls. solitary, long-stalked, tbe 
tube yellow-green, 1% in. long, the Itmb cordate-circu- 
lar. 3 in. across, pnrple and white blotched, white on the 
eiterlor, the eye yellow r not strong- smelling. Brai. 
G.C. II. 24:301; 111.22:123. B.M. 6909.-A smsU-fld. 
and graceful, tree-blooming species. 

A.alHiiima.JMtt. F1«. Zin. or less Ions, hrowolih. Slclli 
and Algeria. Wonld pmbablj be hardy with pntectlon Id the 

dale : fls. XDiBll. i-a' In. long, with a lan'i-poliited limb. N'ew 

GranailA. B.U. t3S1, V,&. <:iU.—A. barbAta.ltai, ' '- 

I J ___j... . (ij.ji^in., pnrpla. " '- "" 



TBriable: fli.solltaTT. tomantAse.w 

■ids. purple indde. Jap. Prabably 

OKUute. Uaaters Lvi. ovate and l 

wtth porple marklncs. with a lar|e 

throat, with do enianded limb bat a verj lone 

nr- III '■'«', -ITlanaimia, "^ " — 



lomrtOiia, ( 

from a woodr nwtstoel ; In. thick. UnBu-.taaoeolsle : 

U-ihaped. Willi a 2-labed piuula limb 2X in. acroM. Hone 




rim (BU|3|flatiii0 t 
Pipe), nd. India. 
Sdipita, U^Bt«n, Livs, ovsie-fan- 
eeolaM : fl*. small, with a trumpe^ 
■haped. umewhat 2-llpnd month, 
p(UT>ll>b. ParBfoaT. Q.O. 11.28: 
497.— A. IrieaiuHla. Lem. Lvs. ob- 
lona  ac-amluBls. mcose. eiliate : 
lis. purple, with 3 Ions tails. Hex. 
LH. 14; SB. R.B. !0; ST. B.U. MMT. 
-A. mgiM/dUa. Blasters. ' 



teddlih. idih a clUate. toniDe-lIke 
Up. BoniH. U.0. 11.14:117. B.H. 
74H.-J.irMMandH.HemiteT. Lvs. 
oblong - lanceolate :  -— -^^ — 



limbs'orlbLaer 



able SI 



Trees and shrubs hum 
ere, allied to Elnocarpua. 
, entire or toothed : fls. 
-f,, valvate: petals of the 
IS sniall, edible. 



no part of Ariiona. with the ei- 
snal areas of a few acres in extent 
italns. Is there suffletent raintall to 
al plants without irrigation. The 
I available for irrigation on an ei- 
:onflned to the southern half of the 
northern Arizona is drained by the 
id Its tributaries, but here the river 
I of a deep cnuon, and is practically 
ippUcatlnn to horticulture. All of 
very limited poBaibilllles from a 
I Buindpoint. the Bow of the few avall- 
) being small and very nncertain. On 



intaln i 



Lvn. 






uela. B.H.SSm.— 

""  ,. BDd A. 

fc Andr«. 



DjicHrtrfi. Andr*-A. 
dilate. Bra!. B.M. 3' 



vatlon varying from flve thousand to eight thousand 
feet, are Isolated areas of limited extent where crops of 
great variety are grown without irrlgallon. Although 
these areas are ullllied largely for growing hay, grain 
and hardy vegetables, some of the best flavored and 
choicest apples, peaches and small fruit grown in the 
territory are from these mountain "garden patches. ' 
The mountains at every side temper the climate, offer 
protection from winds, and make Ihtm almost Ideal 
locsiitiea forthe growing of a great variety of deciduous 
and small fruits, as well as many sorts of vegetables. 
Although these Isolated, restricted areas are worthy of 
consideration, It la only In the valleys of southern Ari- 
zona having rivers of considerable sise and regularity 
in their flow that large areas of land are ivailahte for 
cultivation. The shaded areas on the map (Pig. 142) 
show the leading horiloultural areas tbns far developed. 
One cannot get an adequate conception of the prob- 
lems confronting the horticulturist in this region with- 
out flrst carefully considering the meteorological condi- 
tions of thip. tbe most arid, the most desert-like part 
of the United States. At Phoenix and Yuma, two repre- 



ARIZONA 



ARIZONA 



97 



aentatlTe localities of southern Arizona, haTlnsr the 
greatest horticultural possibilities, the average yearly 
rainfall is only 7 inches for the former and 3 for the 
latter. In general, the precipitation is during two dis- 
tinct seasons. The heaviest, or summer rains, begin 
aJ>out the first of July and increase in frequency until 
August, the month of greatest precipitation during the 
year. The winter rains are at their maximum in Decem- 
ber. With the exception of infrequent intervals during 
the rainy season, dews are unknown and fogs are of rare 
occurrence. On the other hand, from experiments con- 
ducted at Tucson, the evaporation is about 78 inches per 
year, reaching the maximum of 11 to nearly 13 inches 
during the month of June. 

At Phoenix the mean temperature may range from 32.2^ 
to66®F. in Jan. It steadily increases till July,when it may 
range from 72® to 107**. It then steadily declines until 
the next Jan. The corresponding ranges at Yuma are 
420-65** for Jan., and 77® to 106® for July. The variation 




142« Aiisona. 

The shaded parts show hortlcaltnral seetions. 

There is also a hortieultoral section about Yuma. 

in temperature from day to night is frequently, in sum- 
mer, from 25® to 40®F., while in winter it is even greater. 
The annual range, however, is not so great as it is in the 
northern states. 

The intense heat and dryness of the atmosphere, with 
eontinuous sunshine and frequent scorching winds, not 
only draw the moisture in wonderful rapidity from irri- 
tated fields, but the foliage of cultivated plants, save 
those with firm leaves, protected by thick epidermis, are 
overtaxed at times, and not infrequently the leaves 
wither and bum, even when the roots of the plants are 
well supplied with water. In some instances the differ- 
ence of a few days in time of irrigating makes or loses 
the crop. At times, flooding at midday is disastrous, 
destroying the planta as effectually as if swept by fire. 
The temperature of water in irrigating ditches in mid- 
summer often ranges from 85® to 92®F. 

The rivers of Arizona draw their moisture from the 
wooded mountains, but as these mountains are snow- 
eovered only during winter and early spring, as the sum- 
mer advances their supply gradually becomes less and 
less until the beginning of the rainy season. Conse- 
quently the cultivation of ail crops must lead toward 
great economy in the use of water during the months of 
May and June. All crops sown broadcast or in narrow 
drills are irrigated by flooding, while onshards,vineyards 



and crops grown in rows are usually irrigated by running 
the water through furrows. In either system it is impera- 
tive that the land be graded and thoroughly worked, in 
order to attain the best results in the distribution of water. 
The desert lands of Arizona, in their virgin state, are 
seldom suited for orchards, vineyards, gardening, etc. 
It is expedient to grow alfalfa for a few years before at- 
tempting to produce horticultural crops. Usually the 
virgin soil is deficient in humus and nitrogen, constitu- 
ents which are most economically supplied by growing 
alfalfa. Many orchards and vineyards have failed in 
Arizona on account of being planted on virgin soil. 

Market-gardening in Arizona is largely in the hands 
of the Chinese, who practice high culture, and keep their 
lands in a continual succession of crops. Cabbage and 
cauliflower must be grown as winter crops. For years 
it was thought that com could not be successfully grown 
in southern Arizona. When planted in the spring, the 
excessive heat and dryness of June renders the pollen 
impotent, and a well-developed cob bearing a few scat- 
tered kernels of com is the result. Experience has re- 
cently taught that most excellent, well flUed com may be 
grown, if planted in July and pollenized at the end of 
the rainy season. 

Artificial fertilizers are seldom used in Arizona. In 
preparing the soil for nearly all vegetables, both in ama- 
teur and commercial methods of culture, it is thrown 
into high ridges and the seed sown in hills or drills on 
either side of the ridge a few inches below the summit. 
In irrigating, the water is run between the ridges, so that 
it reaches the hills or drills without covering them, and 
is allowed to run for a greater or less length of time, de- 
pending upon the ability of the soil to take water. In 
many of the heavier adobe soils it is necessary, when 
planting melon and many other seeds, to cover them with 
sand. If the adobe soil of the field is used as a cover, it 
bakes so hard that the germinating seeds are unable to 
make their way to the surface. Beets, and occasionally 
other vegetables, when planted on an extended scale, are 
sown in drills without ridging the soil. After planting, 
furrows are made between the rows in which to run the 
water, it being imperative that the water be not allowed 
to break through the furrows and flood the crop. 

In fruit-culture, the Important principle is practically 
the same for all fruit, it being essential to fill the ground 
with water during the winter season, when the ditches 
are running full, and by thorough tillage during spring 
and early summer to retain the moisture, to fortify the 
plants ag^nst the lack of water in May and June. 
Orchards and vineyards may be flooded several times 
during the winter, or^he same or better results may be 
obtained by making furrows at a distance of every 4 to 
6 feet throughout the orchard, and running a subsoil plow 
in the furrows to loosen and break up the soil to consider- 
able depth. When so prepared, the soil will take water 
with great avidity, and if the process be repeated two or 
three times during the winter, water requirod for subse- 
quent culture will be much lessened. 

In orchards and vineyards, frequent irrig^ation with 
little water is expensive and results are unsatisfac- 
tory. The g^und should be thoroughly wet through- 
out, even between the rows, and as soon as practicable 
after irrigating, tilled and later leveled by using a 
fine-toothed harrow. This process will leave a mulch of 
loose earth a few inches in thickness over the moist soil, 
and assist greatly in retention of moisture. When neces- 
sary to improve the condition of the soil by adding plant 
food, it is most economically and satisfactorily accom- 
plished by green -manuring, growing the crop during the 
fall and winter and turning it under in the spring. 

Great variation in temperature during February and 
March is very disa.strous to successful fruit and nut cul- 
ture in southern Arizona. Almonds begin to bloom in 
February, and are followed In succession by apricots and 
peaches, all of which are likely to be injured by spring 
frosts. 

In humid regions, methods of pruning tend toward 
thinning out the center of the tree, so that the sun may 
reach the fruit spurs within. In Arizona fruit trees are 
usually headed low, in order that the trunk be shaded. 
Deciduous trees are usually cut back annually, throwing 
the fruit spurs toward the center of the tree, that as 
much as possible of the developing fruit be shaded by 



98 



ARIZONA 



ARKANSAS 



the foliage. Citrous, olive and fig trees are rarely if ever 
pruned, and grapes are usually cut baek to two or three 
buds. Among small fruits, strawberries, although pro- 
ducing the larger part of their crop during AprU or 
May, ripen fruit every month of the vear. 

The following is a brief list of the best and most prof* 
itable commercial varieties of the more important fruits 
and nuts grown in the irrigated regions. The list is 
compiled from the answers to a oiroular letter sent to 
60 of the largest fruit-growers in southern Arizona : 

^<iiM»uto.— Ke Plus Ultra, IXL. 

Applet, early.— Early Harvest, Early Strawbeny. Red Astra- 

ehan. 
Applet, late.— White Peannain, Ben Davis. 
Aprieott, early.— Bennet's Early. New Castle. Peach, Prlngle. 
Aprieott, late.— Moorpark, Royal> Smith's Triumph, St. Am- 

broise. 
J?Ia6i;50rriM.— Lawton*B Early, Crandall's Early, Early Har- 
vest. 
I>0tobtfrrief . — May 's. 
^cipea.— Thompson's Seedless, Sultana Seedless. Rose of Pern, 

Salem, Muscat, Rocers' No. 9. 
Grape FrmC.— Triumph, Walter, Bowin. 
Lemont.—yaitL Franca, Sicily. 
Mulberriet. —Dowrdng, Raasian. 
Olivet.— Mansanlllo, Nevadillo Blanco, Mission. 
OraiH^ef .— Ruby Blood, Jaffa, Parson's Brown, Mediterranean 

Sweet, Bahia (Washington Navel). 
Peaehet, early.— Early Crawford, Parson's Early, Triumph, 

Sneed, Strawberry. 
Peaehet, late.— Globe. Salway, Oldmixon, Heath's Freestone, 

Moir, Deeember Cling. 
Peart, early.— Wilder, Brandywine, Bartlett. 
Peart, late.— Winter Nelis, Pia Berry. 
Ptimw.— Wiekson, Kelsey, Botan White, Royale Hative. 
PlimMirnMMUef.— Ruby, Sweet, Red Papershell(t), Golden. 
OwkfkPM.— Champion, Portncal, Orange. 
i9(mi0^err(e«.— Ariaona Everbearing. 

J. W. TOUMKT. 

ABKAV8A8. The horticultural products of Arkansas 
are varied, owing to the great differences of climate, 
elevation and soil. The seasons in the southern part of 
the state are about three weeks earlier than in the north* 
em. There is much variation between nearby points. 
In the western part of the state, owing to the differ- 
ence in altitude, within a distance of 60 miles there is 
from a week to 10 days difference in the seasons. This 
admits of a great diversity of fruit and vegetable pro- 
duction within the limits of the state. 

The northwestern section of the state is noted for its 
flue apples, and they are grown eztensivelv for market. 
This section has also produced a number of seedling ap- 
ples that are being largely planted there as well as else- 
where. There are several of these new apples, and 
others of value are constantly coming into notice. A 
few of those of special value are Arkansas, Oliver, Col- 
lins, and Givens. It is probable that some of these new 
apples will become standard varieties, for In addition to 
being productive they are good keepers. Winter apples 
are not grown so extensively in other sections of the 
state, but summer and fall varieties are grown to some 
extent in all sections. 

Peaches are grown for market along the lines of rail- 
road in the western section of the state, and the acreage 
is being largely increased each year. For marketable 
purposes the Elberta is grown almost exclusively, and 
is shipped in oar lots to the northern markets. The 
earlier varieties have not proved profitable for ship- 
ping purposes. Peaches are grown for home market 
throughout the state. Strawberry-growing is an impor- 
tant industry in western Arkansas, and is curled on to 
some extent in many localities in the eastern and south- 
ern parts, where they are grown in small quantities for 
shipment. The acreage around some of the shipping 
points in the western part is large, reaching about three 
thousand acres at one point. The varieties grown most 
extensively are Michel and Crescent. Owing to the 
strict laws against the selling of wine in the state, grape- 
growing is not carried on to any great extent. On the 
elevated sections the table and wine grapes succeed 
well, and in some localities table grapes are grown for 
shipment. The Scuppemong succeeds in south Arkan- 
sas. Pears are grown in some sections for market, but 
not to any great extent, owing to the prevalence of pear 
blight, while blackberries and raspberries are grown for 
the home market in most sections. Cherries are grown 



only for the home market, the Morello type alone being 
successful. 

In order to describe more accurately the horticultural 
condition of the state, we have divided it into four sec- 
tions, in the order of their present development and their 
natural adaptability to horticultural productions (Pig. 
143). Section 1, located in the northwestern part of the 




143. The horticultural 



state, is a mountainous country, fairly well developed, 
and is adapted to all classes of horticulture. Section 2, 
located south of section 1, is partly mountainous and 
partly low land and, from a horticultural standpoint, is 
not so well developed as section I, while in sections 3 
and 4, located in the extreme southern and eastern parts 
of the state, horticulture has received little attention. 

Sbotion 1.— The elevation of this section ranges from 
800 to 2,000 feet, the greater portion being about 1,200 
feet. The country is mostly uneven, and parts of it are 
somewhat mountainous. The Osark Mountain system 
enters the state from the northwest, while the Boston 
Mountains, a range of this system, extend across the 
section just north of and parallel with its southern 
boundary. Fruit and vegetables are grown for shipping 
along the lines of railroad in the western part. The re- 
mainder of this section, although remote from railroads, 
is well adapted to fruit-growing, and with transportation 
facilities it promises to be equidly productive. The apple 
leads as a fruit product. In 1897, there were shipped 
from the western part, principally from two counties, 
over 2,000 cars of apples. 

Section 2. — The elevation of this section ranges from 
300 to 2,820 feet, the greater part of it, however, ranging 
from 300 to 800 feet. Most of this section consists of 
rough land. Strawberries are grown for shipment, prin- 
cip^ly ia the western part. The berries ripen early in 
this locality, and the growers usually begin shipping 
the latter part of April. At a few points, peaches are 
extensively grown for shipment. Plums, blackberries, 
raspberries and summer apples are grown to some 
extent In idl localities, while winter apples are success- 
fully grown on the higher land. Here, vegetable-grow- 
ing for the northern markets is receiving much atten- 
tion. Such crops as beans, peas, tomatoes and canta- 
loupes are extensively gprown in some localities along 
the railroads. The area in cantaloupes reaches nearly 
1,000 acres at some of the shipping points. These crops 
can be grown early enough to bring good prices in the 
markets of the north, and are shipped In ear lots. 

SscTiON 3.— This section is mostly low, but the land 
is uneven, and much of it is adapted to fruits and vege- 
tables. It ranges in elevation from 140 to 360 feet. 
Peaches and summer apples succeed on the higher land, 
and are g^rown to some extent in all localities. Vege- 
tables can also be successfully grown, but little atten- 
tion has been given to these lines of farming here. 
Strawberries are grown only for home market. 



ARKANSAS 



ABOlDEiE 



99 



Sbotion 4. — This section comprises the low lands of 
the eastern part of the state. It ranges in elevation 
from 130 to 350 feet, and the lard is low and flat » with the 
exception of a ridge a few miles wide running through 
it north and south. But little fruit is g^own in this 
section for commercial purposes ; however, fruits could 
be grown successfully for market in some parts of 
it, and early vegetables are now grown for market at 
several points. john T. Stinson. 

ABMEVtACA. See under Prunua, 

AXMlEBIA (an old Latin name). Plumhagindeeat. 
Sea Pink. Thrift. Small perennial herbs, with rosettes 
of narrow evergreen Ivs. on the ground, sending up 
a naked simple scape 2-12 in. high, on which is borne a 
compact head of pink, lilac or white fls., the head being 
subtended bv small bracts, forming a kind of involucre. 
Species much confused. They are excellent for borders, 
especially where a low edging is wanted; also for rock- 
work. They are of easiest culture, being hardy and free 
growers. Prop, by division of the stools; also by seeds. 
See Boissier, bi DeCandolle's Prodromus, vol. 12. 

A. Calyx-tube pilose all over, 

marftima, WiUd. Lvs. linear, 1-nerved, somewhat ob- 
tuse, glabrous or slightly ciliate : scape low, somewhat 
villose ; calyx-tube about the length of the pedicel, the 
limb nearlv equal to the tube, with very short ovate and 
aristate lobes. Eu. and Amer., along the sea coast.— 
The A . vulgdris of horticulturists seems to belong here. 
A.Lauehedna, Hort., with very bright rose-colored fls., 
is a form of it. Yar. dlba, Hort., has white fls. Also a 
white-lvd. form. A, argintea, Hort., is perhaps another 
form, with small white fls. 

SiMxioa, Turcz. Lvs. linear, 1-nerved, obtuse, gla- 
brous : scape rather taller, thicker ; calyx-tube longer 
than pedicel, the limb about length of tube, with tri- 
angular, short-mucronate lobes : involucre brown : fls. 
white. Siberia. 

jtooea, Girard {A, setAcea, Delile). Outer Ivs. of 
Tosette narrow-linear and subdentate, the inner ones 
longer and filiform: head small, with pale involucre, the 
pedicel much shorter than the calyx-tube : calyx-limb 
short, the lobes ovate-obtuse and aristate: fls. pink. Eu. 

AA. Calyx-tube glabrous, or pilose only on the ridges. 

B. Lvs. elliptic-lanceolate or broader. 

latildUa, Willd. {A. cephalbtes. Link & Hoffm., not 
Hook.). Glabrous and glaucous: lvs. broad-oblong, 5-7- 
nerved, the marg^ remotely denticulate : head large, the 
involucre dry : calyx-limb long, with verv small or no 
lobes and long teeth : fls. bright pink. S. Eu, B.M. 7313. 
P.M. 11:79 (as Statics Pseudo-Armeria),—A, formdsa, 
Hort., probably belongs here. 

Manritioica, Wallr. {A, eephalbtes. Hook., not Link 
& Holfm.). Lvs. broad -spatulate or elliptic-lanceolate, 
3-5 nerved, glaucous-green, the margin scarious-white : 
heads large (2-3 in. across), the involucre brownish, the 
calyx short-toothed and aristate : fls. pink. Eu., Algeria. 
B.M. 4128. 

BB. Lvs, linear-lanceolate or narrower, 

alplaa, Willd. Glabrous : lvs. linear-lanceolate, equal- 
ing the scape, 1-nerved or obscurely 3-nerved : head 
large, the involucre pale brown : pedicels shorter than 
calyx-tube, the tube equaling the oblong long-aristate 
lobes : fls. deep rose. Mts., Eu. 

eUmiNita, Hofftan. Lvs. linear, long, 1-nerved, aeutish: 
involucre white : pedicels as long as calyx -tube, limb 
equaling the tube, and the lobes ovate-ari state : pink. 
Yar. yiuyftr e a , Boiss. {A. purpurea , Koch), has purple 
heads. Central Eu. 

plantaglnaa, Willd. Glabrous : lvs. linear-lanceolate, 
3-7-nerved, acute or acuminate : scape tall : head dense 
and globular, the involucre white : pedicels as long as 
caljrx-tube, the lobes ovate and long-aristate and as long 
as tube ; pink. Central and S. Eu. Yar. leueintha, 
Boiss. {A, diantholdes, Homm. & Spreng.), has white 
flowers. 



argyxoo4phala, Wallr. (A. ttfufu/dto, Boiss.). Gla- 
brous : outer lvs. in rosette, short and lanceolate or 
linear-lanceolate and 3-nerved and often sinuate, the in- 
ner ones linear or setaceous and 1-3-nerved : head large, 
the involucre white : pedicel nearly as long as calyx- 
tube, the calyx-limb with long-triangular aristate lobes ; 
fls. white, showy. Greece, l. h. B. and J. B. Kellkb. 

AKMEKTASTBUM. See Acantholimon, 

ASNATTO. See^txa. 

ABN^BIA (Arabic name). BoraginAeem. Annual or 
perennial hispid herbs, of nearly 20 species in Africa 
and Asia. Lvs. alternate : fls. vellow or violet, in ra- 
cemes or cymes, the color changing with the age of the 
blossom ; corolla slender-tubed, with 5 obtuse lobes. 

echioldes, DC. (Maerotdmia echioldes, Boiss. ) . Proph- 
et -FliOwes. Hardy perennial, 3-12 in. high, short- 
hairy, with spreading, obovate-oblong lvs.: fls. in a 
Bcorpioid raceme or spike, yellow, with purple spots, 
fading to pure yellow. Caucasus, Armenia, etc. B.M. 
4409. G.C. II. 11 : 689. - Blooms in spring. In full sun or 
in rather dry ground, it is difficult to keep this charm- 
ing plant in a healthy condition ; partial shade is essen- 
tial to its welfare. One can grow luxuriant specimens 
on the northern slope of a rockery or close to a build- 
ing on the east or north side. Prop, by seeds, division, 
or by root-cuttings. 

oomtlta, Fisch. & Meyer. Ababian Primbosb. An- 
nual, 2ft., bushy: lvs. lanceolate or linear-oblong, 
pointed : fls. 34 in. across, yellow and black-spotted, 
changing to maroon and then to yellow. Orient. G.C. 
III. 7: 52. J. H. III. 31: 29. A. F. 5: 400. A. G. 44: 181 
(1890).— An attractive and not very common annual, 
easily grown in the open. 

A. Oriffithii, Boiss. Annual : lvs. narrow*oblong, obtuse, dil- 
ate : fls. Ions-tubed, with a black spot In each slniis : 9-12 in. 
India. B.M. 5206.— Not known to be in the American trade. 

L. H. B. and J. B. Keller. 

ABVICA (ancient name). Comp6sitm, Small genus 
of perennial herbs, with clustered root-lvs. and large, 
long-peduncled yellow heads. Native to Eu., Asia, and 
N. Amer.— Tincture of the European .<!. montana Is used 
in medicine. Grown mostly as alpines or in rockwork ; 
some species also grow fairly well in the common bor- 
der. Prop, by division, and rarely by seeds. 

A. Radical lvs. cordate, with slender or winged petioles, 

oordildUa, Hook. Two ft. or less high, hairy : heads 
few or even solitary, with inch-long rays ; involucre ^ 
in. high, pubescent. Bocky Mts. and W. 

latifdlia, Bong. Glabrous or very nearly so, the stem- 
Ivs. not cordate or petioled : heads smaller than in pre- 
ceding. Rocky Mts. and W. 

AA. Radical lvs, not cordate, but petioled. 

an^^toxioatllia, Nutt. Glabrous or nearly so : lvs. ovate 
to lance-oblong, acute, those on the stem clasping and 
dentate : stem leafy to the top. Oregon and N. 

folidia, Nutt. Pubescent : lvs. lanceolate, strongly 
nerved, small -toothed, the upper ones somewhat clasp- 
ing : heads sometimes solitary, short-peduncled : stem 
leafy, strict. Bocky Mts. and W. 

montina, Linn. Mountain Tobaooo. Mountain 
Snuff. A foot high, the stem sparsely hairy : radical 
lvs. oblong-lanceolate, glabrous and entire : heads 3-4, 
large. Eu. B. M. 1749. J. H. III. 34:441.-The best- 
known species in cult.; but none of the Arnicas are 
common in American gardens. l. h. B. 

ABOIDBJB, or ABACUS. Aroids. A large order of 
spathe-bearing, tuberous herbaceous plants, containing 
many of the most highly prized greenhouse plants. The 
culture of Aroids is too diverse to be given in any one 
place. See the leading genera, as Aglaonema , A locasia, 
Anthurium, Ariscema, Arum, Caladium, Colocasia, 
Dieffenbachia, Dracunculus, Helicodieeros^ Homalo- 
mena, Monstera, Philodendron, Michardia, ISchiztnatO' 
glottis, Spathiphyllum, Xanthosoma, etc. 



100 



ARONU 



ARTICHOKE 



• •••, 



• •• • 



• •• • 






ABOHIA* See Sorbtts, A. alnifolia, Nutt. sAine- 
Unchier alnifolia. 

ABFOFHtLLim (Cimiter and leaf), Orehiditceee, 
tribe M/pidindrea. Epiphytes : racemes dense, cylin- 
drical, erect : Ivs. strap-shaped or linear, on Jointed, 
terete stems : fls. small, inverted ; seg:ments concave. 
—Orchids of minor importance. Consult I/pidendrum. 

Srigantdnm, Lindl. Plants robust : sts. about 10 in. 
high : Ivs. coriaceous, strap-shaped ; peduncle stout : 
raceme several in. long ; fls. numerous, pink-purple. 
Mez.— Give plenty of licrht. 

fpie^tmn, Llave et Le-x. Smaller than the above : Ivs. 
linear : fls. paler. B.M. 6022. 

ABBOW-BOOT. An edible starch, obtained from the 
rhizomes of various scitaminaceous plants, as Maranta, 
Curcuma, Tacca, Canna. The West Indian Arrow-root 
is mostly from Maranta arundinaeea, Linn. The Bra- 
zilian is from Manihot utUissimaf Pohl. The East In- 
dian is chiefly from Curcuma angustifolia, Roxbg. Po- 
tato and maize starches are also a source of Arrow-root. 
Arrow-root is also obtained from Manihot. 

ABTABOTBTB {aufpend arapes, alluding to the hang- 
ing fruit). Anondeeie. Ai>out 25 tropical climbing 
Fhrubs, with 3-8epaled a<:d 6-petaled solitary or fascicu- 
late fls., and shining evergreen foliage. 

odoratiuimns, R. Br. Lvs. oblong or lanceolate, 
pointed, thick, dark glossy green : fls. brownish, very 
fragrant : hooks on the peduncles. E. Ind. B.R. 423.— 
Hardy in S. Fla. and S. Cal., and somewhat cult. The 
ylang-ylang perfume is made from the fls. The lvs. are 
used in native medicine. 

ABTEMlSIA { Artemisia f wife of Mausolus). Com- 
p68it(B. A large genus of aromatic herbs and small 
shrubs, mostly in the northern hemisphere, and most 
aoundant in arid regions. Lvs. alternate, often dis- 
sected : heads small and mostly inconspicuous, numer- 
ous, and generally nodding, with yellow or whitish 
florets. In the West, many of the species, particularly 
A, tridentaia, are known as Sage Brush. Grown for 
their medicinal properties or for foliage effects. The 
cult, kinds are perennials, and thrive in the most ordi- 
nary conditions, even in poor and dry soil. Prop, mostly 
by division. For an account of the species, see Besser, 
in DeCandoUe's Prodromus, vol. 6, and Gray, in Synop- 
tical Flora, vol. 1, part 2. 

A. Heads with two kinds of florets (heterogamous). 

B. Disk- fls. with both stamens and pistils, but the 

ovary abortive {not producing seed): style usu- 
ally etitire. 

Drao6ncalii8, Linn. Tabraook. Estraoon. Herb ; 
green and glabrous, with erect, branched stems 2 ft. 
high : radical lvs. 3-parted at the top ; stem-lvs. linear 
or lanceolate, entire or small-toothed : panicle spread- 
ing, with whitish green, nearly globular fl. -heads. Eu. 
R.H. 1896, p. 285.— Tarragon lvs. are used for seasoning, 
but the plant is little grown in this country. The lvs. 
may be dried in the fall, or roots may be forced in a 
coolhouse in the winter. Prop, by division ; rarely pro- 
duces seed. 

Canad^niif, Michr. Herb, 2 ft. or less high, glabrous 
or very nearly so : lvs. usually 2-pinnate, with filiform, 
plane lobes : fls. in a long, narrow panicle, with numer- 
ous small greenish heads. Wild on banks and plains in 
the northern part of the country. Int. 1891. 

filifdlia, Torr. Shrubby, canescent, 3 ft. or less high, 
very leafy, the branches rigid : lvs. filiform, the lower 
usually 3-parted : panicle long and leafy. Plains, W.— 
Plant has a purplish, mist-like aspect when in fruit. 

BB. Disk'fls. perfect and fertile : style t-cleft. 
c. Receptacle hairy, 

frigida, Willd. Herb, 8-12 in., with a woody base, 
silvery canescent : lvs. much cut into linear lobes : 
beads small and globular, with pale involucre, in nu- 
merous racemes. Plains and mountains W. Int. 1883.— 



Good for borders. Known in Colo, as " Mountain Fringe,*^ 
and used medicinally. 

Abtlnthinin, Linn. Wobxwood. Almost shrubby,' 2-4 
ft. high, spreading and branchy, wbite-silky : lvs. 2-3- 
parted into oblong, obtuse lobes : heads small and nu- 
merous, in leafy panicles.— Wormwood is native to Eu., 
but it occasionally escapes from gardens. It is a common 
garden herb, being used in domestic medicine, especially 
as a vermifuge. Wormwood tea is an odorous memory 
with every person who was reared in the country. 

arff6ntea, L'Her. Shrubby, erect: lvs. white-silky, 
2-pinnate, the lobes linear or lanceolate : heads globu- 
lar, tomentose, nodding, in racemose panicles ; 1-2 ft, 
Madeira. — Useful for rockwork. 

cc. Receptacle not hairy, 

Abrttannm, Linn. Southernwood. Old Man. 
Shrubby, 3-^ ft., green and glabrous, the st. rather 
strict : lvs. 1-3-pinnately divided, the divisions flne- 
flliform: panicle loose, with yellowish whiteheads. Eu. 
—Southernwood is grown for its pleasant-scented foli- 
age ; and it sometimes escapes into waste places. 

P6ntlca, Linn. Roman Wormwood. Shrubby, erect, 
1-4 ft.: lvs. canescent below, pinnatisect, the lobes 
linear : panicle open and long, with small, globular, 
nodding, whitish yellow heads. Eu. — Roman wormwood 
is used for the same purposes as A. AbsifUhiumt and 
is more agreeable. Chief source of absinthe. 

Tnlgirig, Linn. Mcowort. Herb, erect, panicnlately 
branched : lvs. white-cottony beneath but soon green 
above, 2-pinnately cleft, with lanceolate lobes : upper 
lvs. sometimes linear ; heads many, oblong, yellowish. 
Eu. and northern N. Amer., and naturalized In E. 
states.— Mugwort is grown for the ornament of its foli- 
age. There are variegated -leaved and golden -leaved va- 
rieties. It was once a domestic remedy. Variable. 

Btellcriina, Bess. Old Woman. Herb, 2 ft., from & 
woody creeping base, densely white tomentose : lvs. 
pinnatifld, with obtuse lobes ' heads large and many- 
fld., in a racemose- glomerate inflorescence. N. E.Asia 
and on the coast of Mass. — ^Attractive from its whiteness. 
Useful for borders. 

LudOTiciina, Nutt. Herb, 2-3 ft., white -tomentose or 
lvs. becoming greenish above : lvs. linear to oblong, the 
lower ones toothed or parted, the upper ones entire : 
heads small, bell-shaped, paniculate. Plains and banks, 
W. Int. 1891. 

AA. Heads with perfect fls. throughout: receptacle 

not hairy. 

irMfoula, Nutt. Saoe Brush. Shrubby ; a foot or 
less high : lvs. short, wedge-shaped, 3-lobed, the lobes 
obovate and often 2-lobed, canescent : panicle simple 
and strict, often spike-like, the 5-9-fld. heads erect. 
Plains, W. 

tridentUta, Nutt. Sags Brush. Shrubby ; reaching 
height of 12 ft., although often only a foot high, branchy, 
canescent : lvs. wedge-shaped, 3-7-toothed or lobed, 
truncate at the summit, the uppermost ones narrower : 
heads 5-8-fld. Plains, W. Int. 1881. L H B 

ABTICHOKE ( Cyndra Scdlymus , Linn. ) . Compdsita, 
A coarse and robust perennial, cult, for the edible fl.- 
heads and lvs. The fl. -heads are 3-5 in. across just before 
they open, and at this stage they are cut for the table. 
The fleshy outer scales and the *^ bottom ** of the head 
(this is, the receptacle, the florets being removed) are 
eaten raw or cooked. When the blue florets begin to show, 
the head is too old for eating. Fig. 144 shows edible heads. 
For pickling, the heads are often taken when only half 
grown. The young sts. and lvs. are sometimes blanched 
and eaten, after the manner of cardoons; and these parts 
comprise the ** Artichoke salad ^ of the markets. There are 
a score or more varieties in European gardens, but the 
Globe is the one generally sold here. 

Although the Artichoke is perennial, the plant declines 
in vigor after it has borne two or three crops. In the N. 
the plants should be protected in winter with a liberal 
mulch. Artichokes are of easiest culture on rich soil. 
As they grow 3-5 ft. high and branch freely, and make 
lvs. 3 ft. long, they should not be set nearer than 2 or 3 



ARTICHOKE 

ft. In therawi.uid'the roirs Bhoold b« 4 or S tt. apart. 
In this eoantr;, the plant 1b propagkt«d mostly by aeedg. 
Tb«ae are lown early In the spring. Seedlings rarely 



144. E 



\m of ArtldwlHC 



w. 



give many heads before tbe second year. A quicker and 
better method of prapngatlan is to use the auckert, which 
are freely produced about tbecroim. The suckers repro> 
duce the variety. The Artichoka Is little known In Amer- 
ica, but Is wortbf greater attention. The habit of propa- 
Kttng by seed la, perhaps, one reason why the Artichoke 
s not obtaiaed greater prominence In this country. 
The great woolly, plnnatifld Its. and strong habit make 
the plant an attractive ornamental subject. See CanfoQn. 

ABTICEOKZ, JXnrSALElI [BeUdnlhut lvbfH>,«i, 
Ubd.). CompSMita. While the Ulobe Artichoke Is sel- 
dom seen In American gardens or on American tables, 
and surely not appreciated by our people, the Jerusalem 
Artichoke Is so common as to be despised as a weed. 
The JemsalemArtichokeia the tuber of a perennial sun- 
flower- like plant. (Fig. 145.) It thrives on almost any 
drained land, without much attention as to manuring, 
and without coddling. The tubers may be cut to single 
eyes and planted like common potatoes. The cultlratlon 
is about the tame as that usually given to com or pota- 
toes. Anytlmeinthefallafterfrosthaa killed the tops, 
or the latter have matured, the crop can be gathered. 
Pull up the whole plant by the roots, or dig the tubers 
with a potato hook or pronghoe. Or, swine may be turned 
into the field and allowed to root np and feed on the 
tubers. All kinds of farm animals seem to be food of 
them. They may be ground and fed. mixed with ground 
gndns, to poultry 
Kith good results. 
Kn a succulent food 

LWine, and perbaps 
ither farm stock, this 




L Tuber ot Jeniaalem 

(xM>. 



farmer tban it has 



iaily r 



It 



is tar ahead of the potato in productivi 
more cheaply grown. Raw or boiled and served with 
vinegar, the tuber also makes a very good winter or 
aprlng salad, and for this purpose it may Bud a limited 
sale in our markets. The chief demand for it will bo 
for seed purposes. Tbe easiest way ot keeping the crop 
over wlntei Is by leaving the tuben In the ground 



ivered with soil. Tubers already gathered t 

flitted like beeta or tumipa, but will need even less eover- 
ng of soil. The Hammoth White French is said by some 
Sropagators to be an improved strain of the ordinary or 
erusalem Artlcboke. The plant often becomes a weed 1 
but hogs win root It out. Tbe plant is native to upper 
Canada and middle parts of the U. S. It was cult, by tbe 
Indians. See Helianihus, T. Obeineb. 

AXTOCABPVB (artct, bread, and carpo; fruit). Urit- 
edtea. Bkead Fbuit. Tropical fruit plaoCa, originally 
from the East Indiea, somelimes cult, witb difficulty In 
northern botanic gardens for their great economic inter- 
est. They need a hot. moist atmosphere, much water, 
and perfect drainage. Prop, slowly by cuttings of young 
lalenl growth. The fruits do not bear shipment to the N. 
InotM, Linn. t. Bbeid Fruit. Tree, 30-40 tt., with » 
viscid, milky Juice : branches fragile ; Ivi. 1-3 ft. long, 
leathery, ovate, cuoeate and entire at base, upper part 
3-9-lobed: malo lis. in a denseclub-shaped j'ellow catkio, 
10-16 in. long; female fla. in asubglobularechinate head, 
having a spongy receptacle : fr. as large as a melon, 
typically murlcated, but In tbe best cult, varieties reticu- 
lated only, and seedless, at. 39, p. 273. Gng. 5:233,and 
B.M. ZSG9-T1, where the romantic stoiy of Its transfer to 
the West Indies is told. Sparingly cult, in S. Fla. 

IntegrlUlla, Linn. t. Jack Pbitit. Tree, 30 ft., witb 
milky juice: Ivs. 4-6 In. long, very various; those of fer- 
tile branches nearly obovale, entire ; those of higher 
branches more obovate and oblong; those of young shoots 
from the coot very narrow, or 2-3-lobed : fr. attaining > 
weight of 60-70 lbs. Less palatable than the bread fruit. 
The oily seeds when roasted are said to resemble chest- 
nuts. G. C. III. 20:717. B. M. 2833-4. Gt. 30, p. 273. 
QB.35;4.'i6, 



pie above, very showy. Society Is. F.S. SI ; 2231-2. 

ABUH (ancient name). Ardidta. Tuber-hearing low 
herbs, of few species, iu £u. and W. Asia. Lvs. simple, 
the petiole sheathed at the base : spathe convolute, va- 
riously colored, mostly Including the short spadii ; pis- 
tillate fls. at tbe base. Grown usually as oddities, mostly 
under the general name ot CsUas, Some ot the species 
are hardy ; others, as A, Palaitinum, are tender, and 
require glasshouse treatment. The tender kinds are 
managed in essentially the same way as the fancy-leaved 
Caladiums. Plant the tubers sutBclently deep that roots 
may form from near the top. Give rich soil, and water 
freely when growing or in hloom. The hardy species 
should be weU mulched Inlatofall. They thrive best In 
partially shaded places and in rich soil. Prop, by nat- 
ural offsets ; also by seeds or berries, which some spe- 
cies produce freely. Some of the species are acrid- 
poisonous. MoDOgr. by Engler in DcCandolle's Itfono- 
graphite Phonerogamarum. vol. 2. 

The following names are lu the American trade ; 
albiipathum, Nos. 5, 7; alpinum, 0; Ariiarvm^ 
Arisarum vulgare ; Byiantinnm, 7 ; CanarUiue, 7 ; 
eoticin>Hi(um,7i rornuium — I; Coriicum, 1; erini'tim^ 
Helloodiceros crinitas ; tylindraceuiu, 7; Cgpriiim, 2; 
detrutKalum,3; Dioicoridii,2; Z»™cHiiiu/u» = Dracun- 
culus vulgaris; alimgalum,5; gralum,5; immaeulatum, 
6; intermedium, 6; Italicum.l; miHularum, G; Ifaiyi, 
6; narmoralum, 7; nigrum, 5; Nordmarttii, 5; orientali, 
S; PalatliHtim, i; pielvn, 1; lanttum, 4; »ptetabiU, 2; 
Syriatam, 2 : f<rna(t(m = nnelUa tuberifera ; vario- 
tatum, 6 ) vulgar*, 6 ; Ztltbori, 6. 

A. Malurt if*, cordalt, oblong-ovalt. 

1. pfDtnm, Linn, f. (A. CirticMm, Lois.). Lvs. ^- 
pearing In sprlnK, long-petloled. light green ; spaUie 
bright violet, swollen at the base : spadix purple-black, 
exceeding the spathe. Corsica, Balearica, etc. — Hardy. 



. Jfafur 



 «as.J( 



B. Tvbtr round-natltned or oblali, the let. and pedun- 
elft ariiing from a deprcittd center.  Ivi. apptar- 
ing btfort fk« ipathe. 
2. DiOMorldll. Siblh. A Smith fA. tptctibiU, Regel. 

A. SyrlocHin, Blume. A. Cgprium, Schott.). Leaf- 



102 



ARUM 



blad* oblODiT'trituigDlftr or orMe-trUnpUar : ipMfae 
tDbe pale «i(iiin. the limb 6-8 in. long, iMiceoUte-obloDg, 
and colored with Urge lentieutu' purple Bpota : Bpadb 
■hort, locluded. Aula Hlnor. — Runs Into many formi, 
with Tuioualf marked spatbes. Pots. 

3. datmnettDM, Heyer. Lra, more or leas truncate at 
tbe bane, the blade shorter than in tbe lait : jellowish 



ARUNDO 

I, Bngler, baa • nlrmw llgfat-parple 
spatbe 1^. inUmidiuM, Schnr. A. JftHyl. Scbott.). 
Var. alptnmn, Engler (J . alplnum, Schott. A Kotschf) 
ba* pedODcles longer, and an ovate-lanceolaM spathe. 

7. lUIieim, Miller {A. eyHndrieeuni, Gaap.). Fig. 
146. Larger than the last ; Its. bastale, nearly truncate 
belo*, light-veined : apathe acarcely swollen betow, the 
limb erect and not erpanding and including the abort 
apadlz (tip oometirae* defleied after flowering). Yel- 
lowish or white and falntlf atrlate. £u. B.M. 2432.-A 
hardy ipecles ; also grown In pots. In the open, the 
Iva. appear la tbe fall. A very variable apeciea. Tar. 
OusiUbm, Engler (A. CanariiHMt, Webb. & Berth.), 
haa narrow leaf.lobea and apathe. Tar. omolimttnm, 
Engler (A. eoneinnAtum and marmoritum, Schott.), 
haa broad frray-spotted Iva. Tar. B jiantlntun, Engler, 
(A. Atfian/lHum, Bchott.). haa apathe tube oblong, 
white inside and purple at the month, and an aemninate 
purple or green limb. Tar. aJbUpfcUnm, Uort., haa a 
white apatbe. l. g. B. 

AB0>C1TB{oldname}. Boticta. Tall perennial herbs, 
orten referred to the genua Splnaa, with nnmerons small 
dltseious white lis. In panlcled aplkes : atamena maaj ; 
pistils commonly 3. Two species, American and Japanese. 

lylT*»t«r, Kost, (Spitna Arineui, Linn.). Tall (5-7 
tt.), erect branchy herb : lv«. large, 1-2-pinnate, of 3-7 
ovale Itts. ; follicles dofleied in fr, Btch woods, Ji. Amer., 
N. Eu. and Asia.— A desirable hardy border plant of 
eusy culture. 

•ItUbOldM, Haiim. (Splriea Ar^nfui, var. aililboldtt, 
Maxim. S. aslilboirtti, Hort. Aittlbe aflilboldet, Le- 
molne.On. 48, p. 355-G). Dwarf er and more graceful than 
theabove(2tt.):pe<Iicelserectinfr. Japan. — Neater than 
tbe American species. See ^.tlilfretorlllustrBtion. 

ABmrDDtABIA. See Bamboo. 



4, FalNflnnnn, Boiss. {A. idttttum. Hort.). Bi^oc 
C^LLA. Solohoh'b Lilt. Lve. cordate-baatate. 6 In. 
broad across tbe base and about equal In length, the 
middle lobe broad-ovate and nearly blunt : spatfaeabout 
the length of tbe leaf, with a short green tube, and an 
elongated lance -oblong- tapering limb, which is greenlsb 
OD tbe outside and continuous blsck-pnrple within, the 
tip sometimes recarving : epadiz shorter than the 
apatbe. the upper part dark colored. Palestine. B.M. 
5509. Qn. 4.'i. p. 311. — Perhaps tbe most popular Arum at 
present, being grown In pots aa an oddity. 

5, oilantUa, Bleb. A foot high : Iva. brawnlsh, 
broadly bastate-sagltBte, the front lobe oblong-acute ; 
apathe tube oblong-ovoid and white within, the limb 
ovate to oblong and intense black-purple (rarely pale), 
resembling A. mactilatiim.—A hardy species from Asia 
Minor, mnnlng Into many forms. Some of tbe plants 

Sratum, Schott.; A. tlongntvm and A, albiipathum, 
teven (not A.albitpalkvm, Hort., which la A. Ital- 

BB. Tuber ovoid or oblong, prof>a<ialine tiorizontalli/, 
the Irs. and pirlfiHelri aritiitfi from the apex .- 
Irj. opptaring before or icith the ipathe. 

6, mamilktnin, Linn. (4. fn/ffdre.Lam.). Lords-and- 
Ladies. Ccckoo Pint. Wake Robin (in England). 
About a foot high : Ivs. usually black-spotted, hastate 
or sagittate, the front lobe triangular ovate, about as 
high as the spathe : the spatbe swollen at lis base, the 
margins of the lance-ovate limb becoming Inrolled. 
spotted with purple ; spadlx shorter than the spatbe, 
purple. En.- A bardy species, of many forms. A form 
with spotleas Ivs. and a whitish tube with a medial pur- 
ple Eone, is A, imnaeuldtum and Zelebdri, Schott. 



. . a 30 ft. In favorable locations. Lvs. broad and grace- 
fully arching : sts. leafy to near the top, termlnatliig In 
■n Immense plume 1-2 ft. long : splkeleta long and 
pointed. 

D6nai, Lion. QtAHTRsED. FHga. 147.148. Towering 
straight stems 8-3D ft. high, which grow very rapidly, 
clothed with broad, pointed leaves at regular Intervala. 
Grown for lawn decoration and to conceal unsightly ob- 
jects. In some countries used for laths, woven work 
and thatching, and the 
rootaasadiuretlc. The 
tall, showy plumes are 
reddish at first and last 
a long time. Hediter- 



1, Orlt 

: 3. p. 493 ; 



. On. 1. 



.. 407. P.Q 



199; 17. ... -.. 

3:2. Var. TaritiriU, 
Hort. (var. r^rifcoJor, 
Hort.). Mucbdwarfer 
and less hardy than 
the type, usually 4-7 or 
even 12 ft. high, with 
elegant longitudinal 
stripes of creamy white 
• - Gt. 3" - 



209. F.S. 14:142S. Var. 
niaoraphflla, Hort.. 
has large, very glnu- 



, Forst. f. 
A rare and handsome 
form, bearing silky 
white fla., vhlch are 
beautiful for months. 
Less hardy than A. 
Do»az, and with nar- 
rower ivs. Lvs. 2-4 ft. 
long, very slender. 



lughii 



riftceous, deeply chan- 
; upper surface, margins, and long, slender point 
- ' X. Zeal. B.H. 6232. Qn. IS, p. 479 ; 49, p. 

P, B. ElMMEDV. 



ARUNDO 



ASCLEPIAS 



103 



A rundo Donax is one of the most popniar of all (passes 
or hardy foliage plants, especially wherever the Pampas 
Grass is not hardy. Although it succeeds almost any- 
where in borders, beds, and on lawns, it is really at home 

in moist soils and 
near the water. It 
is, therefore, one 
of the standard 
plants for striking 
aqufttie effects. Prop, 
chiefly by division, or 
as follows: The ripe 
canes may be laid on 
damp moss during 
winter, and in a few 
months nearly every 
joint will sprout and 
form a small rooted 
plant. The canes 
may then be cut up 
and the young plants 
potted off singly, to 
be planted out the 
following spring. 

J. B. Keller. 

ASABUIE (obscure 
name). AristoXodii- 
Heea, Low, nearly 
stemless herbs of a 
few species, but 
widely disseminated 
in N. Temp, sone, 
with odd purplish or 
brown fls. on the sur- 
face of the ground 
(or nearly so), under- 
neath the heart-like 
or kidney-like Ivs.: 
corolla wanting, but 
calyx corolla - like ; 
stamens 12 : ovary 
inferior. The Asa- 
rums inhabit rich, 
shady woods, spread- 
ing on the ground, 
and the fls. are un- 
seen except by the 
close observer. They 
are of easy culture if 
transplanted to rich, 
moist places. They 
make attractive car- 
pets in borders and 
groves. The species 

described below are sold by dealers in native plants. 

Some of the species are reported to have medicinal 

properties. 

A. Plant markedly pubescent, 

Gaaadfoie, Linn. WildGingeb. Canada Snakbroot. 
Livs. about 2 to a plant, thin, kidney-shaped, pointed, 
with a deep and open sinus, not mottled : fl. slender- 
stalked, with lance-acumlnate calyx-lobes an inch or 
more across at the expanded mouth, chocolate-brown : 
style 6-lobed. Frequent in woods E. B.M. 2769. A.G. 
13:517. D.279. 

HArtwegi, Watson. Tufted, loose-pubescent : Ivs. 
large and thick, cordate, with rounded basal lobes, 
mostly acute at the apex, marg^ ciliate, glabrous and 
mottled above : fl. stout-stnlked, the lobes often ovate 
and long-pointed, the ovary inferior : styles 6. Sierra 
Nevadas, 4,000-7,000 ft. alt. 

Bmui w u m, Clnn. Lvs. kidney-shaped, evergreen, 
dark green, the petiole 3-5 in. : fls. greenish purple. 
Kin., with incurved lobes : styles 6, and grooved or 2- 
paited, recurved. Eu. 




148. 

Plume of Arundo 

Donaau 



Plant slightly or not at all pubescent, 

eand&tani, Lindl. Rather slender, with long root- 
stocks, sparingly pubescent : lvs. oordate-kidney-shaped, 
and more or less cupped or cucullate, acute : fls. slen- 



der-stalked, the calyx-lobes oblong and attenuate : 
styles united. Pacific coast. 

I4mmoni, Watson. Like the last, but lvs. plane or 
flat, rounded at apex, less pubescent, calyx lobes short. 
Sierra Nevadas. 

yirginienm, Linn. Lvs. broad-ovate or orbicular, 
rounded at the top, the sinus narrow : fl. short-stalked, 
purple, the calyx-lobes broad and rounded : styles 6, 
2-lobed ; anthers not pointed. Va., S. 

axifdlinin, Hlchx. Lvs. thlckish and usually mottled, 
orbicular to hastate, obtuse : fl. stout-stalked, urn- 
shaped and much contracted at the throat : styles 6, 2- 
lobed; anthers pointed. Va., S. t tt n 

Mu, U. J5. 

A8GL&FIAB (ancient Greek and Latinized name). 
AselepiaddcecB, Milkweed. Silkwbbd. Many herbs, 
mostly North American, generally with opposite or 
whorled lvs., milky juice, and umbels of odd fls. The 
fls. are gamopetalous, the corolla segments generally 
strongly reflexed ; stamens 5, attached to the corolla, 
the anthers more or less united about the stigma ; be- 
tween the corolla and the stamens Is a crown of five 
comucopla-llke appendages ; pollen cohering Into a waxy 
mass (pollinium), which Is removed bodily by Insects 
which visit the fl. The pollination of an Asclepias fl. Is 
shown In Fig. 149. The pollen-masses are usually twin 
(as at b), and the handle or caudlcle lies In a chink on 
the side of the stigma. The pollen-masses become at- 
tached to the legs or mouth parts of the Insect, and 
are thereby transferred to another fl. The Milkweeds 
are common In waste places In N. Amer., and are 
rarely cult. Several species ( described below ) have been 
Int. by dealers In native plants. The Butterfly-weed and 
some others are very showy and worthy of more general 
attention. The large-lvd . kinds are desirable when heavy 
foliage effects are wanted. They are all perennials of 
the easiest culture. Prop, by division, rarely by seeds. 
See Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 2., pt. i (which is -here 
followed). 

A. Pis, (corolla and crown) orange, 

tnber68a, Linn. Butterfly- Weed. Pleurisy Root. 
Hairy, 2-3 ft. high, from long, horizontal roots, with 
more or less alternate, lance-oblong or lance-Unear Ivs.i 
umbels several, sbort-peduncled : pods pnbesceut, erect. 
Dry banks and fields ; widespread, and not infreiqnent. 
B.R. 76. D. 223.— A handsome plant. 

AA. Pis, in shades Qt red or purple, 

CnrauAvioa, Linn. Plant glabrous, 2 ft. or less : lvs. 
opposite and short-petioled, thin, oblong-lanceolate : 
corolla scarlet : pods glabrous, erect. Fia. and La. 
B.R. 81. 

inoamita, Linn. Glabrous or nearly so, leafy and 
branching, 3 ft. : lvs. opposite, oblong-lanceolate : co- 
rolla rose-purple to flesh color, with oblong lobes : pods 
glabrous, erect. B.R. 250. Var. pAlohra, Pers. Hirsute, 
and lvs. broader. Swamps.— Common. 

AAA. Pis, greenish t yellowish or white {sometimes pur- 
ple-tinged , especially in A, quadrifolia). 

B. Pods tomentose and soft-spiny, 

ipeeidsa, Torr. {A, Douglasii^ Hook.). Stem stout 
and simple, 3 ft. or less, flne-tomentoae or becoming 
glabrous : Ivs. large and broad, ovate, transversely 
veined, short-petioled : fls. purplish and large, the pe- 
duncle of the umbel shorter than the lvs. Neb. W. and 
S. B.M. 4413. 

Comftti, Decne. (A. SyHaca^ Linn.). Differs from last 
In having obtuse and short hoods to the crown, taller, 
less pubescent : lvs. oblong or oval : fls. dull purple, 
In large, more or less nodding umbels. Mn. 7:221.— 
The common milkweed of the E. states. 

BB. Pods glabrous and unarmed, 

c. Pruiting pedicels decurved or de flexed, the pods 

erect or ascending. 

amplexicatlii, Michx. Plant glabrous and glaucous : 
St. decumbent, 1-2 ft. long : Ivs. numerous, cordate- 
ovate and clasping, obtuse, succulent : corolla green- 
purple. Barrens, N. Car. and S. 



phTtolMOddM, Panh {A. ttlvea. Slmi)- Fltut gla- 
brVDi and gnea, 3-4 ft., erect : Ivb. thin, oval to luiee- 
ovai, acDinlDBte ud Bbart-petloled ; lis. greenlab. In 
targa,looseumb«ls. UaUtgnnmd; fmquent. B.H.tlSI. 




l«. MUkwccd flow 



.■bowing 



•otUna 



TUtogita, LlDD. Tiro ft. or less bigb : Itb. 3-T pain, 
orti, ovateur oblong, thlnnlBh, green and gUbrons aboTo 
and pale beneath : Ot, wblCe and pink, Id 1-3 umbeli. 

Dry, ahady placBB, Cent, and 8. Btatei, B.M,1183. 
nlociTpa, Benlh. Densely wootlf all oyer : Ivg. alter- 
"' I, long-oblong or lanceolate, Bhort-petloled : 
' ' j vera] umbel B. Calif. 



i. dull vhlte, i 



cc. Fruiting ptdletia trttt, and tht podt trtet. 

gOkdillAUk, LIdd. Aboat 2ft.,Dotbrsnebed,«ltbli 
towarda the top of the at. in whorla of 4 : Ivb. ovate 
laaee-ovale, acuminate, thlo, nearly or quite glabrouB : 
lis. pick to wblte In 2-4 loose tunbels. Dry soil ; fre- 
quent. L.&.C. 13:1258. 

TSTttdlltta, LIud. About S ft., slender, very leafy : 
)v». In whorls of a-6, very narrow-linear and revoluto r 
fls. greealBh white, In many am>ll nmbela. Dry aoil ; 
frequent. L.B.C. 11; 1067. 

Var. pftmil^Oray. A few In. high, from a faacicled 
root : Ivb. fliltorm, crowded. Plains, W. 

HazIdllW, Cav. Height, G ft. or less : Ivs. In whorls 
of 3-6, or aometlmeB opposite or fascicled, linear or 
narrow-lanceolate ; lis. greenish white or parplish In 
dense, many-fld. ombels. Ore. W. and S. l. h. b. 

ASCTBm (Qieek, not hard or rovghj. ByperieAetrt. 
Low herbs orsubshrubs, with bright yellow na.,2 small 
sepals and 2 large ones, 4 petals, and many stamens. 
Dry, sandy sells In E. states (also one or two West In- 
dian and one Himalayan specieB), sometimes grown in 
borders. Of easieat culture, but should be covered In 
winter in the N. Prop, by division ; also, by seeds. 

ll7P«rlooldN, Linn. (A. CrAx-indreir, Linn.). 



ASPARAGUS 

■nd handsome foliage. Only 2 species ue enltivatod, of 
which the arborescent one is the hardier and the hand- 
somer In foliage, while the more tender A. grtrndiflora 
has larger and showier Bs. They grow best in rich and 
moist soil. Theytnuuplant with difficulty. Prop, by seeds 
sown in autumn, or stratiiled and sown in spring, or by 
layers In autumn; also,by root-cutlingi. IntheNorIb, 
the seeds should be sown In pots or pans. Description 
of all species is given in Gray, 6yn. Fl. N. Amer. 1, pt. 1, 
pp. 62 and 461. 

tTllDba,Dnn. (J.nA(ia fr{lobn,LInn.). Flg.150. Small 
tree, 10-10 ft.: Ivs. cuneate, obovate-oblong, acute, H-l 
ft. long, glabroas : fls. with the Ivs. from hrauches of the 
previous year, green when expanding, changing to pur- 
pllib red, with yellow In the middle, 2 in. broad ; fr. 
oblong, 2-6 in. long, dark brown. S. states, north to N. 
York, west to Mich, and Kansas. S.S. 1:15, 16. On. 
33,p.321. O.F.8:495. A.G. 44:713.- This is the only 
arborescent species of the genua. It is well worth a 
place in the garden, for its large foliage is very hand- 
some and the fla., appearing in the early spring, are at- 
tractive. The Urge fr. is edible, and may be still im- 
proved by cultivation and careful selection of the best 
varieties. Many people do not rc1t!<h the highly aromatic 
flavor: and the large seeds are a disadvantage. The tree 
has proved hardy in Hass. and Ontario. One or two 
named forms have been offered. 

KiandUUra, Dun. Shrub, 2-6 ft.: Ivs. cuneate, obovat« 
or obtong. obtuse, 2-4 in. long, mfous -pubescent when 
young, at length glabrous and chartaceoua : fls. large, 
appesjlngwlththalva.i outer petalscream-colored, over 
2in. long.mucblargerthan the inner ones : the large tr. 
Is said to be very deUeions. S. Georgia, Fla. 

AUBKD KlHDBR. 

ABPABAOITS, E8CULSHT (Atpdragui ofHeiniHt, 
Linn.). lAliieea. Aporennlalhecb, cult, torthe succu- 
lent young shoots which arise from the roots in spring. 
The plant is native to £n. and Asia, and has been suit, 
for 2.0O0 years and mora. It was known to the Greeks 
and Romans. The so-called Ivs. of asparagus are really 
leaf-like branches. Tbe Ivs. are the scales, which are 
well shown on the shoot at the left In Pig. 151. From 



■tin*, HIchx. St. Pktib'b-wobt. Taller, scarcely 
branched : ivs. broad-oblong or oval and clasping : ur 

•""• ■"• L. H. B. 

ASH. See Fraxinut. tho aiils of these 

ABIKDIA (from Aiilminier, a French -and -Indian from the axils of a< 
name). Anonicea. Papaw (the papaw of literature Is Asparagus, being 

Carlca, which see). Small Ireeaor shrubs; Ivs. alternate, in a measuro thriv 
entire, usually deciduous: fls. purpleorwhltlsh,campan- under neglect. On 
ulate, solitary or fBw,iiiilIary; sepals 3; petals 6, the Inner 
ones smaller ; stamens numerous : fr. consisting of one 
OrafBwlargeberriBB. Eight species in E. N. Amer. Or- 
namental trees or shrubs, with large fls. In early spring. 



atber rugged plant, will live, and 
a almost any kind of soil, even 
sqnently finds apparently thrifty 
:e rows, or strong stalks pushing 
s or other rubbish piled several 
u|nin an abandoned asparagus bed. 
e wanted for the UiA^ and for K dls- 



ASPABAGUS 



erlmlDatlng market, bowever, are tbone an Inch ormor« 
Id dluneter and deliclonaly aucauleot, wbich oiis can 
grow on); on good ptaata »et far enough ap&rt on weU- 
dnined, weU-muiured and well-tilled soil. To aecnni 
earliuess of orop, the land (elected for an Agparagns 
patch should be m warm loam, preferably exposed to 
BOnth ot east. HaoareB of any klod may be used with 
greatest liberality, too much being almost out ot the 
question. Unless the soil la already well supplied 
with Tegetable matter, and fur that reason very loose 
and mellow, bnik; manures, such as fslrly-well rotted 
stable manore or rich compost, are altuost Indinpenyable 
M the start. A heavy dressing is to be plowed under. 
Afterwards eoneentrated manures, rich in Ditrogen and 
potash, win do Tcry well for lOLSe soils, and may be 
used broadcast on top, as the Crop seems to need tbem 
from year to year. Much depends on good plaula. 
These are easily grown. To grow one's own supply for 
starting a plantation Is ordinarily a aafer plan than to 
depend on purchased plants. Use strong l-year plants 
In proterence to older ones. The male, or pollen-bearing 

good atatks and more proBtable than the female or seed- 
bearing plants ; but it is not always an easy task to dls- 
tingoinh the one f rora the other at an early age unless 
they blcwm. To raise the plants, sow seed In early 
aprlng thloly In drills. In a well-prepared seed-bed. 
Have tbe drlils a foot apart ; cover the seed halt an Inch 
to an Inch deep, and thin the planta early to stand 8 
iDchea apart, with the same attention as that demanded 
by other cloae-planted garden Te^etables, strong plants 
will theu be the sure outcome. Get the land ready (or 
setting the plants by deep and careful plowing and 
thorongb harrowing. Then plow out tnmws 5 or even 
6 feet apart. It the demand is for the green stalks 
(those grown above ground), popular in some markets, 
the furrows may be made G or T inches deep. If 
blanched shoots are wanted (and they are of superior 
flavor and tenderness, provided they are grown in mel- 
low soil and under high and skillful culture), they have 
to be grown below ground; hence the furrows are to be 
made a few inches deeper than for plants set for green 
stalks. Set the plants In the furrows not less than 2 
feet apart, each on a little mound of soil, spreading tbe 
roots in tbe same way as they grew in the seed bed. 
Cover with mellow so)] to tbe depth of a few Inches, and 
afterwards. In the course of some weeks and by means 
«t suitable tools (smoothing harrow, cultivator, etc.), 
gradually flU tbe furrows even with the ground level. 
A sCiU better plan wheia the material can be had, is to 
BU the furrows with Bne old compost, as the covering 
above tbe crowns of the plants can not be made too 
loose. It Is advisable, and will insnro closer attention 
In cultivation, to grow some hoed crop, like beets, tur- 
nips, cabbage, beans, peas, radishes, etc., between tbe 
rows of Asparagus the first year. In the fall, and every 
fall thereafter, cut the Asparagus alalks nlose to the 
ground and remove them from tbe patch, to avoid the 
scattering of the seed. 

In early spring of the second year, the surface of the 
ground Is to be loosened by shallow plowing or deep cul- 
tivating; and when the first sprouts appear, the rows 
may be hilled up to some extent, especlslly if blenched 
•talks are to be grown. The wisdom of catting that 
season more than a very (ew, it any, of tbe shoots (or 
tbe table or sale may well be doubted. Plants left intsFt 
nnlU the third year will grow much stronger and be 
more prodnctlve afterward. In the absence of a spe- 
eially devised Asparagus knife, any ordinary tsble or 
pocket knife may be used for cnttlng tbe shoots, or !n 
mellow soil the shoots may be broken olT at the base with 
the Onger. In cutting, be very careful to avoid Injury to 
later shoots or to the crown ot the plant. The third sea- 
son and every year thereafter loosen np the ground as 
directed for the necond seasou. The shoots are now to 
be ent indiscriminately and clean, up to the beginning 
of the green-pea season. After that, allow tbem to grow 
nndisturbed. bat continue cultivation, lo keep tbe ground 
aurfacemellow and free from weed growth. For market, 
wash the fresbly-cut stalks and tie them In neat, com- 
pact bunches of the slie demanded by the partlcniu 
market, using some bright-colored ribbon, or perhaps 
rubber bands. If to be shipped, especially tor a longer 



ASPARAGUS 



105 



distance, pack the bunches In moist moss or other ma- 
terial that will prevent the stalka from wilting. Varia- 
tions In the Asparagus plant are due more to differences 
In culture and environment than to those 
ebaracterlatio of tbe variety. American 
otter tbe following as distinct 



varieties : Colossal [Coi: 
Mammoth (Bbtt's), Columbian (Uammoth 
Cotambian White). The last named Is 
perhaps the only one having an undisputed 




elalm to varietal distinction, on account 

of the white oolor of Its young shoots. 

To save the seed, strip the scarlet berries 

off the ripe stalks by band, or thresh them 

oft with a flail, put them in a sound barrel 

or tank, and mash them with a wooden 

pounder, to separate tbe hard, block seeds from the 

pulp. Clean them by washing In plenty of wat«r, poor- 

ing olT the pulp and skins ; dry and store. 

In the Attando coast states, north ot Virginia, the 
Asparagus rust (i^U(7JHux.^'pampi J has often done COU' 
siderable damage. Outside of that roglon this fungous 
disease is bardly known. Burning the Infected stalks 
Is recommended. According to the Hassschnsetts Ei- 
petnmeuC Station, "tbe best means ot controlling the 
rust is by thorough cultlvatioa in order to secure vig- 
orous plants, and In seasons of extreme dryness plants 
growing on very dry soil with little water-retaining 

paragus »]._.... . 

or insect enemies, only two bare thus far attacked As- 
paragus plants in America, namely, the common Aspara- 
gus beetle {Cnoceriw Aaparagi, Linn.), and the 12- 
spoCCed Asparagus beetle ( C. ll-pitwiala, Linn.). The 
following remedies are recommended ; Chickens and 
ducks ; close cutting of the young shoots In tbe early 
season, and tbe froense of fresb, air-slaked If 



:nites 



t plan 



r the CI 



ting period. Even with all kinds of vegetables Id abun- 
dant supply and muob cheaper than ever, there is hardly 
any danger that a saperior article ot Asparagus will go 
liCKglng for customers in any of our markets, or that the 
grower of such product could not get several hundred 
dollars per acra tor his crop. 

There aro no books o( American origin devoted wholly 
or chiefly to Asparagus ; but all (be vegetable-garden- 
ing manuals discuss It. •£_ OKKlNBtt. 



106 



ASPARAGUS 



jU?AKAeD8, OSSAKEKTAL. Liliieta. Thegenns 
Aspftogns comprises about 150 apeeles. vhtch >re vldely 
diapened in wutd or tropical ro^ons, bflInK putienlu'ly 
•bandKnt In 8. Atr. The species are of tgt7 varioiu 
habit. Borne are climbers, some drooping or tr^lins, and 
some erect-bueb;. Hanv of them are hlgblj' prised for 
their ver; gnceful and flue tolla^. Some species even 
■arpaas the most delicate ferns in elegance of bablt and 
delicacy of spray. The foliage ts really composed of leaf- 
like bruichea (cladopbylia) rather than of troe Iva. (Be« 
Pig. 151. and the discussion of it). Althoagh all are per- 
ennial, the sts, of some kinds ODiiaally die down or east 
their Its. With the exceptioo of A . vtrtieillalui, the fol- 
lowing species must be grovn under glass, except in 
8. Pl«. and S, Calif. They are of easy culture. Beat 
when propagated by seeds (which are usually freely pro- 
duced), bat are also multiplied by divlsiOD aod cuttings. 
Boots generally tuberous. Mongr. by Baker. Jonm. 
Linn. Soc.U (1875): account of cult, species by Wataon, 
G.C. III. 23;122, 147.178. 

a. Foliagt ovatt. 

medMloldM, Thunb. (Myniplitllum atparagoidet, 
Wlltd.). StoLAX of floriata. Pig. 152. Tall, slender, gla- 
brooB twiner : cladophylla t In. or more long, thick, 
glossy green on both sides, strong-nerved, standing edge- 
vise to the branch : fls. single, fragrant ; berries dark 
green. S.Afr. B.M. 5581,- Mueh grown by florists for 
use Id decorations (see cultural notes below). 

AX. Foliagt narrow, but diitinctly flat and plain. 

BprtngtTl, Begel. Figs.l63,lM. Tubersfleshy, white! 
branches long and slender, branched, drooping : Its. 
1 In. long, glossy green; Ss. small and whitish, in short 
racemes, fragrant: berry smsU, coral-red. Natal. On. 
54, p.eS. A.Q. lS:8n,8KJ:lB:l01. Gng.4:lE7. F.E.fl:Bup, 
Hn. 6:151. — One of the most popular basket and decora- 
tive plants, of easy cult. Prop, by division, hut most 
efllciently by seeds, which can l;^ purchased. At a night 
temp, of 06' they germinate in 4-6 weeks. Int. to hortl- 
coltare byDammann A Co., Italy, In 1B90, and named for 
their collector, Herr Sprenger. There Is a whlte-lvd. 

Uddni, LIndl. Climber : tubers l>ilQ. long : sts. 4-« 
ft., Bplny, branching : Its. narrow and curved, 2 In. or 
less long, 2-e In a cinater, more or less deciduous : Bs. 
small, white, axilla^ : berries pink or white. Min. In 
dlam. China and Japan, where the tubers are eaten 
(A.G. 13:78). -Needs warm treatment. 

AAA. Foliagt tilifemt er t\read-lHtt. 

pltunteu, Baker. Pig. 155. Tall -climbing, with spiny 
terete stg. (10-16 ft.): brmches flattish and spreading 
borlzoDtolty In elegant sprays : Its. short, bright green, 
in clusters : fla. white, commonly solitary : berry black. 
nearly globular, 1-eeeded. 8. Afr. O.C. III. 23:146.— 
One of the most popular of decoratire plants, the cut 
Btrands holding their shape and color for weeks ( see note 



165 (bnt not dwarf, as its name Implies), le commoner 
than the type, from which It is distinguished, according to 
Watson, "by the fulness and flatness of 1 1^ fronds, and by 
Its refusal to multi ply by means o( cuttings, division of the 



ASPABAGUS 

plant or seeds being the only methods that answer for It.* 
A.P.11:]]78. Tar. t«nniMllBU, Hort. {A. UnuUtimtt, 
fiort.). Fig. 156. Only partlalljr cUmbtng, very Ught 



1 and delicate than those of 



green: apraya _ 

the type, because of the fewer and longei 






dMllnUnt, Hort., has drooping sprays, "^ar. olltttBl, 
Hort,, has torklng-tasseled sprays. 

Comortndl, Hort. Similar to A. plumeivi ; more ro- 
bust, darker green, softer foliage : berries globular. 
G.C. 111.23:181. I.H. 12, p. 61. 

eilfpni, Lam. (J..d«ei!Mb<H(, Jacq., and Bort.). Tu- 
bers many, oblong : climbing (2-4 ft.) , the sta. fine or 
almost hsir-like and annual, the branches sigiag : Ivs. 
numerous, usually in close pairs, very short (!iln.), 
glaucous -green : fls. white, witb orange anthers : 
berry large (Hin. long), oTal, soft, brown, about 
6-seeded. S.Afr. A. defUxtia.SoTt., ii fnbtblj 
a form of this species. 

TBTtiolIlltui, Linn. Tall-climbing (10-15 ft.) 
hardy plant; roots lock woody : sts. stout (Jiin. In 
dlam.), said to be edible when young, hut becom- 
ing woody, spiny : tva. in tufts, halr-Iike, 2 In. 
or less long : fls. small : berries red. Persia, SI- 



retrotrietiu. Lim 



(A. 



ttrotrdctus arbdrtut, 



I gray, scarcely climbing, slgcag, spiny, t 
wiry; Its. In close clusters, green, halr-like, 1-2 in. 
longr fls. white, aniali, umbellate: berry small, 
nearly globular, 1-seeded. 8. Atr. 

TlrgUni, Baker. A busby, branchy plant 3-6 ft., 
the branches arching : Its. in 3's, dark green. 1 
In. or less long ; fls. small, white: berries red, 1-seeded- 
S.Afr. 

A.aaMfillMt.Uan. Hardr.ricld.S ft.: Its. tufted.taalr-Uke: 
flf.ysUow: ben? led. Ea.—A.^MApiau,LABii. SngseatiA- 



ASPARAGUS 



Sr^Ti' 






LUcsBt 



AMcdnu.lAm, Climber: In. rWd, dark iET«ni, clni- 

'mraSD. B.Atz.-A. Aiidtimt.Uim. TJlellmlMr; 

Ilka. toft. l4iD.-A. Codptri, Baker. Similar to A. pln- 

monu. B. Afr.-J. dKlltuUiu. Unn. "Alllnd 

to A. phunDSDA. FTT>m which U dUTera Id havlDc 

' '' " prkklea. paL« ar«en stcmi. and imallflr 

* S. Afr._^./oled(u». Linn, Verjtall 

« : In. In vhorli. flat and 

Afr., Tnip. Alia. G.C. IH. W: 123. 



ifractni. S.Afr. Q.C. m. 23:1^. 
pronlfhVTLj. atradaname. — J-ra«raAtu«, 
d. cumber: In. irajlab. 4-ancled : fli. 
jah, frairraiit : nuremes 2 Id. loni. Trop. 
andAila. G.C.Itl. 23;H7.— ^, larmmeS- 
Not cUmblae, " " 




berrlMbrliht n 






ASPARAGUS 107 

ahoald Klio be taken lu cutting, for many timei there will 
be several yonng irowths % loot or eo blgh that oan bo 
laved tora tutnre atrlng, and tbey may be vorae than tiae- 
leai if cut. Smllax for planting in July should be raised 
from seed loirn in Pebrnary. When 3 or 3 In. hl^h, and 
showing Its character-leaves, It should be potted la 2-ln. 
pots. In Maj, they should go into 3-in. pots. It Is very 
important that the first growth, which IB always weak, 
should be made la these 3-lii. pote ; than, wben planted 
ODt, the first growth la the beds Is strong enough to make 
aaleable strings. Neverneglect tying up Smllai as soon 
as the preceding crop Is cut. Contrary to what Is the 
case with many plants, the hotter Smilax Is grown the 
hardier and more durable the leaves, providing It Is not 
cut prematarely. William Scott. 

CuLTDRB or AsPAKaans flihiobds. — The first and 
all-Important factor in the onltlvallon 



Sei^fwiaMcj. KoDth. One ft 
..inoui, in a'l or 4'>, UDcar, cot 
BeasLle: b«rrlear«d. Hardy. Jap 



their bedi 



imilax for 3 or 



rerj-vea 



gmllai. like all Its family. Is a I. . . . 
loam vilh ooe-flrth halt-rotted cow-manure is the 
compost for the bed. A light houseis notesseotlal. The 
middle of an equal-span house running north and south 
Is an Ideal place tar It, if there li height suSicienl to ran 
up the etrings 7 or 8 feflt. Plant as early as possible in 
July. Many fiorlsts who grow a few huodied strings of 
Smilax make the mistake of putting them lu a coolhouse. 
It will grow in a temperature of 50°, but not profitably : 
60° at night, and even 65°, is the right temperature. 
The plants should be 8 in. apart lu the rows and 10 in. 
between rows. If not syringed frequently, red aplder 
attaekslheSmllai; bat there Is no ezeuse for that, as a 
dally syringing la a sura preventive. When cnttlng the 
strings, avoid picking out one here and there. Begin to 




ent atone end of the bed and, as 
off all the strlngB, because whe 
growth the fleshy roots ara liable to roL 
Uttle water Is needsd till young gron 



. Iriehopliitliit, Bnnge. 8u. ai 
I, a-« ft. ; Its. elnstered, stitt ac 
fls, ]oni-t>ediaiU«d. Hardr. S 
na.— J.uTnlwfliUut.Unk. Bomi 

In. S-anKlod, stiff, In eluilen 
fls. white, frajcrant, In umbel*. 



CCTLTITKK DP SuiLaX 

(Atparagui mdtololdei) . 
— Commercially, Smilai la 
grown In solid beds under 
glass, and the tall growth 
Is tied to strings. These 



side ot an Iran trellis about B Inches apart and at the 
top an equal distance apart. In order that the etrlnga 
mi^ be as nearly straight as possible. 

The early growth of -ilipanifut plumoiui, var. nanuM, 
Is very slow ) but as soon as It Is transplanted and well 
rooted lu a rich soli, the growth la more rapid, the tender 
shoots developing into a vine whlnh will be ready Co cut 
for the market In about a year. There is great dlBculty 
In obtaining the seed ot the nanus. In a whole house, 
there may be only a few seed-bearing strings. After 
being picked, the berries are allowed to dry far a month, 
and are then ready for planting. A good, rich soil, cov- 
ered with a thin film of sand, serves very well to start 
them. The temperature ehould be about 65°, and as 
nearly constant as possible. When the plant la well 
rooted. It Is removed to a deeper *o)l or potted in 3- 
nr j.lnfh nnta mjti placcd OD a beuch. Eere It remains 
len placed In the bed. 

Dg In a healthy condition ; but from now 
iub( be taken and much labor expended 
iduce the best crop. The bed Into wbicb 
)ung plant Is aet should be carefully laid 
rocks at the bottom, so the water can 
le Ireely. Over this place two or three 
feet of soil, manure, and 
dead leaves. It Is but a short 

m to expand betoro the 
Ota appearabove the trel- 
lis, and the strlnglDg begtna. 
Strong linen throad is nsed 



igs. 



X Ji). The first crop will not b« 

ready to cut before the end 

ot the second year ; that Is, 

from the time the seed Is 

planted. As soou as this crop Is exhausted, new strings 

are put In place ot the old, and another erop Is started. 

This goes on year after year. Now tbat the plant has 

gotten Its growlb, it is more bardy, and la constantly 



108 ASPARAGUS 

■endlDK op new ihoota. If the bed in veil nkde tn tbe 
beginning, the AsparoKH" DKednoL be diiiturlied foreigbt 
myenra. However, M ihe end o( t -' 



Uke 



d fill i: 



Is with freah 



In the iprlni;. when tbe sqd gets hlRh, tba AeparkKUt 
bouses ftre shuied with t, llRht ooBtlng of while lead, 
vblEing mnd kerosene oil. This is abBolntely Qeeessary, 
as the summer sun would Id a very short time bum tbe 
tfipa of the vine. Tbe vine flowers in the fall, mnd only 

The vine alone is not the only source of profit. When 
tbe plant is a year old. a tew of the most nearly perfect 
spraysmaybeUken without Injurine Its growth. These 
are very desirable in the marliet. There is, of course, 
some waste In working up the Aspara^nifl to be sbift^d. 
), it is very slight. The different forms 






:of tt. 
sis pre 



. The 



ASPHODELINE 

rnHgin : eorollaa i 
O rlent. — IncreMBB 
shady places, and for edgings. 

taazaphtllm. All. Plant-stem glabrous : habit aaceni 
Ing. slender : height 1-2 It. : Its. in whorls ol 6, lines 
acute, rough : corollas tubular .funnel shaped : panicii 



t by insi 
do the most damage. About the only way to get 
r!d of them Is to pick them off the strings during the 
night, as they generally seek shelter under th« thick 
clusters of the plant at daylight. There are roanT draw- 
backs ingrowing Asparagus, among which are expensive 
bouses, the slow growth of the plants (which makes It 
necessary to wait at least two years before receiving 
any return from the expenditure), injury from Insects, 
and the great amount of labor involved in looking after 
the houses. William H. Elliott. 

ABFASIA (Greek personal name, of little nignifleance 
here). Onhidiefa.trihe y'dndta. Pseudobulbous: Irs. 
sub.coriaceous : racemes radical ; perianth spreading : 
lateral sepals free, the upper one connate at the base of 
the petals : labellum concave : column acml-terete : 

Cilllnla2. Eight or 10 Trop.Amer. species. The genus 
closely allied to Odontogloasum. 
qddMldTOldM, Llndl. Lvs.llnear.laneeolate: racemes. 
with about 4 fls.; erect: sepals and petals streaked with 
brown ; labellum white, dotted with violet-purple. Pan- 
ama and ColoinbU. Oaku Ames. 
A8FEH. See Popului. 
&SPBB&LLA (dlmlnutlveofaspir, rough). 8jn., At- 

more slender terminal spikes than Elymus. Splkelets 
usually in pairs, on short pedicels, empty glumes wanting 
or appearing as simple rudiments In the lowest splkelets 
ofeachspike. Speciesl. ^'.Ame^.,Sibe^ia,^'ewZeal. 

Hfttriz, Hnmb. Bottli-brchh Gbasb. Splkelets 
stand out at right angles, suggesting brushes used for 
cleaning bottles. A native grass, growing In woodlands 
and on the borders of thickets ; sometimes used for 
lawn decoration. p_ b. KimjxDT. 



Uostly dwarf, hardy 1 

the ivs. are really etlpulea), and many small, 1-parted 
fls., produced freely fivm May to July. The commonest 
species is A, odorata, the Waldmelater of the Germans, 
which is used in their Maltrank, or Hay wine, and in 
summer drinks. The dried Ivs. have a hay. like fra- 
grance, lasting for years, and are often kept with 
clothes. The plant occasionally escapes from gardens. 
A. hiiaphylla, with its delicate, miHty spray, is uned 

to look lumpy. Other plants (or this purpose ore Oyp- 
lophila paniculala, Slaiict lalifolia, and several Gall- 
nms, all of which have small, abundant fls. In very loose 
panicles on long, slender stems. In half-shaded and 
moist soil, Aspcrulas grow very luxuriantly until late 
fall. In dry and sunny places they soon become. stunted, 
and die down before the season is over. Prop, by dlvi. 
■ion and by seeds. 

i.. Planti perennial : flt.vhile. 

B. Corollai 4-lobed. 

Odortto, Linn. Swett Woodbctf. Pig. 157. Habit 

erect or aacendinit : height 6-8 In. ; Ivs. usually in 

whorls of &, lanceolate, finely toothed or roughlsb at the 



very loose ; fls. larger than the bracts : seeds smooth. 
Italy, Hungary, Pyrenees on high passes and dry mt. 
sides.— Well grown specimens may be 3 ft. in diam. and 
nearly as high. 

BB. Coroltat ofU» S-tobtd. 

Unetiritt, Linn. Dtkb's WooDBtrrr. Habit procum- 
bent unless supported: height 1-2 ft.: Ivs. linear; 
lower ones in 6's, middle ones in 4's, uppermost ones in 
2's : bracts ovate : fls. reddish on outside : roots large, 
creeping widely, reddisb. Dry hills and roeks of En. 
AA. Ptant$ annual: rlt.hlut. 

OrlantUls, BoIsB. & Hohen. (A.aiiiTta and.^. ulita. 



bristly : lis. longer than the bracts. £u. and Orient. 



J. B. Eellib and W. M. 



&BFHOI)XL, See Atp\adeiin 



mi Aiphodtlut. 



ABFEODSLlaB (name modified from Aipluidetvt). 
Liliicta. Hardy herbaceous plants, distinguished from 
Aaphodelus by their erect and leafy sts. They have 
long racemes of yellow or white fls. in June and July. 
All the older species were described under Aaphodelns. 
In 1S30, Reichenbach made the new genus Asphodeline 
for .1. lulea and others. The only species advertised in 
America is A. luitHt, but all those described below ar« 
likely to be In cult. Monog. by J. Q. Baker In Joum. 
Linn. Soo. 15:273-278 {1877). ■</} j(. 

The culture of Atpliedfline Ititta Is simple. Any soil 

will suit. Partial shade is allowable, but fis. aro often 

better in the sun. Prop, readily by division. 

A. Bttmt Ualy up to thi raeime. 

B. I'll, yellow. 

lif^Reli^b. I AiphSdelut liteut, Linn.). TsrsAs- 
PHOUBL of the ancients, or EiHo's Sfbab. Height 2-* 
ft.: roots thick, fleshy, stolon if erous: Ivs. 3-13 in, long: 
macginsrongh: racemes G-IS in. long. 31n. wide: bracts 
large, membraneous, persistent, Italy, Mauritania and 
AlgeriaboTanriaandArabia. B.H. 773, L.B.C. 12:1103 
as A, ZViHricu*. — The best species. 
BB. FU.tchil,. 

TatlriM. Ennth. Height 1-2 ft,: roots slender : Ivs. 
3-9 In, long; margins membranaceous: raceme 6-13 in. 
Ions, IH-'^ in. wide: bracts S-13 lines long. Csncasna, 
Tauris, »>-rla, Asia Minor, Greece. G,C, III. 21: ITS. 

AA. Btemi leafy only a third or half the way to tile 

B. Fli, tchlle ; raetmt dtni*. 
globllgra, J, Gay. Height 2-3 ft.: capsule globose 



ASPHODELIMB 

BB. Ft$. f/ttloie : rattmt lax, 
o. £rac(j laryt, 6-lt linei long, loim-euipidait. 
tanUor, Ledeb. Heigbt 1 tt. Cncung, ArmsD., N. 
PersU. B.M. 2SSG.—Siaa]\er ihkD A. lutmt, with fluer 
Iti. uid imaller, tewer kod paler fls. Espeelnlly dls- 
tlnicuished b; the stalk being naked at tbe upper part, 
below tbe raeems of BB.,uid the braeta as short &s 
or shorter thui the peduDcle. 

00. Sraeti mull, lii-S Itiul lanff, tkort-cuiptdate. 
LUrtroIw. Belchb. (A. Crttica, Via., not BoIbb.)- 
Height 1-2 ft. Greece, Crete, Dalmatia. Auatrlft, Ital;, 
notAala Hlaor. L.B.C. \0:91inA. Crttica. 

bWTl«ftll», J. Gay (A. Critioa. Boisa., not Via.). St. 
often fleiuose, that of all the others here described being 
•reet and strict. Asia Minor, Syria, PaleatlDe, Egypt. 
AAA. Sttmi Italy only at the bait : fit. vihiU: racimei 
denie. 
B. Baetma uiually aimpU, 
O. Sttmi havitxs Itaf-icalti ; ktifflil S ft, 
impnlUia, Siehe. Tallest species of tbe genas : lis. 
Urge, reddish white. Cappadoeia. G.C. Ill, 22; 397. 
00. Blemi not havint leaf-tcalei : htigM l}4-* ft, 
Duuieto*, Baker. Height 1^-2 ft.: bracts membra- 
lUMOQS, lanceolate, tbe lowest 9-12 lines long. Mt. 
Lebanon. 

BaUiiMa, J. Gay. Heigbt 3 fl.: bracts scarions, 6-9 
Uneslong. CUicia. Gt. M, F.S21. G.C. III. 23: 111. 
BB. Bacemrt much panicted. 
Icthmoeftfpa, Gay. Height 2 tt. CUicia. G.C. III. 
23:117. 

ASPHODZIUS (Greek name of tinkno' 
deta. Hardy herbaceous stemless pla 
lily-like Oowera in long racemes, flesBy 
and firm, linear, radical, tufted leaves. 
Perianth fniiDei-ahaped ; segmeDta 6, 
obloug-llgulBte. obtuse, equal, with a 
dlelinrtDerveoD tbe back, and always 
aseendiog. The Agphodel of the an- 
cients, or King's Spear, la Aiphode- 

tionn the Asphodel meadows of the 
dead, where the shades of heroes con* 
gregated in Hades. The Asphodel in 
Greek mythology was the peculiar 
flower of the dead. It has always bei 
MmniOD weed in Greece, and lis pallid 
low dowers are associated with desert pi 
And tombs. The word daffodil is a coi 
tion of Asphodel. The Asphodel of the < 
English and French poets is JVarei 
Pittido-nartiiiui. 3, O, Baker, in hii 
Tislon of the genas In Joar. Linn. Soo 
26S-2T2 (18T7J, refers 40 species of < 
botAiiiststo.ll. ramajui,the dominantt 
makes three subspecies. These subspec 
distinct, for horticultural purposes, a 
They are the ones flmt described below, 
A. albui are the only current trade na 
Cnltiire simple; see Aipltodtlint. 

A. Plant perennial : Ivi.S-a' 
B. Scape long. 
O, Bateaul limple or tparingly bivnchid. 

ilbni, Hlller, not WUId. Brahchino Asphodh.. 
Bracta boff colored when young : fUaments deltoid at 
the base : capsules medium -si zed, 5-6 lines long, sub- 
globular or ellipsoid. Soulhem Eu. 

enmilfBTiii, J. Oay. Bracts pale yellow : Blamenti 
wedge-shaped at the base, but rapidly beconiing awl- 
sbaped : capsule large, 8-10 tines thick. Saltish globu- 
lar, umbilieate. Western Mediterranean region, 
cc. Baeetntt muck branched or panicled, 

mieTDaArpiu,Vis. (A,attli!u»,BTat.). Bracta pale yel- 
low at flnt: Uamenta 4-angled at the base : capsule small, 
3-4 lines loug.obovoid-globose. Hediternuieao, Canaries. 



ASPIDISTRA 



109 



BB. Scape short, almott manting, 
MAtllil, Desf. Lts. 6-20, in a dense rosette, 3-4 In. 
long, minutely pubescent; tia. 6-20, in acrowded corymb: 
segments of perianth 2-3 lines wide, Algiers. B.H.7004, 
AA. Planlannual; leavei cylindrical, hottom. 
fi«tDl6flni. Linn. Height 16-20 in, : Ivs, 13-30, In a dense 
rosette, 6-12 In. long, striate, awl-like, gl^rous ; seg- 
ments of perianth 1-2 lines wi<1e, lined with pink; buds 
pink; Hs. pinkish. Prance and Portugal to Syria. Arabia 
andAfghanistan, B.M.9S4. L.B.C. 12:1124. -Needspro- 
tection under gla«s in winter. If removed early in autumn 
to a greenhouse, it may be induced to seed freely. 
A. CrWicHj— Atphodellne LibnndPa,— A. liW«n — Aiphodei- 

E. France, with long, dense rawniea and dark brown braeta. 
N. 1:125. W.V. 

ASFIDlBT&A (Oreek,a small, roundjAitld; referring, 

probably, to tbe shape of Ibe stigma). Lilidcea. A 
popular floriata' plant, grown for its sliCT, shining, beau- 
tiful foliage, and still more interesting tor its remarkable 

distra Is a lillaceoua plant. The parts of the fl. in mono- 
cotyledons are typically in 3's. The genus Aspidls- 
 ' ormal, as usually having its parts 



in 4'a. Thia 

aldered the normal om 

tured in B.M. 2199. but 

iurida the trim e ran s sti 

merouB state is thought 



which 1 

B. and described below) [s plc- 
the aperies was Aral described 
and pictured In B.R. 628. In .1. 



lis. Aipidlstca Iurida. 

are rented for tbe temporary decoration of public balls, 
Aipidiatra Iurida Is one of the greatest favorites, as It 
stands much abuse, sucb as dust, dry air, and lack of 
water and light. It is, however, naturally fond of wa- 
ter, and grows freely on the margins of ponds or streams, 
especially aonlh. In rich soil the variegation often dis- 
appears altogether until the plants begin to starve, hence 
s compost of nearly half sand Is desirable. The best 
method of propagation Is by means of division in spring, 
before active growth begins, as tbe young leaves are not 
then disfigured. 



110 



ASPIDISTRA 



ASPLENIUM 



blade luuTOwed into a ehanneled petiole a third of its 
length: lis. lorid parple, on short 1-fld. scapes; perianth 
segments 8 ; stamens 8 ; stigma broadly shield-shaped, 
like a small mushroom. China. — The variegated form 
is more commonly grown, the alternation of the green 
and white stripes being singularly beautiful. No two 
Ivs. are exaoUy alike. e. O. Orp«t and W. M. 

ASfLuIUM. See Dryopterit tnd Polyatiehum. 
ABFLEV£VDBnnC. See ThamnapUrit. 

hSPLkEVTM, (Greek, net the spUen; referring to sup- 
posed medicinal properties). Polypodidcea. A large, 
widely distributed genus of ferns, containing some 200 
species. Easily distinguished by the free veins, and by 
the elongated sori covered by an indusium, which nor- 
mally is attached to one side of a vein. 

Aspleniums enioy an abundance of moisture at the 
roots, but they will turn brown in the winter months in 
an excessively moist atmosphere. They should be kept 
in a very lightly shaded position. A good potting ma- 
terial consists of equal parts of rich soil and leaf -mold or 
peat. The following are some of the most useful com- 
mercial kinds: A. Belangeri, height 2}itt.; A, ImlHf' 
erum, 2 ft.; A. laxum, which grows quickly into a 
handsome specimen about 20 in. high, and seems to 
stand the hot, dry American summers better than other 
species ; A. Malieifolium; and A. viviparunit which is 
dwarf, compact, with lace-like fronds, and easily px^i^ 
gated. For hanging baskets, A . flaeeidum is best. The 
foregoing species and others of like habit develop small 
plantlets on the surface and edge of pizmsB. As soon as 
these are sufficiently strong, they may be detached, with 
a small piece of old pinnaB, and pricked into shallow pans, 
the older part being placed below ground to hold the 
young plant flrmlv Ui position until roots have formed. 
The t«st soil for this purpose is composed of equal parts 
of fresh garden soil,leaf -mold or fine peat,and sand. Plant 
very firmly, and place in a shady, moderately moist and 
close position, where in 10 to 15 days they will make roots. 
The fToregoing ones do best in a temperature of 50® F. 
A, eicutarium is easily grown from spores, and is very 
useful for fern dishes. Nichol N. Bbucknkb. 

Alphabetical list of species described below : A. Adi- 
antum-nigrum, 14 ; afELne, 13 ; angustifolium, 10 ; Bap- 
tistii, 12; Belangeri, 23 ; bulbiferum, 18; eicutarium, 20 ; 
cuneatum, 15 ; ebeneumt 8 ; ebenoides, 4 ; Filix-fopmina, 
25; Arnictttoceum, 16; fontanum, 17; formosum, 9; fra- 
grans, 16; Hemionitis, 2; laxuntf 18; myriophyllumf 19; 
no&i{is, 24; obtusilobum, 21 ; palmatum,2; parvulum, 7; 
pinnatifldum,3; platyneuron, 8 ; rhlzophyllum,19; rute- 
folium, 22; salicifolium, 11; serratum, 1 ; spinulosum, 
27; thelypteroides, 26 ; Trichomanes, 6 ; viride, 5 ; vivip- 
arum, 24. The following are native and hardy : Nos. 
3, 5, 6, 7, 10, 25, 26. 

A. 8ori linear or oblong ^ atraight, borne on the 

back of the If. 

B. Lf. simple, tcith a serrate margin, 

1. serritnin, Linn. Lf. 1-3 ft. long, on a very short 
stipe, 2-4 in. wide, gradually narrowed below: sori 1 in. 
or more long. Fla. to Brazil. 

BB. Lf. lobed or pinnatifid, 

2. Hemionitis, Linn. {A. palmAtum, Lam.). Lf. 4-6 
in. each way, hastate, with a triangular terminal lobe and 
two lateral ones, and a large, rounded sinus at the base: 
sori often over 1 in. in length. Spain, Canary Islands. 
8.1:586. 

3. piimatllidimi, Nutt. Lvs. clustered, from a short 
rootstock, 3^ in. long, with mostly rounded lobes at the 
base and terminating in a slender point ; texture thick, 
herbaceous ; occasionally rooting at the tip. Pa. to Ala. 
S. 1:628. 

4. ebenoides, R. R. Scott. Texture thin : lvs. 5-10 in. 
long, with a few irreg^ular divisions near the base, and 
a long, slender, much-incised apical portion, occasionally 
xx>oting at the apex. A very rare native species. 



BBB. Lvs. onee pinnate. 

0. Pinnoi less than %in, long, blunt. 

D. Saehises greenish. 

6. Tfxids, Huds. Lvs. 3-^ in. long, scarcely more than 
Kin. wide, with numerous rather distant Ifts., which are 
ovate and deeply crenate : sori abundant, oblique. A 
subalpine species of N. Eu. and N. Amer. S. 1: 661. 

DD. Sachises purplish or blackish. 

6. TriehAmanei, Linn. Lvs. densely clustered, 3-8 in. 
long, % in. wide, with densely crowded oval leaflets, 
which are slightly crenate on the 

upper side and suddenly narrowed 
at the base. Northern hemis- 

g here generally. A.G. 1892:653. 
.1:653. 

7. pArYolom, Mart, ft Galeotti. 
Leaf 5-9 in. long, with 20-30 pairs 
of mostly opposite lfts.,whicn are 
H-% in. long, rounded at the 
outer margin and squarely trun- 
cate at the base. South- 
em states and Mez. 

00. Pinna H-l inch 
long, with a strong 
auricle at the up- 
per side of the base 
or deeply incised 
on the upper mar- 
gin. 

8. pUtynelavii, Oakes 

iA. eben^um, Ait.), 
ivs. 6-15 in. long, with 
30-35 pairs of Ifts. 
which have an enlarged 
auricle at the upper 
side at the base, the 
lower Ifts. reduced to 
mere triangular auri- 
cles : sori, when ma- 
ture, covering the en- 
tire surface. Canada to 
S.Amer. A.G.1892:654. 
S. 1:535. 

9. formdtam, WiUd. 
Lvs. 12-16 in. long, 
with numerous alter- 
nate pinnsB which are mostly deflexed, with the upper 
margin deeply incised and the lower margin toothed : 
sori 3-6 to each 1ft. Trop. Amer. S. 1 : 576. 

000. Pinna f-tf in. long, linear or lanceolate. 

10. mffUtUdlimn, Michx. Lvs. 18-24 in. long on stout 
stalks, 4-6 in. wide, with 20-30 pairs of nearly sessile 
pinnaa, which are truncate at the base and extend to a 
tapering point; fertile pinnae narrower and more dis- 
tant. Moist woods northward. S. 1 : 496. 

11. salioildlimn, Linn. Lvs. 12-18 in. long, with about 
20 distinctly stalked horizontal pinnaB, which are wedge- 
shaped at the base, and curve upward to a long point : 
sori strongly oblique to the midrib, wide apart, not 
reaching either margin or midrib. W. Ind. to Bras. 

BBBB. Lvs. t-i pinnate. 

0. Ultimate divisions linear or cuneate : venation 
sometohat fan-shaped : texture thick. 

12. Biptistii, Moore. Leaf bipinnate, with broadly 
ovate pinnas 5 in. or more long, each with about 4 stipi- 
tate linear toothed pinnules ; sori nearly parallel with 
the mid vein and close to it ; rachises scaly, with pur- 
plish lined scales. South Sea Islands. 

13. affine, Swz. Leaf 9-18 in. long, with numerous 
pinnae on either side, the lower ovate deltoid, the upper 
lanceolate ; pinnules incised : sori linear. Mauritius 
and Ceylon to E. Ind. 

14. AdiAntom-nignuB, Linn. Stalks brownish, lvs. 3- 
pinnatifld from winged rachises, triangular, 6-9 In. long; 
ultimate divisions ovate, sharply incised and serrate on 
both sides. Old World generally. S. 1: 486. 




139. Aaplealum rhIiopfayUum. 



ASPLENIUH 

m. Lti. IS-IS In. lone, 4-6 Id. irids, 
trtplDDftte b«lov, the ultimate division! broully obtaae 
■bore uti BtroDglf cnneate belon ; goii linear, usnally 
loDK for the Blie of ths aegmeati. Trop. reglan* 
generslly. 

16. fr&KTUU, Swarti (A. fanieulieeum, Kuath.)- 
Lts. S-3-plDiute : nltlmSite Begments lanceolate, eharp- 
■errate above ; veina Blmple or the lowest forked : aori 
oblong, extending from ID id rib to near basaof tbe lobei: 
petiole browTiisb, rachla flattened. W. lod. 8.1:577, 

00. miinuiU 

17. tostkaam, Bernb. OrowlnK in dense elastera : 
Its. 3^ In. long. 1 in. or more vide, Z-pinnatej segments 
with 2-6 splDDlose teeth vhleh are widely divergent : 
Bori kt mattirity oovering nearly the entire aurtace o( 
the segmenti. Eng. and Spain to the Himalayaa. S. 
1 : 574. 

ceo. CltimaU diciliiHU Umgtr, not tpinulott : ttxturi 
M<m6rani>ui or lirtrbat*i>UM, 
IS. bBlUlinim.Forat.(^.I<lnim,Hort.). Lts. 1-lKR. 
long, e-8 in, wide, 3-pinnatifld ; pinaie tapering to a 
Blender toothed point : often bearing bulbs from which 
new plants originate while aCUl attached lo the leaf. 
Afr. and Anatralaala. B.UBOB. 



brown stalks and rachUes : Ivs. 6-15 

or 4-piiinatifld, the ultimate aegmeuts frequently deeply 

2-lobed with a single soras to each division. Fla. to 3. 

20. rientiifum, Swi. Ltb. 3-pinnatlfld with a winged 
raehis, 8-18 in. long ; pinnales ovate, with B-7 narrow 
dlriaiona. each bearing a aingle aoras ; texture thin, 
. Trop. Amer., rare in Fla. 



B. Jjv4. bipintuitifid, UiM than a foot lang. 

21. qMnallabnm, Hook. Lvs. 4-7 in. long, S In. wide 
or IsBB, with about 10 pinnK, which are made up of 5-T 
narrow segments bearing oocaalonal Borl on the outet 
margin of the segments. New Hebrides and FIJI Isla. 
8. 1 : 624. 

KB. Iivt. f-plHiuifa or S-fiwiMHtii, ovtr a foot long, 
o. Pinna mKoH, teith clots ttgmtnti. 

22. TOtliUUnm, Kunie. Lvs. 13-lBin.Iong,wlt)iI3-20 

!innai on each aide, enel -' -  
or 3 of the lower ones 
Ind. and Jap. 

23. B«Unc«Tl, Knnse. Fig. IBO. Lvs. 16-18 tn. long, 
3 Id. wide, withnnmerous horliontal pinnnoneaeh aide, 
ent Into about 12 segmeDta on either side, which are set 
Dearly at right angleB to tbe raebis ; the lower balal 
■egmeDt often forked. E. Ind. 



ua. Aasla 

CO. Pinna longtr, icilk leaUtred narroKl]/ Ilntar 

tcgmenti. 
24. TlTipuom, Presl. Lvs. lG-21 in. long. 6-S in. wide, 
OD rather ahort stalka with pinnalifld pinnules and ulti- 
mate aegments, which are narrowly linear and often 



forked: plantaften balb-beariDg, like A. tultl/aram. 

Maaritlns and Bourbon. Uult, under Tarious names. 
S. 1:662. A. nditli). Hort.,isagardenTaclety. 
LA±. 8ori more Br [aai curvid, lomttimti \ontt\o*- 
ihapcd : Ivi. ample, t-* pinnatitii. 

25. FiUs-lvmlna, Bernh. Lts. 18 Id. to 3 ft., broadly 
ovate-oblong, blplnnate ; plnnn 4-8 in. long, lanceolate, 
with nnmerons more or less plnnately incised or aerrute 
segments. Eu. and N. Amer. — Very variable, especially 
In cult. Schneider describes 56 varieties. 

26. thelyvteroide*, HIcbi. Lvs. 1-2 ft. long, on long, 
straw-colored stalks ; A-I2 In. wide, 2-pinnat1fld, witb 
linear -lanceolate pinnte ; segments crowded, oblong, 
minutely toothed : sorl 10-12 to each segment. Rich 



soil Id the ei 



n U. t 



1:651. 



it ; segments short and sharply 



Sopplementarr llic of leas common trade t 
(um, Hon. Hab. I--i. arMreum. See Dloli 
dum— A. Uneatum.— J.^HtufrUum. See CbUI) 



A. bUi- 

lpt«rlt.— J. tUlp. 



T, *-8 lo. 

^um, UelUnlua. (Athrriani OorlDcianum. var. pictnml 
Hon.). Dlatlncnlshed from all other memben of the KBDoa by 
the briibt oolor of ita entlreLy decldnou* fnndi. which are 1»- 
U In. Ions, apear-ahaped. and pendulooa. Poailblr the only 
hardj carlecaled fem. It, however, needa irlaia proteetloD for 
V .._ ,.._.,. , . ,._ I ..._ witha 



... .-aanlta. SUIka purplt 



.e orclAret-eolored; Iva. neei 
divided iolo ghBTplT toothed t 



central baodot arar; 1 ...._ 

en which the oblonc or kldner-ahaped sorl are arranBea In _. , 
TowsparallBl to the mldvBln. J«i>.— A. Wii«uiii, See Dlt^ 

and BoDibon. la vary variable, munliiE InW formi wllb Ifts. 
aeala plnasCe, which have either amall, linear pinQoIea or these 
aialn twine cut^ Ivi. 1-a ft. long, 4-fl in. wide : aulki erect, «-« 
in. loni, mare or loes acr.l3.—i. limofiiinuiin. Blnme. The beat 
of aU the genoa for lance batketa. Lva. 2-3 ft. lone. 4-fl In. 
bmad ; (lalki bUcklsh. 3-12 in. long: Itta, geiille. anrlcled. 
E.Ind. B.l:«02.-A. tno-^plttfllum. Swi. Coolhoase ipeclsa 
from Polynesia. Malaya, China, and Hlnulayas. Lvi.ft-IB In. 



ABPESLU. Stie Atptrtlla. 

ABTXS {a ttar). Compitita. Astib. SraftwOBT. 
tSuyaxutkB Daibt. A large temperate -sone genas of 
attractive but botanlcally-conCased 
herbs, particularly abundant in N. 
Amer. The genua In charaeteriied 

blue, red, or purple), slender style 
appendages, compressed several- 
DCrved akenes, and an involucre \ 
with unequal bracts Id few or sev- 
eral rows, the pappus almple, soft, 
and abundant (Fig. 161). LeaFy- 
Btemmed. mostly blooming in the 
autumn. Some of the species are 
annual, but thoae In cnlt. are per- 
ennial (or rarely biennial). All are 
easy of cultivation in ordinary soil 
and eipoBUres, and are among the 
best plants for the hardy border 
or tor oaturaliilng in the freer 
partB of the grounds. They grow ,„ ^,7^ ^^ ^ 
readily from seeds, but are gen- Aster 

erally prop, by division of the ^ „, 

clumps. Cslimena and Llnoayrla c aCamens* d atylea 
are kept distinct In this book. ' ' ' 

A. Old WotH Alters, lomi of Ihtm old garden plantt, 
and lomeichal modified by cult. 
B. Stemt simple and erapt-like, brariag a tinglt (I. 
alplonti Linn. Lvs. entire and spatulate, forming a 
eluater on the ground, those on the stem small and 
linear: at. 3-10 In., bearing a large violet -rayed, hand- 
some bead. B.M. 199. — In ita wild state, the plant also 



112 A8TEB , ABTER 

oecnrt In the Rocky Hti. Vkliikble Blpiae or roekwork oblong- >patalkt« to broad -laoeeolite, aerrmte : beads 

plant, with fls. viryiDK to pink mud white. Var. tpMlA- violet or lilac. ArcUe En.and Ainer., and Bock; Mts.— 

WOM, Hart.. !■ taller and atroDKer, vlth heiida 3-1 In. Excellent roekvork plant. 

«:rM. V«r. ■apMmi, Hort. (Gn. M: 1193), la a large ^^^ i^i„„, ^boat a-3 ft., .lender-branched : !«. 

""_.'■"? ''"™- _ . , «^.  , „ linear, or lance-llnear : heada large and blue, with long, 

EimslUm*. C. B. Clarke (.i. .ffinatny^niif, Eort.). distinct, handsome rays. S.Eu. Qn. 37: 7M. 

Similar to A. olpinna, bot dwarf er : raya lllae-blue, ^. , , „. .t.o^ .. _.. 

allghtly recurved at the tip : ata. 1-12 In., slightly vll- trtBirrlui. Boibg. About 3 ft., stout, corvraboae at 

lous ; IvB. oblong or elliptic, nearly entire. Htoaiaya., '■"umlt = Iva. lanee-ovaCe and atrongly toothed : heads 

ia.OOO-16.000 ft.-LI«le known in America. "«»• '''"" or pnrple (a f«lo '«■); w^h "arrow. 'P'*"^" 

dlplortniUMdaa. Benth. '°l-"?:!_-?,'-""''^"- H.H. 1893:39e.-Hardy, hand- 

. erect and atriate, biapid, 
„ often 7 ft. high : Iva. large 
aneeolate or oval lanceolate, 
: tnvolacre scales pnrpUab at 
,late. Siberia. Q.F.4:19T.- 
irder, particularly tor Ita very 

■BS. These plants are one of 
mer. autumn, and are amongst 
ly border plante. They gener- 
tiy in habit when tranaiterred 

Ida. Any of these wild Aaiers 
ikely to come Into cultivation 
y time. The namber ot kinds 
ge. Thestndentwill Sndthem 
^Mrlbed in Grar's Synoptical 
i of North America, 1, pt. i. 
e ot the northeaatem stalea 
kdjaeeoc Canada will be found 



Ates. Thetollowing Hat 
priaea those known to 
n calt. Ot tbeae, only 

Jfova-Angliai  



A, atuminit«t, Uicbi.; 

amtlhitlinHi, Natt. (G.F. 

. 5:3TS): Anderioni, Gray; 

' Bisiloi-ii,OrAy(B.lS.6t30); 
enn^iccna, Purxh ; Carvli- 

 ; Chdpmoni, Torr, A Gray ; 
tuiilvt. Gray; e^iuolor.Llnn.{ 
DiCHOHf, Llodl.; eordiMJiai, 
. (Pig. 162f -, corvMMiHf, Ait.: 
ekii. Gray; dimtut, Alt., and 
xoritonti lit; Doiglat 1 1 , Llnd I. ; 
mtnimdii, Undl.; dtiwAtiit, 
.; tHroidei, Linn.; talritm*. 
1.; y^ndlrri,anj; MiAcrm. 
[.; frimonli. Gray; oroadi- 
I, Linn.; BdllH. Onj ; Bfr- 
Gmy (G-P. 2:1T3); iiitevri- 

__ t, Nplt.; Xirfii, Linn.; Iinarii- 

apiilYed A.Dtptoitaihidtt. " MS. Artci Novae-AnsUae. »«"». I-'n"-; /'''^''•'*""';,X?"' 

DB. 8ltm, uiually brayu:h*d Oce ot th. beat and mo.1 .howy of natlv, A««r.. La„_ ',q p. g.^^^ "g.w.P. )0|: 

and itviral- to many-fid. maerop**JlH», Linn. (U.F.4:S9>; 

AmtUna, Linn. St. simple or nearly ao, few-fid. or MintittU, Llndl,; tnuUHlbrui, Ait.; ntmorilii. Ait.; 

sometimes only 1-fld.: Ivs. oblong- lanceolate, acute. Nii-a-Anslia, Linn. (Pig. 163. A.P. 9:283), and var. 

Bomewhat aerrate, more or lesa 3-nerved. roughish- rilseui ; A'Jt^-Bifoii.Linn-; o6loii(fi«H«».Nntt.; paair- 

pubeaceot : Involucre scales oblong, obtuse or nearly uWlua, Lam-: pd(eti«. Ait., and var. MeikanHt poly 

eo, apreading, in4-5rowa; heads large, purple. Eu.and pHllui. Wllld.; Pdrfen, Gray ; prenantkoidet, Muhl.; 

Asia. Gn.35:689.-V«rlable, and several well-marked plamicoidti, Torr. A Gray (G.P. 3:153); pulekaia; 

nrden forms, Eaton ; panfcem, Linn. |Flg. llilj, and var. larttailil 

V.,. ■••■•rihi.ni. ni'- I A Ti...„,Ai,i,^, nami. I and var. luciditlus; radunnm, Gray; tagitifiiint, 

Var. Seaiartbioiia. DC. (A. Biiiardfuent, Bemh.). a/iiiA . ,„UrUi,ii^. *it - •.H.-rui Vpnt (G V 1-*7ai' 

Lva. oblong and attenuated at base : plant taller and Wllld. , an (.««(.«., Alt., »'™;"; '"»■ '^^J;';*™ ; 

i.r,F,.r HH Hiu.., .,,....,111 (].. OK n iTi —<i\,n-^t, m^A Aa Saortii, Hook.(G.* . 1: 1731 »p<(taoiua, Ail.(Hn. 6:4I| [ 

.1«M. "^ ^^  ^' "''■^'""'J' ""^ <'' ,»rrHib,»,. MIchi. (Q.F. 5:521): (<.«a««WKw. HBK.; 

Biraoie. Tradticdnti, Linn.; (ur6(n«)iij. Lindl. (Q.F. 6:17); 

Var. OMrtblmi*, Hort. {A. Cattxardbieu; Maundl|. unditlitut, Dnn, (G,W,P. 1); verticalor, Wllld. 
Fla. larger than in the type, the rays regular and de- 
fleied, the disk bright golden and broad. In I 

Slbirinu, Linn, A foot or lesa high, somewhat pn- ti^u 
beaeent, each branch terminating In a single head : Ivs. Uut  



ASTBB 



113 



f A.paMai. fonnd hj 



>l(]a[osi«ilLi 



A. SiitinUrtMit, Uool 
nrrmb*. Hlmilmju. 'B.M, 41 



The nktiTc AstcTs are amongst the very best plonta for 
burden Kod roadaldea. The; should ba better knovn. 
A.acuminatui grows well in shsde In ordinary Boll, □□! 
Deeesearllf molal ; InDreaaes In vigor under cultivation. 
A.eotdifoiiua prefera opea or partial ihade i Improve! 
mufh uDder cultivation with good soil. A. eorymboiut 
prefers at least partial shade, and will grow even In very 
daep shade; seeds very freely; does well on dry ledgea 
and la smail crevices in rock ; very tenacious of lite. A . 
dumajiii prefers fall auoligbtaaddry aituation. A.tri- 
reidet wants full saoUght and dry altnatlon ; will grow 
in very poor or aballow soil, but does best where roots 
can penetrate deep. A . lavii grows In either full auo- 
llgbt or partial shade and good soil. A. ffova-AHglia 
will not endure much shade ; prefers moist soil, but 
grows well In ordinary garden sltuatloaa. Fall-sown 
•eedllnga of A. Nova-Angtia, var. rottut, oome prac- 
tically true to varietal name, though varying In sbade 
of color, and these seedlings bloom later than older 
plaots and at height of IS inr;he8, making the plant of 
value as » late bedding plant treated as en annual. A. 
Soci-Btlgii prefers moist soil ; will not endure heavy 
Khade. A.pa*ie,ilalut prefers moist soil, but will do 
well In rather dry situations ; will endure more shade 
than either of the two above species. A . paltni wants 
open or half-shailed places, and good soil ; one of the 
weaker species, often proving short-lived. A-puniceui 
will not endnre shade; prefers moist places, but will 
grow In good soil not over moist ; in dry situations It 
loses Its vigor ; spreads rapidly In favored locations. 
A. iptetabilit prefers open or partly sh ailed places; one 
of the weaker species In wild state ; rather short-lived. 
A . uHduIaJut wants open or half shade ; late-flowering, 
handsome plant, forming large bnsbes where allowed to 
develop. A. vimintui, altboughnot In the trade, Isaflne 
plautm cultivation. P. W. B^IKLXY. 

ABTEB, CHUIA. CaltUtepXui Xortituii, Cass. ICai- 
Itiltphui Chin^'ntU. Nees. Calllilemma kortiiUu, 
Cass. Alter SiiUniit.aoTt.). Comp6iita. The genns 
Calllstemma Is older than Calllstepbus, but it la too like 
Callistemon to stand. B.M. 7616. Gn. S3: n63.-Oneo( 
the most papular of all garden annuals, being particu- 
larly valuable for its fall blooming. The evolution of 
tbe China Aster suggests that of the chrysanthemum 
at almost every point, and It Is, therefore, a history of 
remarkable variations. The plant Is native to China. It 
was Introduced into Europe about 1731 by R. P. d'lnear- 
rllle, a Jesuit mlHnionary In China, for whom the genns 
IncarvUtea of the Blgnonla family was named. At that 
time it was a single flower ; that Is, the rays or llgulate 
florets were of only 3-4 rows. These rays were blue, rio- 
let or white. The center of the Bower (or head) was 
comprised o( very numerous tubular, yellowish florets. 
Hhllip Miller, the famous gordener-botanlat of Chelsea, 
Eog., received seeds of the single white and red Asters 
In 1731, evidently from Prance; and he received the 
single blue In 1736. In 1752 he obtained seeds of the 
double red and blue, and In 1753 of the double white. 



le ther 



appear! 



ivs that the plants grew IS In. or 2 ft. high. 
Martyn, In 1H07. says that In addition to these varieties 
mentioned by Mlllpr, there hiul then appeared a "varie- 
gated blue and white" variety. The species was well 
known to American gardeners at the opening of this cen- 
tury. In 1806 M'Mahon, of Philadelphia, mentioned the 
"China Aster (In sorts)' as one of the desirable garden 
annuals. Bridgeman, a New York seedsman, offered the 
China and German Asters in 1837 "In numerous and 
■picndid varieties," specifying varieties "alba, rubra. 



cerutea, striata purpurea, 
"Chlnaand Herman Asters 
England. This ni 



In 1845, Eley said that 
a luD very numerODS " in New 
man Aster record! tbe fact tbat 
. . In the evolution of the plant 
were made In Germany, and the seed which we now use 
comes largely from that country. The flrst marked de- 
parture from the type appears to have been the pro- 
longation or great development of the central florets ot 
the head, and the production of tie "quilled" flower. 
This type of Aster was very popular 40 and 60 years ago. 
Breck, In the first edition of his Flower Garden, in 1851, 
apeaks of the gieM Improvement of the Alter "within • 



IM. Aater punlceua. 

w years" "by the Oerraan florlBlB. and others," and 
Ids that "the full-quilled varieties are the most highly 
teemed, having a hemispherical shape, either  pure 
hi(e, clear blue, purple, rose, or deep red ; or beautl- 
Llly mottled, striped, or edged with those colors, or 
irlng a red or blue center." About 60 years ago tbe 
iblt of the planl had begun to vary considerably, and 
e progenitors of our moiivm dwarf races began to at- 
act attention. The quilled, blgh-centered flower ot a 
generation or more ago Is too Btlft lo satisfy the tastes 
of these later days, and the many flat-rayed, loose and 
fluffy races are now most In demand, and their popu- 
larity Is usually greater the nearer they apnroacn the 
form of the uncombed chrysanthemums. The China 
Aster had loDg since varied Into a wide range ot colors 



114 



ASTEB 



of tlM eTMils Mrlei— Rhkde* of bine, red, pink and pnr- 

ple. The modem evolution of the plmnt is In the dlreo- 
tloQ of hahlt, Bad form of Bower. Some type vaiiea— 
geDerally rather luddealy oad without apparent cause— 
Into some novel foim, still retaining Ita accustomed 
color. The Boriat flies the Toriatioii by brvedlng from 
the best and most stable plants, and soon other colors 
appear, nntil he final If obtains the entire nnge of color 
In Che species. So It happens that there are rarioaa 
well marked races or types, each of which has its full 
and Independent range of colors. TheComettype (with 
very flat raya). now one of the most deserrlog of the 
China Ast«rs, lllustnt«s these BtMements admirably. 
The Comet form- the loose, open flower with long, slrap- 
like rays— appeared upon the market about 1880 or 18«7, 
with a flower of a dull white overlaid with pink. The 
pink tended to fade out afl^r the flower opened, lesvlng 
the oolor an unwashed white. The rose-colored Comet 
[t appeared, and the blae was introduced in 1890. The 



flrst cleitr white was Introdi 
coming from Vilmorin. of Paris. 
reached its frreatest artistic perfection. 



Chin, 



a in 1892, 



actory ctaaslflca- 
tion of the China Asters. It is no longer practicable to 
classify the varieties by color. Neither Is it feasible to 
classify them upon habit or stature of plant, for several 
of the best marked types nin into both tall and dwarf 
forms. Vilmorin, however, still divides the varieties 
Into two groups, the pyramidal growers, and the non- 
pyramidal growers. The moat elaborate claasiflcatlon 

sive tests made at 6hi>wiok, Eng. Barron baa IT sec- 
tions, but they are not coordinate, and they are really 
little more than an enumeration of the varloua types 



US. China Aatar— TIm bnochlne type. 



B. Incurved or ball-ihapBd. 

as. Spreading or reflfixed, 
Li. TnbolarsriiDllledAiters.lnwMshaU.orallbut the!or3 
Dnt«r rows of floreta. have prominently tubular eDrollas. 
B. Inner florets short, oncer ones lander and flat. Repre- 
sented br the Gennau Qnllled. 

BB. All the aorets eloncatwl and aallled. 
In 1895, 250 varieties of Asters were offered by Amer. 
seedsmen. For growing in borders, perhaps Uie beat 
type is the Comet, in vari- 
ous colors. Other eioellent """ 
races are the Bianchlng 
{Vick'sBranching is shown 
In Fig. leS), Truffaut (Fig. 

166), known alaoaaPerfec- ; : 

tion and Peony -flowered ^ 
Chryaanthem um . flowered ; 
Washington; Victoria, { 
Mignon; and Queen of the 
Market. The last is com- 
mended for earliness and 
snceful, open habit, and 
It is one of the best for 
cut -flowers. Many other 
types are valuable for spe- 
cial pnrpo sea. The Crown 
or Cocardeau Is odd and 
attractive. Amongst the 
quilled Asters, the various 
strains of German Quilled 
(Fig. 16T),VicCorta Needle 
|Fig. 168), and Lilliputare 
excellent. The very dwarf 
tufted Asters are well 
represented in Dwarf Bon- 
quet or Dwarf German, and 
Sbakespeare. All these are 

easily grown in any good " 

garden soil. For early 
seeds may be 



IH. China Aatar 



started u 

good fall bloom may be 

had. even In the North, by 

sowing seeds in the open 

as late aa the 1st of June. Asters make very abowy 

bedding plants when grown in large masses, and are 
3 also valuable for filling up vacancies In the mixed 
' herbaceous border, where they ought to be planted in 

clumps, the dwarfer kinds pnt in front and the taller 

behind. 
There are two or three insects which prey upon the 

China Aster, but they do not appear to be widespread. 

The most serious difficulty with them lathe rust, a fungus 

side of the leaf and raises an orange -colored pustule, 
's with the copper fungicides will keep Ibis 



plan! 



)rder in check. The Hordes 
nd It is. therefore, b< 
e of copper. Spray i 
ippears, and repeat every wee 



le the ai 
iplaD 






iinlacal 
I before the 



'ungus 

a cj'clone noxile and spray upwards, so as t« strike the 
under sides of the leaves. L. H. B. 

In recent year*, tbe Branching Asters have come to be 
prominent, and Ibey are bound to increase in popnlarlly 
as their merits become known. The long stem, large 
size, and soft shades of pink and lavender have made 
this the most useful to the florist of all the Asters. 



rally nnders 
'  will s 



(nby 



^ it doe 



I. thattheyoung 
frost than cabbage. If 
ilddle of Febmary. in 



started under gli 

New Vork state, they will be ready to plant 
latter part of April or first of May. They will then come 
In at abont the same time they would if grown entirely 
under glass, although not so long-stomraed. For fall 
flowers, we sow out-of-doors with seed drill and culti- 
vate with wheel hoe. I hare bad plants mined by being 
vi ._j 1 n...^ lujg brood of striped 



beetles fed on the Aster flowers. 



II ABNOI.D, Jb. 



ASTILBB 



115 



Tbeflrat reqaUlteto the growbig at Chtoa Altera la to 
hkve good, plump seed. Ai soon as ths Kronod is in 
goad or Mr condition In ■pring. spade up % seed-bed 



between the pluits, mnning hone and enltlTator twice 
In each row. The caltiTsIflr looseDi the graand &a deep 
■B It waa plowed. Cultivate and hoe ever? two weeks, 
especially after It has rained, ODtll bads appear ; then 
keep clean by hand. When bZoomB be^ln to appear, 
mulch llberaJly with tobacco steniH, to keep down weeds 
and m kill aphis at the roots. When the fls. begin to 
open, keep a Btrlct watch for the black beetle. When it 
makes its appenraiice, put about a pint of water and 
a gill of Iwniine in an old can and hold It under the 



Tbene pest 



a six 



ABTlLBE (Oreek name, of no particular algDlflcanoe). 
SaxilrasAeta. Includes JfffJin. Tall perennial herbs, at 
7 or 8 apecles in eastern N. Amer. and Asia. They look 
much like Aruticus (which see), and are often called 
SpiriBa. AruDcua and Bplriea are rosaceous genera, and 
are characterised by many stamens and nsnally by sev- 
eral to many separate pistils, whereas Astllbe has S 



B (twice the i 



mber, 



mber,  



the petals), and t, S-3-lobed pistil (which finally s 
ral«s into more or leas distinct toUicles). Astllbs and 
Arnncusare so mach alike that they are constantly con- 
founded by horticulturists and even by botanists. They 
probably inter-cross. It Is probable that they should be 
placed in the same family, despite the techoical botani- 
cal differences. The Aslllbes are hardy plants of great 
merit. They are easily grown In any well-niada border. 
They give conspicuous masses of bloom In summer. 
Prop, mostly by division. l. h, B. 

FoBciNO or ASTiiJiE. — Pew berbaeeons plants force 
witb greater ease ibtnAitUbtJaponlta and Ita var. com- 
paela; but three weeks longer time should be given the 
latter to fully develop Its feathery spikes. Aatilbea aro 
BO easily and cheaply Imported that for the commercial 
florist it is cheaper to buy than to divldo and grow his 
own plants. When first received, the clumps of roota 
should be stored, with a little earth or moss between the 
roota and a Utile soil over the crown, until the florist ia 
ready U pot them. No amount of freezing does them 
the slightest harm ; but the boies or flats f n which they 



Lwor litter, 

ihould have tbe fulj_ bene fit of rain orsnoirto keep 

burying Id lo the 



:a from drying. Prompotti 
greenhouse, it requires from ten to fourteen weeks 
bring them InIO 

the earllness of the 



]«T. Cblu Aatw- Ounnma Quilled. 

where the ground is rich, and rake it fine. Then make 
shallow drills about an inch deep ; whiten the drills 
with ^r.Blaked linie,te keep worms and inaecta from 
eating the young roots. Sow tho seed In the drills, cov- 
ering abont !<in. deep with fine dirt run through a sieve 
of Kin. mesh. When plants are about an inch higb, 
draw good, fine dirt to Uie roots, so that the seed-bed Is 
nearly level and all the weeds are covered. The plants are 
hardier and belter when grown In the open ground than 
when sterted under glass. Forthe permanent quarters, 
plow ground thathasbeenwell and heavily manured with 
eow-manaie the previous aesaoH ; then harrow thor- 
oughly. Scatter 20 U 30 bushels of common lime M the 
acre, if thought necessary, then plow agsln and barrow 
well. With aoae-horse plow make furrows the length 
of' the field about 3 or 4 Inches deep and 2% feet apart. 
In these furrows one man drops the plants In two rows 
abont 12 or 16 in. apart, for two men to plant. Do not 
furrow much ahead of the planters, ao that they have 
fr^sh dirt to put U> the roots of the plants. By thia 
method the plants seldtim wilt. If a dry apell follows in 
three or four days, level the furrow with a hoe : if wet, 
let atand for about two weeks, then scatter 100 pounds 
of guano or other fertlllier te the acre, and work the 
land with a Epike-looth cultivaUr, with no shovels, so 
that DO dirt is thrown on the small plants. Hand.hos 



sequence, provided 
it Is light and easily 
handled. They need 

dsnce. Tempera- 
ture Is also of little 
consequence. Any- 
thing above 50° at 
night will do ; but 
Itia best notto flow- 
er them in higher 



time tbe spravs begi: 

show white color n 

thevare fully develoi 

every AHllbe she 

stand in a saucer 

which there should 

constantly an inch 

liquid manure. When ibb. China Aalei-Vlctoria Needle. 

aold for window plants 

or for decoration, Asrilbes are often disappointing. It 

is merely want of water. Before the full development 

of the ahoote and Its. they are easily hurt by tobacco 

smoke, and should be covered with paper or well wetted 



116 



ASTILBE 



wben (omigatlon Is neoeiairT' Apbii, spider or tbripi 
Daver trouble AetUbe. As  border plant, Astllbe is one 
of the hardiGBt of oar bardj herbaceous plants ; but the 
feather; plume obtained In the greenhouBe is much 
shorter, more oompsAt, and laeki the pare whlteneiia of 
the outdoor-grown apeclmene. Wiluak Scott. 

A. ^Ii. opming irUU or ytlloviik. 
dectadra, Don(A.Ml<ntdra,Brltt.). Somewhat pubes- 
cent, 3-6 ft. : Ivs. 3-tem»te, lie Ifts. ovate and cordate or 
abrupt at bane, sbarp-ser- 
rate : fls. reUawlBb wbit«, 
-12 in. tang I 
Dicle J lUt- 
>d8, Va. and 
Founded with 



ASTROCAKYUM 

>pike*. frhl«b are disposed in panicles; stameni 8 or 10, 
pure white. Nepal. Qn.4S, p. 3K5.-AttTaotlTe border 
species, blooming late. Probablj' needs proteijtian. 

ThtabarsU. Hiq. Bllky hairy, 1-2 ft. : Ivs. pinnate, the 
Ifts. oval, serrate, Tellowish green: fls. white, on reddish 
stalks, (banging to pink, in clusters on the fl. -branches. 
Japan. B.B. lB95,p.56i.— Agracefolplant. Forces well. 
±A. Fli. apeniim pink or red. 
CUnfalU, IVancb. A 8av. plant l}i-2 ft., graceful ; 
Its. 3-temate, the Ifts. serrate : fls. in a branch;, rather 
compact panicle, with purplish or pink reflection, but 
the petals whitish. China. - Fossiblf a form of the pre- 
ceding. Yet rare in Amer. 
rtbra, Book. & Thorn. St. simple. 4-6 ft., long-hairy: 
ibllque-ovate, more or less cordate, 
amerous, rose-red, in compact, ro- 
Btameu 10, shorter than petals. India. 

-' '--'•— ijjttle known in Amer. 

L.H. B. 
ABTSAaAin (ancient Greek name of some shrub). 
Iiegumindta. BdiLE Vetch. 
A genus of over 1,000 spe- 
cies of hardy herbs or 
Bubahrubs. Ltb. moKtIy 
odd-pinnate: fls. In spikes 
or raeemss, yellow, purple 
or white. They prefer  
light, porous soil and no 
shade. The dwarfer kinds 
may be placed in the front 
of the border or in the 
rockery. Prop, chiefly by 



Fig. 189. 


Erect, 


1-3 ft.. 


ha&y on 


the 


petioles 


and nodes 


Iva. 


3-2-ter- 


nate, petio 






ovate -acute 


tapering to the 


base, serra 


te: fl 


whlte, 






panicle; » 




10. Ja- 


pan. B.M 


3821. 


Gn. 48, 


p. 366. Hn 


6:17* 


-Com- 


monly kno 
glasshouse 


vn as a sprlnit 


plant 


In this 


country, but hardy In the 






enlt. forms 




. graa- 


dUUra, Hurt., wit 


1 larger 



art., thepani- 

maItU16Ta, Hort.; var. va- 
liegitA, Hort., with vorie- 
geted Ivs.; var. pnrpArea, Hort., with purple-shaded 
foliage. AttltbtJapoHira la often confused with Arun- 
cut aatiiboidra ; Piga. 169 and 170 will aid in distin- 
guishing them. 

Lam6Inel, Hort. Foliage graceful, standing l^ift. high, 
with Ifts. broad -oval, dentals and crimped, satiny green, 
huiry ; lis. with white petals and 10 pink stamens, very 
numerous, in plume-like ilustera disposed in panicles 
IJ^tl.long. On. 48. p. 35a. K.H.1B95. p.567. A.P.I1:4S9. 
— Garden plant, supposed to be a hybrid of A.Japonica 
and Arancut aitilboidea . Hardy, and forcea well. 

rlnUrti, Bamitt. Rhiiome creeping: St. 3-5 ft.: Ivs. 




■eedB, 



which 



slowly, or slowly by careful 
dlvlsioQ in early apring. 
Many kinds are likely to 
die if divided or trans- 
planted. Many kinds are 
oaltlvated In the Old 
World, but the four de- 
■cribed below are the only 
  ' aonly sold i 





America 


Of the many na 








as rattle-weeds, the 


ollowing are ad 


vertiaed 


at present : 


A. Camidtn,i,~ 


A. Car, 


linianus, A. 




Drumm 


ondii A. fie 


rHoiui. A. Lax 


manni. 




Bobbini 


a, A. S\ortU 




weed o 


the prairie«, 


which U said to 



•slliaj 



For 



.te, (he Ifts. 



: the 



*ioles 



ray- 



hairy: fls. yBliowisb white, changing to reddish, In large 



these and many others the student it 
referred to Brilton and Brown's lllUR- 
Floro, and Coulter's Hanual of 
Rocky Mountain Botany. 

i. Fit. yiUoK. 

BlopMnnidM, Linn. St. erect, strict : 

height 2-6 ft.: If la. ovate -lanceolate, pn- 

" -.. Siberia. B.M. 3193. 

AA. FU. net ytllov. 

. , Linn. St. trailing : 
height 9 in.: fls. purple, purplish or 
white, in smaller and looser heada than 
the above. Eu. B.M. 376. 
hyposUttll, Linn. Height 3-S4 In.: Ifts. 17-25 : fls. 
violet-purple, 6-10 lines long. In dense heads : pods 4-5 
lines long, 2-celled, densely villous, with white hairs. 
Eu.,Agia,andfromKanBasW. to Nev. and N. to Alaska. 
-jAlso a white var., eicoUent for pota. 

alplnni, Linn. Belght6-I6 in.: Ifts. 13-35: fls. violet, 
keel darker : pods I-celled, black -pubescent. Korthern 
and Arctic regions round the world. 

J. B. Eeller and W, M. 

ASTEOCABTVK (Greek, attron, star, and karyan. 
nut : referring to star-like arrangement of the fruits). 
PalmAetit, tribe Coeointa. Splnv palms, stemleas or 
with a short caudei, or witll a tall, ringed, spiny ciu- 



ASTBOCABYUM 



ATRIPLEX 



117 



dex : !▼&. terminal, pinnately parted ; segments ap- 
proximate, equl-distant or fasciculate, lanceolate-acumi- 
nate or attenuate to the obliquely truncate apex, plicate, 
whitish beneath, the terminal ones free or confluent, the 
spiny margins recurred at the base ; petiole very short; 
sheath short, open : spadices short or long, the finely 
divided branches pendulous, thickened at the base, 
thence very slender, long, naked, the floriferous naked 
basal portion, as it were, pedunculate ; spathea 2, the 
lower one membranous, deciduous, the upper fusiform, 
coriaceous or woodv, open on the ventrsd side, persist- 
ent ; bracts of the female fls. broad, imbricated, like the 
bractlets ; pistillate fls. with a stipitate male one on 
either side : fir. rather large, ovoid or subglobosd, beaked, 
smooth or spiny, red or orange. Species 30. Trop- 
ical America. 

Astrocaryuma are elegant palms of medium height, 
very suitable for moderate sized conservatories. A. 
Murumuru, A. Mexicanum and A.argenteum are the 
kinds most commonly met with in collections. The Ivs. 
are pinnate, and in smali plants, at least in some of the 
species, the segments are narrow, four or five pairs of 
these alternating with two very broad ones. A. argen- 
ieutm has the under surfaces of the Ivs. of a much 
lighter color than the others. In a young state, the 
plants require the temperature of the stove, and after 
attaining the height of a few feet they may be removed 
to a house where the temperature frequently falls as 
low as 45® F. Specimens 8-10 ft. high fruit freely. 
Prop, bv seeds, which are slow in germinating. The soil 
in which they are sown should be changed occasionally, 
to prevent it from becoming sour. Be careful not to 
overpot, or the fleshy roots ^11 decay. See Palms. 

A. Zfvs. scurfy, at least heruath or on (he petioles, 

Mvmmiim, Mart. Lvs. 9-12 ft. long; segments lanceo- 
late, somewhat falcate, rich green above, silvery beneath : 
fits. 12-15 ft. high, densely covered with stout, black 
spines 6 in. long. Brazil. I. H. 22: 213. 

argintenm, Hort. Petioles and under surface of the 
lvs. covered with silvery white scurf ; lvs. arching, 
wedge-shaped, 2-lobed, distinctly plicate, bright green 
above ; petioles with numerous dark, spreading spines 
1 in. long. Colombia. F.B. 3: 569. 

filiAie, Hort. Small, slender : lvs. erect, narrowly cu- 
neate, with 2 divergent lobes, inversely sagittate ; 
petioles densely scurfy ; rachis scurfy on both aides ; 
spines numerous on the petioles and rachis, and on the 
principal nerves above ; brown. Colombia. 

AA. Lvs, not scurfy. 

Ayri, Mart. Trunks 18-30 ft. high, &-12 in. in diam., 
usually e»spitose : lvs. 15 ft. long, equally pinnatisect 
to the apex ; petiole piano-compressed, membranaceous 
on the margins, densely scaly and with scattered spines ; 
lower segments over 3 ft. long. 1^-2 in. wide, 2 in. 
apart, the upper ones 2-2K ft. long, 1 in. wide, IK in* 
apart, conduplieate at the base, linear, long attenuate, 
pointed, minutely and remotely spiny along the margins, 
white-tomentose below. Braz. 

Mezteinnm, Liebm. St. 4-6 ft. high, cylindrical, 
thickly covered with rings of black, straight, ancipital 
spines : petiole 2 ft. long, 4-sided, the 2 upper sides 
concave, clothed (as is the rachis) with straight black 
spines ; blade 6 ft.; segments 15-18 in. long, 1 in. wide, 
alternate, broadly linear, acute, straight, white beneath, 
with deciduous black spines along the margins. Mex. 

OnmattoM, Hort., is an unidentified trade name. 

Jabed G. Smith and G. W. Oliver. 

ASTBOFHtTUX. See IJchinocactus, 

• 

A8Y8TA8IA (obscure name). Including Henfreya 
and Maekaya. AeanthHteea, Twenty to 30 herbs or 
shrubs of the Old World tropics. Corolla tube straight 
or curved, the spreading limb 5-lobed and nearly or 
quite regular : stamens 4, unequal : stig^ma blunt or 
minutely 2-lobed : lvs. thin, entire : fls. white, blue or 
purple, in axillary or terminal clusters, often very showy. 
General treatment of Justieia, in intermediate or warm- 
bouses. 



b41Ia, Bentb. is Hook. {Maekaya bSlla, Harvey). 
Glabrous, upright subshrub : lvs. ovate-oblong, acumi- 
nate, spreading, short-stalked, sinuate-toothed : fls. li- 
lac, 2 in. long, with a long tube below the flaring throat, 
the spreading segments ovate-obtuse, disposed on one 
side of a raceme 5-8 in. long. S. Afr. B.M. 5797.--A 
beautiful plant, rarely seen, and thought to be difficult 
to manage ; but it seems to flower readily in fall in our 
climate, if rested during the previous winter and 
brought on in the summer. Prop, by cuttings of firm 
wood in spring or summer. Young plants in small pots 
often bloom well. 

A. CoromandeliAna, Nees (A. Gomorensis, Bojer. Jostieia 
Gansetiea, Linn.). Zigzag sabshrab: lvs. ovate-cordate, wavy: 
fls. purple, nearly sessile, in 6*10-fld. raceme. Ind. B.M. 424iB. 
P.M. 14: 125. F.S. 2: 179.— A. scdndms, Lindl. (Henfreya scan- 
dens, Lindl.). Climbing : lvs. obovate to ovate, thick, entire : 
fls. large, yeilow, white and blush, in a thyrse. Afr. B.M. 4449. 
B.R.33:3L F.S.3:28L L H B 

ATAKASCO lilt. See Zephyranthes. 

ATHANASIA. Consult Lonas. 

AIHtJiiUM. See Aspleniutn, 

ATEAOENE. See Clematis, 

ATEAFHAZIS (ancient Greek name). Polygonhesm, 
Low shrubs : lvs. alternate or fasciculate, deciduous : 
fis. small, apetalous, in few-fid. axillary clusters, form- 
ing terminal racemes ; sepals 4-5 ; stamens 6-8 : fr. a 
small akene, enclosed by the enlarged inner sepals. 
Summer. About 18 species in central and western Asia, 
Greece, and N. Afr. Low shrubs of spreading habit, 
with usually small lvs., attractive with their numerous 
racemes of white or rose-colored fis., which remain un- 
changed for a long time, owing to the persistent calyx. 
They grow best in well-drained soil and sunny situations^ 
but do not stand transplanting well when older. Prop, 
by seeds sown in spring ; the seedlings are liable to rot 
if kept too moist, or in damp air. Increased, also, by 
greenwood cuttings under glass in early summer, and by 
layers. 

A. huxifblia^ Jaub. & Spaeh. (Polygonum crispulum, Sims). 
Height 1-2 ft., spineless : lvs. obovate, crenate, dark green. 
H-1 in. long : racemes short. Transcaucasia, Turkestan. B.M. 
1005.— A. ffutAseens^ Koch (A. laneeolata, Meissn.). Height 
1-2 ft., spineless : lvs. ovate-lanoeolate, glaneencent, ^1 in. 
long: racemes loose. Caaeasos.Turkest., Siberia. L.B.G. 5:489. 
B.R. 8:254.— A. latifblia, Koehne (A. Mnsohketowl, Krassn.). 
Erect, 2-8 ft., spineless : lvs. lanceolate, crenate. %-2 in. long: 
fls. white, incompact racemes. Turkeat. B.M. 7435. Gt. 40:1844. 
—J., spinbsa, Linn. Heiglit 1-2 ft., spiny : lvs. elliptic, entire, 
glancescent, 7i-yi in. long : racemes short. S. Russia, Orient, 

^^^^' Alfred Rbhdeb. 

ATEIPLEZ (derivation disputed). ChenopodiUcecs, 
A large genus containing many succulent weeds of des- 
ert regions. A . hortensis is a garden vegetable used like 
spinach ; for culture, see Orach, A. leptoearpa and A, 
ssmibaceata are two plants lately introduced as supple- 
mentary forage plants for arid regions. See Circular 
No. 3, Div. of Agrost., U. S. Dept. Agric. 

A. Garden vegetable {with omamental-lvd, variety), 

hort4iiBii, Linn. Orach. Sba Pubslaks. Annual : 
stem herbaceous, erect : lvs. hastate, cordate, or trian- 
gular-oblong, acute, 4-5 in. long, 2K-3 In. wide ; petioles 
12-18 lines long : fruiting bracts 4-8 lines long, short- 
pediceled. Var. JLtro-sangulnea, Hort., is a crimson- 
leaved ornamental about 4 ft. high, sometimes grown 
with amarantus-like plants. 

Ornamental shrubs. 



oan6soexiB« James. A pale, densely scurfy shrub, 1-3 ft. 
high : lvs. oblanceolate, entire : fruiting bractlets with 
4 vertical, reticulated wings. July-Sept. N. Mex. to S. 
Dak. and W. to Calif. 

HilimuB, Linn. Low-spreading shrub with grey foli- 
age, cult, in Calif, for hedges and for seaside planting: 
lvs. 1-1^ in. long : petioles 3-4 lines long : fis. purplish : 
fruiting bracts \% lines long, 2 lines wide, sessile, reni- 
form, obtuse, entire : seed compressed, yellowish. 
Mediterranean region and S. Afr. -y^^ jj^^ 



118 



ATROPA 



AURICULA 



ATBOPA (after AtropoMt that one of the three Fates 
who cut the thread of life). Solandcea. Belladonna. 
Calyx with 5 ovate leafy div^lsions, enlarging in fruit ; 
corolla bell-shaped or funnel form. The purple ber- 
ries are poisonous. The plant is used in medicine. 

Bellad5iina, Linn. Plant low, spreading: Its. ovate, 
entire, pointed: Us. single or in pairs, nodding on lateral 
peduncles ; corolla dull purple. Eu. to Lidia. 

ATTALEA (attalus, magnificent). Palm&eemf tribe 
OocoinecB, Spineless palms, with a single, thickish 
ringed or scarred caudez: Ivs. arising almost perpen- 
dicular and the upper part arched, plnnately cut, 
linear -lanceolate, acuminate, with the margins re- 
curred at the base; petiole concave above : fls. yellow: 
fr. rather large. Species 20. Trop. Amer. The leaflets 
on the lower side of the rachis hang straight down, and 
those on the upper side point straight up. The Attaleas 
are unprofitable to grow as commercial decorative 
plants, because they take too long to make good sized 
plants from the seedling state. Perfect drainage, and 
a soil having a mixture of leaf-mold or peat, with a tem- 
perature ranging from 60^ to 80® P., will be found to 
suit them. Put the seeds about 2 in. deep in a box and 
sink the box in a warm border out of doors in summer, 
cover with a mulch of moss, and water frequently. 

A. Trunks becoming tall. 

•zo^lsa, Mart. St. 90-100 ft. high in the wild, 16-20 in. 
in diam. : Ivs. erect-spreading: pifltillate fls. solitary on 
the branches of the spadix: drupe obovate. Braz. 

fonifera. Mart. St. 18-30 ft., 8-13 in. diam., smooth: 
Ivs. as long as the caudex ; petioles with very long hang- 
ing fibers ; segments broadly linear-acuminate, in clus- 
ters of 3-5, divaricate : drupe 4 in. long' Braz. 

CohtOM, Mart. St. 40-50 ft. : Ivs. erect, pinnate, the 
dark green pinnao 30-50 and 18 in. or less long; petiole 
flat above and rounded below: drupe broadly ovate, 
nearly 3 in. long, with a very short beak. Honduras.— 
Fruit used for soap-making, and exported from Cent. 
Amer. for that purpose. Used for thatching. 



Without trunks, 

fpeetibilii. Mart. Stemless, or with a very short cau- 
dex: Ivs. 18-21 ft. long, the lower segments 3-4 ft., the 
upper 12-16 in., >^ in. wide, linear-acuminate. Braz. 

amygdallna, HBE. {A.nue if era , Karst. ) . Stemless : 
Ivs., 5-6 ft. long, crowded, pinnatisect; segments 90-100 
on each side, ensiform, glabrous above,with hairs along 
the outer margins beneath, 2-H-2H ft. long, about IHin. 
wide; petiole with rusty scales beneatlw Braz. 

A., (hdehire is a trade name: ** extremely long-leaved."— A. 
M&ripa, Mart. .(A. Mariposa^ Hort.) See MaximilLana. 

Jaskd G. Smith and G. W. Oliver. 

AITBSIfiTIA (Claude Aubriet, French natural history 
painter of last century). Cruciferos, Perennial, more 
or less evergreen trailers, excellent for rockwork or edg- 
ings. Prop, by seeds, or by layers or cuttings. The genus 
is distinguished chiefly by the outer sepals being saccate 
at base, the shorter filaments toothed, and the valves of 
the silique convex and not ribbed. Italy to Persia. 

deltoidea, DC. Lvs. oblong-spatulate, deltoid or rhom- 
boid, with 1 or 2 teeth on either side, grayish, narrowed 
into a very short petiole : fls. in few-fld., lax clusters, 
the violet or purple petals twice the length of the calyx. 
—Grows 2-12 in. high. Pretty spring bloomer. Hardy 
in the north. Var. Bouffainvillei, Hort. Fls. light vio- 
let : dwarf and compact. Var. Cimpbelli, Hort. Fls. 
larg^, purple : plant large. Var. E^rei, Hort. Fls. 
large and long, deep violet. Var. Onsca, Hort. Dwarf 
and compact, large-fid. One of the best. Var. H6nder- 
■oni, Hort., probably the same as Campbelli, Var. 
Letohtlini, Hort. Profuse bloomer, pink fls. Var. 
Ol^pica, Hort. Fls. Large, violet, like var. Eyrei. 
Var. viol&oea, Hort. One of the largest forms. 

L. H. B. 

AirC0BA (its Japanese name). Comhcece, One ever- 
green shrub, with glossy, often variegated lvs., enduring 
smoke and dust: fls. small, dioecious, 4-merous, in pani- 
cles : fr. a 1 -seeded drupe. Hardy S. In the N. states, Au- 



cnbas are grown In eoolhonses— those adapted to azaleas 
are exeellent— and they are kept evergreen by keeping 
them in a pit during winter, or by holding them cool and 
partially dry in the house. They will stand 5 or 6 de- 
grees of frost in a pit. From cuttings of half -ripened 
wood, good specimen plants may be had in 2 or 3 years. 
Fruiting plants, with their numerous bright scarlet ber- 
ries, are exceedingly attractive, but as the plant is 
dicBcions, there must be male plants with the female 
ones. If grown in pots and under glass, the plant must 
be fertilized by shaking the flowering male plant over 
the female, or by applying the pollen with a camel's 
hair pencil. If the male plant flowers earlier, the pollen 
-may be collected and kept dry until the female plant is 
in flower ; it remains effective for some weeks. In the 
open, Aucuba grows well in any good, somewhat moist 
though well-drained soil, in a half-shaded position, in 
pots, it will thrive in a sandy loam with sufficient drain- 
age, and requires plenty of water during its growing 
gBriod. Fruiting plants should not have too large pots, 
rop. very easily by half-ripened greenwood cuttings at 
nearly any time of the year, under glass, and by seeds 
sown soon after maturity ; the varieties are sometimes 
grafted on the common form in early spring, under glass. 

Japtaiea, Thunb. Shrub, 4-15 ft. : fls. usually ovate, 
3-8 in. long, remotely and coarsely dentate, acuminate, 
shining : berries scarlet, rarely white or yellow, usually 
oblong. From Himal. to Jap. B.M. 5512. I.H. 11:399. 
Var. Himaliioa, Dipp. {A, Himaldiea, Hook. & Ttaom.;. 
Lvs. ovate-lanceolate, more dentate : panicles more 
pilose : fr. orange to scarlet. Himal. F.S. 12:1271. I.H. 
6:197. — There are many garden forms, mostly with 
variegated lvs., which are more cultivated than the 
green forms. Handsome variegated varieties are : albo- 
▼ariegikta, aikrea, atireo-maoulita (Flor. Mag. 10:527. 
Fior. World 1876: 353) > Uoolor, latimaenUita, Urn- 
bita, mMio-Tariegikta, pietnrita, punctata, vaiieffita 
(B.M. 1197. P.M. 5:277). The following forms have 
green lvs. : angiiitildlia, dentita, maoroph^lla, OT^ta, 
■aHeitdlia, ptffmasa. A. eranifdlia, once offered in 
Amer. trade, is probably a form of A, Japonica. 

Altbkd Rsbdeb. 

AUDIBABTIA (M, Audibertf of Tarascon, Provence). 
Labidtai, Perennial, hoary, aromatic herbs from Calif., 
with rugose, sage-like lvs. 

grandiQtoa, Benth. St. villous, glandular, 1-3 ft. 
high : lvs. woolly beneath ; lower lvs. hastate, obtuse, 
3-8 in. long, coarse ; bracts crowded, conspicuous : fls. 
1-1^ in. long, red or crimson-purple, in dense, showy 
glomes or dusters.— Prized for bees. 

AUBlCVLA {Primula Auricula, Linn.). Fig. 171. A 
European perennial, sending up short scapes, bearing 
fls. of many colors. It is one of the most famous of 
florists' flowers, but it has never received the attention 
in this country that it has in Europe. Our summers are 
generally too hot for it. In this country generally treated 
as a g^enhouse plant ; but it is hardy, and in the Old 
World is grown largely in frames. See Primula. 

Auriculas may be propagated by seed for general pur- 
poses and for the production of new varieties, but to 
perpetuate very choice varieties, it is necessary to propa- 
gate either by offsets or division of the plants. Seed 
should be sown in shallow pans or 4-inch pots early ht 
March, so that the seedlings will be well developed be- 
fore very warm weather sets in. The soil used in the 
seed pans should be very light and sandy, the surf are 
should be made smooth,and the seeds then pressed lightly 
into the soil, after which a light covering of sand ahould 
be given, and the pans placed in a temp, of 60^ until they 
have germinated, which usually takes from three to four 
weeks ; they should then be removed to a light position, 
shaded from direct sunlight, in a rather lower tempera- 
ture, to induce a stocky growth. As soon as the seedlings 
are large enough to handle conveniently, they should be 
pricked off into other pans or shallow boxes contidning 
a mixture of three parts leaf -mold and one part sifted 
loam and clean silver sand. Watering should be care- 
fully attended to, and everything done to promote active 
growth, so that, if possible, the plants may be large 
enough to require a second shift into other boxes, simi- 
larly prepared, by the end of June. Auricula seedlings 



AURIGULA 



AZAL£A 



119 




171. Auricula (X K). 



go through the hottest months much better in boxes than 
in pot«, as they can be kept more evenly moist. For their 
summer quarters, a wooden frame placed on sifted coal 
ashes on the north side of a bnilding or wall, or almost 
any position where they will be sheltered from the sun 
and still receive plenty of light, should be given them. 
The frame should be provided with sash, which should 
be kept over the plants most of the time, giving air in 
abundance in favorable weather, and during the warmest 

weather the whole frame 
should be raised by placing 
a brick under each comer, 
so as to allow a good cir- 
culation of air among the 
plants. About the second 
week in September the 
young plants should be 
potted, using a compost of 
two parts good, fibrous 
loam, one part leaf -mold, 
and one part well decayed 
cow or sheep manure, with 
a little sand added. The 
frame should be kept a 
little close for a few days 
after potting, and from 
this time care must be 
taken not to wet the foli- 
age in watering. The 
plants may remain in 
the frame until dan- 
ger of freezing, when 
they should be trans- 
ferred to a cool green- 
house for the winter. 
All decaying leaves 
should be carefully 
removed, uid but lit- 
tle water will be re- 
quired during the 
dull winter months. 
Towards the end of February the plants will show signs 
of flowering, when they should be given a top-dressing 
of pulverized sheep manure and placed in a light, airy 
position, in a temp, of 56°. The flowering season lasts 
about two months, after which the plants should receive 
their annual potting. All diseased or decayed roots 
should be cut away, and most of the old soil carefully 
removed. The propagation of very choice varieties by 
offsets or division is best done at this time. The pots 
used in potting should be well drained, and no larger 
than will just accommodate the plants. The soil best 
suited is the same as before recommended. After pot- 
ting thev may be placed in their summer quarters. 
Offsets should be inserted round the edge of 4-inch pots, 
using very sandy soil, and kept in a moist, shaded posi- 
tion until rooted. By annually repotting and giving a 
little extra care during the summer months, a batch of 
Auriculas will return very satisfactory results, and may 
be kept in a good, healthy condition for several years. 

Edwabd J. Canning. 

AYfiVA (classical name). Oraminem, Oats. A genus 
of annuals or perennials well kno^i^n from the cultivated 
oat. Panicles wide open, and loosely flowered, bearing 
large 2-6-flowered spikelets. A long,'twisted, geniculate 
awn present, except in the cultivated oat. Species, 
about 50. Widely spread in the temperate regions of the 
Old and New World. 

litpft, Linn. Wild-oats. Sand-o^ts. Resembles the 
cultivated oat; can be distinguished by the larger spike- 
lets and long, brown hairk on the flowering glume. Awn 
an inch in length. Eu.— A very troublesome weed in 
some parts. Not cult. 

stfoillB, Linn. Animated Oats. Much larger than the 
cultivated oat : spikelets large, in a drooping panicle ; 
awn very long and geniculate^ Mediterranean region 
and E.~ Occasionally cult, for the odd behavior of the 
" seeds. ** It is thetwisting and untwisting of this awn, 
when exposed^ to UMlstuire and dryness, that has given 
to the grass the name Animated Oats. The untwisting of 
the awn causes the spikelet V> tumble about in various 
directions, suggestive of independent motion. 



The common oat is Avena $ativa, Linn., native of the Old 
World. Pasture grasses sold as Avenas are A. eUMor^ which is 
an Arrhenanthemm ; and A, flaveseent^ which is a Trisetum. 

P. B. Kennedy. 

AVERBHOA (after Averrhoes, tbe Arabian physi- 
cian). Oeranidcem, Tropical fruit trees, cult, in India 
and China, and sometimes grown under glass for orna- 
ment. Lvs. alternate, odd-pinnate ; Ifts. alternate, ovate- 
acuminate, entire, stalked, sensitive : fls. borne on the 
naked stems and branches, minute, fragrant, rose-colored 
to reddish purple, racemose ; calyx red; corolla campanu- 
late ; petals 5. 

Carambdla, Linn. Garambola. Height 15-20 ft. : Ifts. 
4-5 pairs : fls. rosy purple : fr. varying in size from a 
hen's egg to a large orange, ovate, acutely 5-angled, yel- 
low, fragrant, the pulp acid. The half -grown fr. used as 
pickles ; the ripe fr. for preserves. Said to produce 3 
crops a year. P.M. 15: 231. Cult, sparingly in S. Calif. 

A. BiUmhi, Limi. CucniiBKB Tree. Biliscbi. Helcht 8-15 
ft.: Ifts. 5-10 pairs : fls. red, in longer racemes than the above : 
fr. smaller than the Carambola, eueumber-shaped, smooth, 
green rind, and acid pulp. Extensively enlt. in S. Amer. P.M. 
15:231. 

AVOCADO, ALLIGATOB PEAB. See Persea. 

AZALEA (from Greek asaleoa, dry : Linnssus be- 
lieved them to grow in dry locations). JBtricAeeat. 
Shrubs : lvs. deciduous or persistent, alternate, more 
or less nairy and ciliate, rarely glabrous and never lepi- 
dote or scurfy : fls. in terminal umbellate racemes, 
rarely lateral ; corolla 5-lobed, fnnnel-form, oampanulate 
or rotate ; stamens 5-10 ; ovary 5-celled, hairy or se- 
tose, with or without glands : fr. a loculicidal capsule 
(Fig. 172), with numerous minute seeds. This genus is 
often united with Rhododendron, which is easier to dis- 
tinguish by its lvs. and general habit than by its fls. In 
Rhododendron, the lvs. are coriaceous, g^enerally per- 
sistent, usually revolute at the margin, glabrous or to- 
mentose beneath, often lepidote, not ciliate, or ciliate 
and lepidote : stamens usually 10 : ovary glabrous, 
glandular, lepidote or tomentose, never setose, some- 
times more than 5-celled. The glabrous species of 
Azalea have 6 stamens and deciduous lvs. There are 25 
species in Asia (especially E. Asia) and N. Amer. Con- 
sult MaximowicE, Rhododendron Asi» Orientalis, St. 
Petersburg, 1870. The Asaleas belong to our most orna- 
mental and beautiful flowering shrubs, and are often 
completely covered with large showy fls. of brilliant and 
vwrious colors. They grow best in peaty or sandy soil 
containing no limestone, and prefer somewhat moist and 
half -shaded situations. In regard to the culture, they 
may be divided into two groups : Hardy deciduous 
Azaleas, and Indian Azaleas. 

Hardt Deciduous Azaleas. —These include the spe- 
cies of the sections Euazalea and Rhodora, and the hy- 
brids known as Ghent Azaleas. They are hardy, but in 
the N. and in exposed situations a protection with brush, 
hay Or mats should be given during the winter, to pre- 
vent the flower-buds from sudden changes of tempera- 
ture. They are usually increased by seeds sown in early 
spring in frames or pans, in sandy peat, without cover- 
ing, and kept moist and shady. When the seedlings ap- 
pear they should have air and a daily syring^g. In au- 
tumn they are transplanted into boxes or frames, in 
sandy, peaty soil. The seeds germinate very readily 
sown in cut sphagnum, but ought to be pricked into 
boxes as soon as they can be handled. The second year 
the seedlings should be planted out in beds, sufficiently 
wide apart to allow a growth of two years. Long upright 
branches should be shortened, to secure well-branched 
plants. The named varieties are grafted on any of the 
common species, usually by veneer-grafting in autumn 
in the greenhouRe, on potted stock. They may also be 
increased by cuttings of mature wood 2-3 in. long, taken 
with a heel late in summer, and placed in sand under 
glass. Layers usually require 2 years to root sufficiently ; 
they are made in spring, and the buried part enclosed in 
moss. Azaleas are easy to transplant, either in early 
spring or in early autumn, when the year's growth 
has ripened. If desired, they may be planted for deco- 
rative purposes in early spring, in beds, without injuring 
the abundance or brilliancy of the flower, and after- 



120 

irarda ramared toglTeipaeaforolhardMtoratlTS plant*, 

and pUiit«dear«tiillylDiion«T;bed(,wherethe7 remiJD 
till next tprlng ; and to on erery jtar. Eipeelally ths 
hybrid! aod Tarlelici of A. m«Uii are oftan and easll; 
forced for winter-flowering. If Intflndcd forearly fore- 
ing, tber aliould be growD In pot«, and Bare taken to 
allow them to Bnlah tbelr Krewth as early u poislble ; 
for later forcing, after Chrlitmaa, they may be potted In 

hou'ee . ... 

bloom In about 6 weeks. The Ohent A>alea« are grown 
In greMquantllieainttie Low Countries and in Qermany 
lor export to America ; It U Qsnally mora profitable to 
buy this stock each fall than to attempt to raise It here, 
where labor la high-priced and the climate dry and hot. 

In the open, the flowering period of hardy Acaleas ei- 
tands from April to July. Firsteomes.^.(7a(ta(l(n(tj,A. 
TkonbicauidA. Ksjryi ; then A.nKdinvraand^. mol- 
li>, followed by A. Pontiea and A. ealtndulaeta, and 
nearly at the same time A, 8c/Hipptnb<KM and A. 
Albrrchti; somewhat later, .^.oecutsiifallt, and last, A. 
arbortirent and A. viicoMa. One of the most beaotl- 
fal Is the American A. eattt%duliicea, which is hardly 
surpassed In the brilUoncT and abundance of Its flowers 
by any of the Ghent hybrids. Some good hybrids, or 
Ghent Assleas, are the following : 

Bhtgle-fld. varieties : Albicans, white with yellow 
blotch, fragrant ; Admiral de Bayter, deep red acarlet ; 
Altaelarenfls, white, bordered pink, spotted yellow, 
fragrant, B.R.2S:27; Anthony Fosl«r, orange-yellow ; 
Comte de Gomer, brigbt rose, spotted orange, B.B. 
1: B7 i DaTloai, nearly pure white, fragrant, Gt. *2:1307; 
Dtrecteur Chark-s Baumann, cherry red, spotted yellow; 
G^ant des Batailles, deep erlmsan ; Hilda, red-orange ; 
Louis Hellebuyck, oarmlne, blntcbed orange, F.S. 19: 
2DI9; MsrleVerschaffelt, pink, blotched yellow; Morteri, 
rosy pink with yellow blotch, 8.B.F.G. II, !:10; Prin- 

Tiarine, bright'plnk. R.B. 20 :'2T7; Van Dyck, blood-red| 
Viacoia florlbuoda, pure white, fragrant. 

Double-Hd. varieties : Arothusft, creamy white, tinged 
yellow ; Bljon de Gandbrujjge, white, bordered rose, 
V.S. 19; 2024; Louis Alm« Van Houtte, carmine, tinged 
orange, F.S. 19 : 2022 ; Uadame Mina Van Houtte, pink, 
tinged salmon and white, F.S. 19:2021 : Murillo, pink, 
tinged purple, R.B. 19; £32 ; Pbebe, yellow, tlniced or- 
ange, R.B. 19:23:11 Raphael deSmet. pink; Virglle, pale 
rose, striped yellow In the center, R.B. 19: 232. 

IsDCAM Azaleas. — This group contains X./ndiea and 
other species of the section Tsusla and the hybrids of 
them. They are well knownevergreen shrubs In the N., 
requiring cultivation In the greenhouse during the win- 
ter, but some varieties, as A. Indira, var. Kctnipferi and 
var. owana, are haniy even near New Tork. A. ret- 
tuariniMia and A. Untarifolia will stand many de- 
grees of frost In somewhat sheltered positions. Tbcy 
are rarely Increased by seeds, whlcbmay be sown In the 
greenhouse In the same way as with the former group. 
tTsually they are propagated by cuttinirs or grattinK- 
1'he cuttings root best when made In August from hstf- . 
ripened wood, and placed In aand under a frame, with 
gentle bottom beat. Choicer varieties are Dsually In- 
creaied by veneer- or tongue -grafting, either In winter 
or in July and Aug. ou vigorans-growlng varieties raised 
mostly from caltlngs. Grafting on Rhododendron Is 
now nsed In some Oerman nuri<eri>>B with very good re- 
sults. The best soli for Azaleni, >e grown In pots, la a 
sandy oompoat of half peat and L:itf teaf-soi], u-ith an 
addition o( good flbrous loam. It ia essential to plant 
them flrinty, and to give very good drainage. The base 
of the Item should be ]u»t above the surface. The best 
time for repotting la after flowering, when the nen 
growth commences. DnrluEthe aummer,tbey should be 
kept In'a ooldframe or in the open In a sheltered spot, 
with the pots plonged In the soil, or planted out in pre- 
pared beds, where they make a very vigorous and 
healthy growth. In Sept. they should be repotted and 
transferred to the groeahouae. They miiat have plenty 
of water and free ayrlngiug during the hot months. 
The natnral flowering time Is from April to June, but In 
the gresnhonae. Azaleas mav be h ~ ' ' 

tUlJi _ _ 

the f — 1— are liable to Buffer If the air Is too <lry, free 



AZALEA 

■Trlnxlng with water Is the best remedy. Moat of the 
planta used for forolng In this country are Imported 
from Holland and Belginm ; and It is cheaper to bay 
them than to attempt to raise them. Formerly Axaleaa 
were kept In summer In shsde or partial shade, but now 
it ii the custom of the beat growers to give them full 
exposure to the sun, either planted out or In the pots 
plonged to the rim In ashes or other good drainage ma- 
terial ; In the latter case a top-dressing of 2 or ^j Inches 
of old oow manure Is very bsne&clal. The only Amerl- 
oan treatise Is Balliday's Treatise on the Propagation 
and Cultivation of ABalea Indica, Baltimore, 1S80. 

Some of the beat varieties of Indian Asaleas are the 
following (tor aGomplel«raceount,seeAQgast Von Gee rt, 
looDOgrapbie des Aialtos, abbreviated here as le. As. J : 

SIngle-fld.: Antlgona, white, striped and spotted vio- 
let. R.B. 7:241: Ic.Ai.a; Apollo, vermilion. Ir As. 20; 
Charmer, rich amaranth, very large, P.M. B: 303-4, 1 ; 
Comtesse de Beaufort, rich rose, blotched deep crim- 
son ; Criterion, rich salmon-pink, bordered while and 
blotched crimson, F.S. B : T»6 ; Diamond, white, blotched 
dark crimson, F.S. 21:2233-34 j Due de Kasaan, rich 
rosy pnrple, very free andlarge; Eclatante, deep crim- 
son, shaded rose : Fanny Ivery, deep salmon- scarlet, 
blotched magenta, P.M. 10: ^12 ; Fielder's White, pore 
white, early, A.F. 13:11S9: Flambeau, rich, glowing 
erimaon, Ga. 10:242,4; Fuerstin Bariatlnaky, white, 
striped red,Gn. 18,212, Ic.Ai. 13 ; Jean Tervone, asl- 
mon, striped, bordered white, R. B. 2: 145, Ic. Ab. 11: 
John Gould Veitch, lllao rose. bnrd<-red and netted 
white, striped erimson, F.S. 20:2071-72; L« Vletolre, 
reddish, white towards the edges, spotted maroon orlm- 

plnk; F.S.17;1796,F.i^3:I58; Madams Charles Van 
Eeckhaule, pure white. With crisped edges : Madame 
Van Houtte, scarlet rose, bordered white, F.S. 23:2383, 
Ic. Ai. 6 ; Harquis of Lome, brilliant ssarlet, very 
Doe 1 MIbb B. Jarret. pare white, with orisped edges, 
R.B. 14: 213; Mrs. Turner, bright pink, bordered white. 
spottedcrimaon, F.S. 8:451; Hons.Thibant, orange-red; 
President Victor Van den Becke, white striped and 
speckled crimson, with yellow oenter, F.S. 15: 1567-68 ; 
Princess Alice, pure white, one of the beat ; Princesse 
Clementine, white, spotted greenish yellow ; Relne des 
Pays-Bas, rich violet-pink, bordered white, I.H. 13: 479 ; 
Rol de Hollands, dark blood-red, spotted black ; Slgls- 
mund Rncker, rich rose, bordered white, blotched crim- 
son, very showy, F.S. 19:2010-11. lo.Ai. 31; Stella, 
orange -scarlet, tinged violet; Wilson Samiders, pure 
white, striped and blotched vivid red. If 

Double-fld. : Borslg, pure white; Alice, deep rose, 
blotflhedvermlllan, I.e. 23:244; BaronH.deBotbaehlld, 
richparple-Tlolet, large, F.S. 23:2477-78; Bernard An- 



nudlflora. 



a nudUloni (X Hi- 



dri, dark violet- purple, large ; Bernard Andrd alba, 
white, LH. 17:15, lo. As. 19; Charles Leirens, dark aal- 
mon, blotcheddark purple, good form and substance, F.S. 
19: 1971-72 ; Charles Pynaert, salmon, bordered white, 
R.B. 10:25; Chicago, deep carmine, bordered white, 
large; Comtesse Eugenie de Kerch ove, white, flaked red- 
carmine; Dentsche Perle, pure white, early, R.H. 1886: 



AZALEA 

616, On. 33 : 649, Ic. Ai. S3 ; Dominique Vervnne, bright 
omoge ; Dr. Moore, deep rose, atikded whito and violet, 
very line, R. Br. 11;SI; Empereur da Br^sil, rich rose, 
bkoded white, upper petkla mtrksd red, lo. Ai. IE ; 
Prantols de Vos, deep orimson, I.H. 14:612, In. Ae. H, 
F.M. 8: 443 ; Iinbrleita, white, (ometimea Bakei rose, ' 
I U. 24:281, F.S. ?i:22Sl-S3; Impenitrlce del Indea, 
Anlraon-roae, festooned white and dark omrmine. F.H. 
lH:m7. lo. Ai.21; Johumn QollBChalk, while; Louise 
Prnaert, white, R, B. 4: 2M ; Mme. Iria Lefebvre, dark 
OruKe.(»nDliie,iihuled bright ylolet and btot«bedbrown- 
l»h red, F.S. 18; 1862-63 ; Madame Van der Cruyesen, 
pink, ene rorm, A.F. 12:1003 ; Madeleine, white, l»r(re, 
■"inl-double ; Nlobe, white, fine form; Pharallde Ma- 
thilde.whlte.spottedeherry-red.B.B. 13:143; Prealilent 
<ihellinckdeWalle,brigbtrose. apperpetiilBSpotled yel- 
low andstrlpedcrlmson; Pr«HldentOswalddeKercbove, 
pink, bordered whilu, blotched carmine; Raphael, white; 
Sakantala, white, Tery free- flowering; Soar, da Prlnee 
Albert, rich rose-paaoh, broadly majirlned white, very 
fne-aoweriDK, F.M. 4:201, la. Aa. 24 : Theodore Bel- 
mera, lUao, large ; Verrnneana, roae, bordered white, 
HOmetimea atrlped aalmon. 

The following Aialeaa are deacrlbed below : A . alba, 
No. 15 ; albiflora, 16 ; Albreohti, 12 ; amiBUB, 14; arbo- 
reseena,2; baJianiinifflora, 14; ealandulaoea, S; Vall- 
fomica, 1 ; calyelflora, 14 ; CanaclenaU, 9; caneicens, 4; 
Fiiaptflora, 14 ; orocea, G; Danieliiana, 14 ; flammea, S; 
aaodsTensU, 7 ; glauc&, 3 ; hiaplda, 3 ; Indlca, 14 ; 
Kninpferi, 14 ; lat«rltlB. 14 ; ltdifoUa,l6; liinriora, IS; 
mnerantba, 14 ; mottii, 8 ; narclaalflora, 15 : nitida, 3 ; 
nndiflora, * ; obtuaa, 14 ; oecidentalia, 1 1 Pontlca. G ; 
punieea, 15 ; purpurea, 15; Thomblca, 10; Soillttoni, 14; 
roBlflora, 14 ; roamarhilfolU, IB ; Sobllppenbacihi, 13 ; 
Sim«i, 14 ; Slnenala, 8 ; ipieioaa, 5 ; Vaaeyi, 11 ; vls- 
eoaa, 3. 

A. Fl>. itt ttmiiml J-maHy-ffd. etuiUri. 

B. I/vt. and rii. from di'ltmt ftifd) .■ Kinitr-budi uit'i 

many teaitu Ivt. dtcidnoai. 

C. Corolla with ratker titng tnbe and uiually acult 

ttgmenU, pubeicent or hairy auUide: ifanuni S: 
let. cilialt. (Etiaialta.) 

D. Stavitni at long ai or longir than Oil (tn>A.- lubt 

long and narroic, outtide glandular, 
£. Color white, pink or rost. 

1. oesldantilll, Torr. & Qnj(Bhodouindron oceiden- 
lilt. Gray. A. Calitimiea, Hort.). Height 2-fl ft-: 
bmnehlela glabrous orpnbeaeeni : IvB, obovate-ohlong, 
finely elllate, slightly pubeaeent beneath when young : 
corolla 2-2X In. long, white or Bllghtiy tinged rose, with 

Esllow on the upper lobe, fragrant. Hay, Jnne. Calif. 
.M.5005- P.S. 14:1432. Gn. 34:673. 

2. •TboTdwMiLi, Parah {Skododindron arbortteen't, 
Torr.i. From8'20ft.: branchleti nearly glabroua : Its. 
obovateoroborate-oblong, acute, dilate, gtabrouB, gr^en 
or glauBeaceDt beneath : fls. white or tinged roae, 2 In. 
long, fragrant; Btyle and atamens red. June, July. 
AllEScb. Hta. G.F. 1:401. L. B.C. 17:1032, aa .J. vErli- 

3. vIsoAm, Linn. I Bhododdndron viicisum, Torr.). 
Prom 4-8 ft.: winter-buda glabrous : branohleta with 
■lift hairs : ]vb. obovate- oblong, obtuse or miicronulate, 
eiliate, briatly hairy on tbe veins beneath : Ba. white or 
tinged roae, 1^-2 in. long, vlsoid outelde, f ragraot ; 
Btyle red. Jnne, Jnly. £. N. Amer. Em. 2:438. Var. 
nltlda, Nichols. Prom 1-3 ft.: Iva. oblanceolate, bright 
greeti on both sldeii : corolla tinged red. B.R. G:414. 
Var. glabea. Ait. Lth. whitish -glaueou a beneath, dull 
and glauroua above. L-B.C- 1G:ln1S. Var. hliplda, Britt. 
(A.kltpida.Panb). Pedicels bristly hispid : tls. usu- 
ally pink : IVB. glnueeacent beneath. L. B.C. 6:441. 

4. nndifUTK, Linn. lA. IliUa, Linn. B. nudiflirum, 
Torr.i. Pigs. 172, 173. Height 2-6 ft.: wlnter-buda 
more or lees pubescent : branchleCs pubescent aod of lea 
with aliJf hairs : ivs. oblong or obovate, hairy on the 
midrib or pubescent beneath : 0b, piok to nearly white, 
before or with the Ivs., about 1!4 in. br«ad, not viscid 
outside. Apr., May. E. N. Amer. B.R. 120. L.B.C. 
1:51. G.W.F. 36. Mn. 2:17. Var. aantaeeni, Rehder 
(A. eaniictm, Mlchi.i, Lva. tomentoao or pubescent 
beneath, nsnally elliptic. 



121 

BB. Ootor j/tlbne lo flamt-red, 
E. calendnlfcosa, Hichi. (S. catendvlAeium, Torr.). 

Prom 4-10 ft. : branchleta glabrous or with sUtt hairs : 

Ivs, obovate or ovate, usually pubescent beneath, serru- 

late-clliBte : fis. orange-yellow or Uame-red, often 2 in. 

broad, with the Ivs., nearly scentless; tube usually 

shorter than the limb; stamena thickened at themlddle. 

May, JuDS. E. N. Amer. Var. fl&mmea, Mlehi. lA. 

ipeciiia.WiUd.). Fls. flame- or orange-red. B.R. 14S. 

L.B.C. 7:624. B.M. 180. Var. orioea, Mlchi. " ' 

low or orange-yellow. B.H. 1721. L.B 

of the most showy species. 

G. PflntlBa, Linn. (S. flivum, Don). Piaiit 2-6 ft.: 

branchleta hairy: pedicels auil petioles glandular : Ivs. 

cuaeate, oblong, usually balry on both sides whenyuang, 

2^ in. long : fls. yellow, 2-2 ^i In. broad, very fragrant ; 

stamens as Icng as tho limb. May. Orient, CaucaBUS. 

B.M. 433; 2383 (var. albiaora).-A very fnurant and 

varieties referred to this apeeles In nursery catalogues 
are hybrids, for which the collective name A, Gaiula- 
ventii may be used. 

7. Oandavinili, Hort. Qaxtn Azaleas. Pig. 174. 
These are hybrids between A . Pontica, and tbe AoierlcBD 



PlB. vel- 
1324. -One 



174. Ghent aialea— A. CtmdavCDiii IX 'A>. 

species, and A. Sinensis, now more In cult, than the 
typical species. Of a number of theni the parents are 
easily recognised, but many are hybrids of the second 
degree or more, and it Is Imposalble to be sure about 
their parentage. They vary In all shades of white, yel- 

and' double fla.. and also ia'the time of flowering, from 
May to July. A short soleotion of some good varieties 
has already been given. 
DD. Slamtns thorlrr than Iht limb.- eorotia funnil- 

diitar. 
S. 8iii«iuls, Lodd. (A. miltit, Blame. S. Sin/n$t, 
Sweet). From 3-8 ft. : branchoa hairy : lva. oblong or 
obovate-oblong, 2-4 in. long, ap pressed- setose above, 
glaoeescent beneath and nearly glabrous except on the 
midrib, rarely pubescent : fls. 2-2^ in. broad, yellow, 
orange or pink. April, Mav. China, Japan. P.S. IS: 
2032-36. Gn. 16, p. 265,646. B.R. 15:1253. L.B.C.9:B86. 



122 AUXJU 

Ot. I6:5H. Oiig.4:2T9.-AT^na.bl«iiwolei, with luge 
bat seenrtaai Bb. A luRfe Dumber of vkrietias md hy- 
brids hu bmiD ndsed. which km well Bdaptvd for forcing 
pnrpoaes uid slio for groapi In the open, being ■* hardy 
kc Uie Amerleaii apeolei. See B^ododtndnm (or picture. 
CO. Oan>Ua wilh r«ry ikorl (iibc, rolalt-eampaiiuUtta 
or Itco-lipped, glabniut oultidc ; ttgmtnU ob- 
ttllt; Itamttu 7-10. {Bhodora.) 
D. Zimb of corolla l-lipped, noi ipotted, tkt ttue 

Unetr ttgmfnt* diviid tuarig to the bam Hi. 

bffore the lr>. 
8. GuiBdtauii, O. KtM. (Bkodira Camidintii, Linn. 
BhodcdindrOH Shodira, Don). TntmlS tt.: Its. otM. 
obtuse and muaroDUlBte, glaueoai and aliithtl; pubei' 
oeat beueath : Sb. S-7, on very short pedieeli 1-lH in. 
broid, roBB-purple ; segmentB niirrow, the lower one* 
revoIuCe 1 etameDB 10. Apr., May. E. N. Amer.: New- 
foundland to Pa. Em. S: 441. B.U. 4Ti. 

10. AtnMoa. O. Ktie. (ifkodod/ndroH rkdmbicuiK. 
Hlq.}. Shmb,3-8ft.: Ivs.rhomblc-vUiptle, acuteatbotb 
ends and sparsely hairy above, yellowish pabescent at 
the nerves beneath; (is. 2-3 ; eorolta lS-2 In. broad, 
somewhat campannlate, brlRht nige-eoloTed, leftments 
oblonn; etamenslO. Apr.,May. Japan. B.M.69TS. Gt. 
17:586; O.C. III. 20; 38. 

I.I1, Limb of eorolla tvtaletampaHHlale, or itiahllt 
t-lipped, dirided uoialty till btlotc the middle : 
vpper lobfa epotled. 

11. Viseyl. Rebder iShododiitdron Vdtegi, Dray). 
Prom B-15 ft. bigb ; brancbleta without bristles : Irs. 
oblonfi or Ob Ion K- lanceolate, acute, sparsely hirsute : 
fls. before or with tbe Ivs.; corolla sllRhtly 2-llpped, 
lower lobes widely spreadlnit; stamens 7. rarely 5. Apr., 
Hay. N.Car. Q.F.1:3TT. Q.C. III. 20:71. -Gicellent. 

12. Albnehti, O. Ktie. t SkododitidrBH Atbrerhti, 
Maiim.). From 2-5 ft.: branchlela glandalar-pllose : 
Its. oboyate or elliptic, scale, 3-S in. long, appressed- 
pllose aboTe, pabescent along the veins beneath : fls. 
pnrple, with the ivs. 2 in. broad ; stamens 10. Japan. 

13. BohllppenbMU, O. Klie. f RhododiitdroH SehUp- 
penbacM,Maiica.). Three to.-i ft.: braacblets glandn- 
lar-pUoae ; Its. cuneate, broadly obovate, 2-G la. lon)c. 
rounded and mucronale at tbe apei, birsute on both 
aides or glabroas at lenglh : fls. with the Its., 2-3 in. 
broad, pale rose-colored, upper lobes spotted reddish 
brown : atamens 10. May. Japan. B.M. 7373. Gn. 
46:972. O.C. III. I9:6C1. 

B8. LpI. and fit. from tha Jam* terminal bad : tninlir 
btidt Kifh t-t tealti of nearly et/aal Unglk: 
corolla ulaJmug otitMide: Ivi.neually fjertitrml. 
(Tiutia.) 

14. Indlea, Linn. ( Rhodod/ndron Indieum, Sweet). 

Pigs. 175, 176. From 
1-8 ft.: brancblets. 
Its. and pedicels mora 
or less rufous ly ap- 
pressed-slrlgoaezlTs. 
lanceolate or o bo- 
Tale: fls. 1-3; calyx 
densely setose, not 
Klandular, with usu- 
ally small lobes; co- 
rolla pink or purple. 
upper segments spoi- 
led ; stamens 6-10. 
China, Jap. Gn. 50, 
> p. 192; 54, p. 187. 
R.B. 20:121: 21:85; 
23:37. A.Q. 14:473. 
QoK. 4:359. F. E. 
9:431. P.R.2:579.— 
This Is a very Tsrl- 
1». Aialealndlca [X>i). able and much-cul- 

tivated species, and 
tbe following varieties are often described as species. 
(1) I^t. laneeolalt or tlHplle, aculf, t-3 in. long, dull 
abovi and ni/omfy itrigoie ; thrubt, f-« ft. 
high, Momeirkat looaelg branched, 
Var. Emnvleri. Rebder. Lva. deciduous, only a few 
small ones below the U.-buds persisting till spring. 



elliptle, bright green: fls. 2-3, with or before the Its.; 
ealyi-lobes oval, roonded ; corolla 1-^ in. broad, pink 
or orange-red; staoienB S, with yellow anthers. Apr., 
Hay. Jap. — This la the hardiest variety ; hardy even 
In New Bug. 

Var. Blail, Bebder (A. Jitdita, Slnts, not Linn.|. 
Lva. peralstent, dark green, lanceolate : fls. 1-3, ross- 



176. C 



a IXH). 



colored or carmine ; calyx-lobaa lanceolate ; stameaa 
10, with purple anthers. May, June. China. B.U. 
1480. L.B.C.3:275. 
(2) Ixi. obovale or obovato-lanetolatt, oblutt, rare[|r 
acult ; H-t in. lotig, lest tirigote, and nsxal'ir 
thining above  low, mueh-branched ihmbt. 
TaT.BUeT<iltlia,Relehb.{if .MU<rditlka,Bunge. A. 
Danitltiina, Paxt.). Les. corliteeous, dark Kreen, 
■hlning,oboTateor oval : fls. nsually single, 2-3 in, 
broad, pink or purplish pink ; stamens 6-10. aaunlly 
enclosed. Hay, June. China. P.U.I: 129. S.B.F.G. II. 
3:261. -From this variety nearly all of tbe bpauliful 
garden forma of tbe Indian Atalean have originated by 
croaa-brecdlng witb otbpr Tariell^s and forma otA. 
/ndjca introduced from Japanese and Chinese gardens, 
and by hybrUUsing, especlsUy with A. rosmoriiiiWda. 
To tbia variety may be referred tbe following re- 
markable forma : Var. oriipUUra, Van HoutCe. Fls. 
large, rose-colored, with distinctly crisped segments. 
F.S. 9:887. B.U. 4726. Var. Utarltia. Llndl. Lvs. 
oblong- lanceolate : Hs. salmon or brick-red. B.R. 1700. 
Var. TOiiDara. Rehder {A. roiiflira, Flor. Mag. A. 



balsar 



nrflira 



t.|.Lvs 



n-red, very double, with im- 
bricated, oblong segments, resembling the blooms of a 
eamellla-Hd. balsam. P.U. 19:418. Gn, 18:249. 
B.H. 1882: 433. 

Var. obt^a. Rehder (A. oAftlia, Lindl.). Lvs. obo- 
vate or ovate, obtuse : fls, 1-3. pink or orange-red ; 
corolla 1-13^1d. broad, lobes oval-oblong; atamens 5, 
eisprted, autbers vellow. May. Cblna, Jap. B.R. 
32:37. O.C.II. 25:685. R.H. 1876:370. Var.abtOia 
4Jba. Uort. Fla. white. G. P. 9:395. Var. oalyoilUr*, 
Rebder (J . enlyeiflira, Hort.J. Fls. brick-red, corolla 
double Ihose-in-bosel. 

Var. Miutna, Rebder (A. am^Ha, Lindl.). Lvs. obo- 
vate or elliptic, obtuse or acute, S-I In. long, dark 
green : corolla usually double (bose-in-hose). pnrple, 
K~1 la. broad; stamena S. Apr., May. China. Jap. 
B.M. 4?28. F.S. 9:885. H.C. III. 23: fig. 125. A.O. 
15:373; 18:568. Gng.3:385. A.F.12:33. P.E.9:573. 
—Flowering early and very abundantly ; hardy north 



AZiATiWA 



AZOLLA 



123 



to New York. There are some forms uid croases of 
this yarlety, of which the following may be recom- 
mended : Caldwelli, with larger pnrple fls., Geert, 
IcAs. 18 ; Marvel, lilac-carmine, double, Flor. Mag. 
11 ; 14 ; Mncess Maud, rosy magenta, R.H. 1886 : 516; 
Mrs. Carmichael, crimson-magenta ; Princess Bea- 
trice, bright manve ; Prime Minister, soft pink ; Miss 
Buist, pure white. 

15. rosmaziaifdlia, Bnrm. {A, dlba. Sweet. A. ledi- 
fdlia. Hook. A. liliifldra, Poit.). Much branched, low 
shrub, 1-3 ft. : branches, Ivs. and pedicels densely ru- 
fously appressed-strigose : Ivs. elliptic or elliptic- lan- 
ceolate, persistent, 1-3 in. long : fls. 1-3 ; calyx with 
lanceolate serrate-glandular lobes ; corolla pure white 
or rosy purple, 2-3 in. broad, fragrant ; stamens usually 
10. May. China. B.R. 10:811. B.M. 2901. L.B.C. 13: 
1253.— Some remarkable varieties of this species are 
the following : Var. Alba, Behder (A . Indica, var. dlba, 
Lindl. i2. leucdnthum, Bunge). Fls. white, sometimes 
striped pink. Var. porpdzea, Rehder (B, ledifdlium, 
var. purpAreum, Max.). Fls. rosy purple. Var. naroissi- 
fltoa, Biehder {A. naroissifl^rat Fort.). Fls. double, 
white; rarely purple. Var. punloea, Rehd. {A.punlcea, 
Sweet. A. ledifdlia, var. pAornicaa, Hook. A, Indica, 
var. ealyelna, Paxt.). Fls. single, purple ; calyx with 
linear, not serrate and less glandular lobes. B.M. 3239. 
L.B.C. 18:1*^5. A. rosmarinifdlia has produced, with 
A, Indica f a large number of beautiful hybrids, of 
which one of the first was figured in 1833 as JShododen- 
dron pulehrum, 

▲A. FU, from lateral 1-fld. buda toward the end of the 
branches: corolla rotate campanulatCf glabrous, 
(Aealeastrum,) 

16. alMfldra, O. Ktse. {BhododSndron albifldrum, 
Hook. ). About 2-3 ft. : branches strigose and glandular 
when young : Ivs. oblone, pale green, appressed-stri- 
gose above and at the midrib beneath, slightly ciliate : 
fls. nodding, on short pedicels ; corolla white, 5-cleft, 
about 1 in. broad ; calyx glandular ; stamens 10. Rocky 
Mts. B.M. 3670. 

A. DahHriea, Koch -"Rhododendron Dahurlenm.— A. di- 
antkifibra^ Carr.— A. roBmarinifolia, var. dianthiflora.— A. dUa- 
tdta, O. Ktxe. (R. dilatatum, Miq.). Allied to A. rhomblca. Lvs. 
clabrous : stamens 5. JaiMtn.— A. Fdrrerce^ Koch (A. sqna* 
mata, Lindl.). Allied to A. Schlippenbachi. Lvb. rhomboid- 
ovate* somewhat coriaeeoos: fls. whitish pink, spotted. China. 
B.R. 33: 3.— A. Japdniea, Gray— A. Sinensis.— A. Kamseh&Hoa, 
O. Ktxe. (Rhododendron Kamschaticnm, Pall.). Low or pros- 
trate ihrab, to 10 in. high : Ivs. obovate, setose : fls. 1-5, lons- 
pednneled, ly^ in. broad, campannlate, pnrple. N. E. Asia, 
K. W. Amer. Gt. 36:1200.— A. iMpp&nica^ Linn.'— R. Lapponi- 
enm.- A. linearifbUa, Hook. (R. linearifolinm, Sieb. & Zucc.). 
Allied to A. rosmarinifolla. Lvs. linear-lanceolate: eorolla 
pink, deeply divided into 5 linear-lanceolate segments. April, 
May. Japan. B.M.5760.— A.mocros^oki.O.KantzeCR.macro- 
sepahun, Maxim.) . Height 1-2 ft.; branehlets densely vUlose : 
Its. deeldnons or semi-persistent, elliptic : fls. umbellate, rose- 
lilac, spotted, about 2 in. broad ; calyx pabescent-glandular. 
Japan. (H.19: 062.— A. mucrondta^ Blnme^A. rosmarlnifolia.— 



A. obtUisa, Lindl.-"A. Indica, var. obtnsa.— A. wadta, Lindl. (R. 
ovatum. Planeh.). Allied to A. alblflora. Height 2-12 ft.: Ivs. 
ovate, glabrous : fls. pink or nearly white, spotted, rotate, 1H~1% 
in. broad; stamens 5. China. B.M.5064.— iL. retiouldta, Koch 
—A. rhombica.— A. semibarbdta, O. Knntze (R. semibarbatnm. 
Maxim.). Allied to A. albiflora, Lvs. eUiptio, crenately dlKte, 
setose beneath : fls. greenish yellow, spotted purple, H-^in. 
broad. Japan. Gt. 19: 666.— A. serpuUifbUa, Gray (R. serpylll- 
folium, Miq.). Allied to A. Indica. Low, rigid shrub : Ivr. de- 
ciduous, obovate, K~Hin. long : fls. single, rosy red, ^^-^in. 
broad. Japan. B.M. 7503.- A. Siiboldi, Miq.— A. Indica.— A. 
SQuamdta, liindl.— A. FarrersB.- A. Tsehondskii, O. Kuntze (R. 
Tschonoskii, Maxim.). Allied to A. Indica. Low shrub: lvs. 
elliptic, H-%in. long: fls. 2-4, white, Hin. broad. Japan. 

Alfred Rehdbb. 

AZABA (I. N. Azara, a Spanish promoter of science, 
especially of botany). Bixdcece. Shrubs or small trees : 
lvs. evergreen, alternate, with usually enlarged and leaf - 
like stipules : fls. small, in axillary peduncled racemes 
or clusters, apetalous ; sepals 4-5 ; stunens numerous, 
rarely 5 : fr. a many-seeded berry. About 20 species 
in S. America, especially Chile. Handsome evergreen 
shrubs, with small but fragrant fls., for warm temperate 
regions ; probably only A. microphylla will thrive far- 
ther north in a sheltered position and protected during 
the winter. Grow best in a sandy compost of loam and 
leaf soil. Prop, by seeds or cuttings of mature wood 
in autumn, placed in slight bottom heat under glass. 

microphylla, Hook, f . From 3-12 ft. : lvs. obovate, ser- 
rate, or nearly entire, %-%\n, long, shining, glabrous, 
the stipules similar, but half the size : fls. greenish, in 
few-fld. clusters ; stamens 5 : berries orange. Feb., Mar. 
Chile. G.C. II. 1: 81.— Graceful evergreen shrub, reg^u- 
larly pinnately branched, excellent for covering walls ; 
the hardiest of all the cultivated species. 

Oilliesi, Hook. & Am. Height 10-15 ft. : lvs. 2^-3 in. 
long, broad-ovate, with coarse, spiny teeth, glabrous ; 
stipules orbicular, much smaller : fls. in dense, elliptic, 
nodding heads, yellow. Feb., Mar. Chile. B.M. 5178. 
F.S. 23: 2445. -The handsomest of all Azaras. 

A.craasifblia, Hort. — A. Gilliesi. — A. dentdUa, R. St Pa v. 
Height 12 ft.: lvs. obovate or elliptic, crenate-serrate: lis. yellow, 
in small corymbs. Chile. B.R. 21:1788.— A. integrifblia, R. & 
Pav. Height 10-20 ft.: lvs. entire: fls. yellow, in oblong heads. 
Chil^ H.UI . y.ri.«.t.d torm. ^^^ B.i^tn. 

AZOLLA (Greek, to destroy by drying), Salvini&cea, 
A small genus of floating aquatics wiUi small, pinnate 
stems and minute fleshy 2-lobed lvs., producing two 
sorts of spores in globular sporocarps. The species mul- 
tiply rapidly by self-division, but will grow readily in 
water containing a little nutriment. The species are 
distinguishable only by microscropic examination. 

CaroUni&na, Willd. Plant %-l in. long : anchor-like 
processes of spores with septa. N. Y. to the Gulf of Mex. 

fHienloldos, Lam. Plants 1-2 in. long : anchor-like 
processes without septa. Calif, to Chile. 

L. M. Undkbwooo. 



1 (uM to come from Dnlch for baboon, be- 
eauaelfaoae aDlmalii eM tb« bolba). IridAcea. Abont 
SU connous plantB ot S. Atr. Fla. showy, red orpnrpll*b. 
Id k Bhort (pfkellke cluster or noeme, tubulkr at the 
base, the segraenta with claws or narrow bases, and the 
tlmb erect -spread In fr : ovary S-loonled : Its. narrow, 
hairy, pUEt«d, aUuidlng edgewlBe to the stem. Low 
plants, of easy cnltare It treaMd like freeslas or hya- 
elnths. Three or 4 oormi la a 4-ln. pot riTs attractlTa 
bloom Id Uarob or later. Qrown only Indoors or under 
frames in the N. They are showy and usefnl plants. 
Moaogr. by Baker In Haodbook o{ the Irlden, IB92. 
A. Ptrianlk limb retilar or nearig ao, and tcidi- 
Iprtttdinf. 
•tclste, Eer. (B. villdta. and B. purpirea, Eer.). 
Fig. 177. Afoot or less hlKh; Its. broad, obloug-laneeo- 

>... . 'ii^p^^ barely reaehloft the iplkcs : Us. 

- " ' — pnrple, with a proml- 



AA. nrianlh Itmb dtMiinetlf Titigtnt or gapitif. 

pUeits, Ker. Low: Ivi. laoeeolate. hairy, usually 
orrrtopplng the spikes : fls. Ulae or red. lonr-tnbed, the 
sefcments oblong- and unequal. B.M. 676. 

dlMlohA, Ker. Differs from the last In having the 
perianth -tube distinctly exserted from the spatbe. 

BABT'B BEBATH. See OgpiopMla. 

BACOHASIB (ballkari4, an anetent QT««k tiniDE|. 
CompdtUa. Obou^dsu, Tbr. Shrubs or herba : Ivs. 
alternate, naually serrate, deciduous or peraistrnt: bead* 

of fla. small, white oryeIIawlsb,dlceeions; invotuere with 
many Imbricate scales: akenes with pappus. About 250 
speclea In America, mostly in tropical reglona. A few 
apeeles are cultivated particulu-ly for the snow-while 
pappns, which gives tbn fruiting plant a very ahawy 
appearance. They grow in almost any well drained sou 
In a sanny position, and are well adapted for dry and 
rocky slopes, and valoable for seashore planting. Prop, 
by seeds or by onttlngs under glass. 
Linn. 



, oothed,t 

us, 1-2 Id. long; fls. In large pan!- 

vhile, about Hin. long. Sept. Seaeoast, 



permost entire, gl^t<v 

eles : pappna wEile, al _ „ 

from N. Eng. southward. Qng. 7: 113.— The hardiest 



iJT. 1 



*(XH). 



country, but as mixed varieties. These vartet 
chleay. If not wholly, of this species. Many fan 
colors. Var. uigiwtUtlU, Sweet. Lvs. linear. 
637. Var. Itbro-Byfcnaa, Eer, Limb lilac, Ibroi 
B.M. 410, Var. tnlpllftrM, Ker. Yellow or » 
B.M. 1053. Two other long-cnltivatwl types i 
scribed below. 



B. Pataginlca, Hook, ft Am. Low ersrireaB ibrab; Its. 
VSIn,lDat: hudi mcwll;ailllu7, Puag.- B.pUulirii.JiO. 
UeLght fl ft,; ererareen: Ivt, 1 in. Ions: heads in raccmoie pant- 
cl«i. PiirlflsFosat,-if,iaH<tiAt{a,Torr.AOn7, AllUd bj B. 
htUmlfoUa, Lvi, narrow^blaw or Uoear-lanceolste. Colo, to 
W. Teiai. AUBID RlBDKK. 

BAOHILOE'8 BVTT0V8. See Cenlaarta CganuM, 
OoMphnna globaia and fiOHHtuultii aeris. 

BA0TKIBfOreek,ftal:fn>n,eane; the jronng stems naed 
forwalklng-stlcks). Palmdcea, tribe Cocoltiea, Usually 
low palms, very rarely entirety spineless, with solitary or 
fasciculate ringed, spiny or smooth caudlces. sprouting 
from the roots : Its. terminal or scattering, equally or 
nnequally plnnatisect, glabrous or pabesceDt; segments 
sparse or aggregated, or more or leas imperfectly con- 
nate, forming a blBd blade, acute or rarely obtuse at the 
npei. the ciliate margins recurved at the base ; petiole 
abort or long; sheath long, aplny; spadices sessile or pe> 
dunculate, perforating the leof-sbeaths ; spaCbes 2, the 
lower short, open at the apei, the upper coriaceous 
or woody, exceeding the spadii. or fusiform, ventrally 
dehiscent, smooth, bristly or spiny ; bracts persistent ; 
fls. small or medium, pale yellow or greenish : fr. small, 
green, ovoid or globose. Species, about 100. Tropical 
America, Ornamental, but little grown on account of 
the spines. See PaliHi. 

A. Spittti yelloie, lipped Mack. 

pftUldliplsa, Mart, (il, rfav>>p)na,Hort.). St. 10-18 ft. 
high, 1-2 in. In dlaro., the iniemodes spiny; Its, showy, 
6-9 ft. long, equally Interruptedly plnnatisect ; petiole 
4-6 ft., brown-Bcafv, thickly covered with very long 
|^-2^ln. I, black-tipped yellow spines, either solitary or 
in groups of 2-1 ; segments linear-lanceolate, caudate- 
acuminate, prickly on the margins, the basal ones 2-8 tn. 
long, IXln. wide, the upper, 12 In. by IWu. Bruil. 
AA. Splnti black. 
B. Lt.-itgmtnl> acute at bolk end: 

mkjoT, JacQ. St. 9-15 ft, high, l-l!^in. In diun., armed 
with rows of black spines, 2 In. long: petiole armed with 
very long black, terete spines ; Ivs. 4-6 (t. long, equally 
plnnatisect nearly to the rachis; sheath and rachls apiny 
and white or brown tomentose ; segments linear, acute 
at bath ends, 35-3.1 on each side, I-nerred, 8-12 in. long, 
H'Hia. wide, glabrous on both sidps, densely setos«, 
with black hairs along the margin. Brazil. 



BALSAM 



125 



BB. Lf.-ttgmtnti aeutt at tip. 

OmdpiM, BBK. (euilUlma Mpeeibia, Hart.). St. 

about 60 n.biKh, ilngle or e«RpltOBe,iTlth rings oigabu- 



in. Btl»km BcamuuiL 

late-oompressed black Bplnes, 1 In. long, the rings aboot 
M far apart as the diam. of the at. : IvB. 8 ft. long, curv- 
ing; segoieDts dark green above, pale green below, very 
BoaierDUB, approximate, IHft. long, 1!^ In. vide, llnear- 
laneeolate, long-aenmiQate, bristlj or minutely priekl; 
along the margins, liower Amazon. 

Urrida, Oerst. Cnspltose stems 6-8 ft. high, S-8 In. 
diam., very spiny, ibeathsd for moat of Its length with 
bates of dead Its.; spines 3-4 In. lung, 4'9lded, vhltiah 
tomentoBe, at length glabrons: lvB.2>i-3ft, long; sheath 
S In., brown -tomentose ; petiole IHft., densely aplny. 
Bubtetragooal, densely brown-tomentose beneath ; seg- 
ments T in. long, H'n. wide, laneeolate, rigid, glaucous. 
Nicaragua. j,b,o G. Smitb. 

BACDLABIA (Latin. biMuIum.a small walking-stick). 
Palmictir, tribe Arirca. Low splneleBS palms, with an- 

luequally plnnatlsect ; segments membranous, broad or 
narrow, split or toothed at the apei, the broader ones 
many-nerved, the narrow ones I-nerved, the terminal 

margins not thickened, recurved at the base; petiole and 
raehis sparsely scurfy, convei on the back, flat above or 
concave toward the hose : sheath short, open : spadicce 
numerous, longer than the Ivb., spreading, recurved ; 
peduncle very slender, scurfy, compressed at the base : 
spathes 2, remote, the lower one at the base of the pe- 
duncle tubular, the apper membranaceous, linear, ensi- 
torm : fls. green : fr, small, elongate -ovoid, subacute, 
green. X-}itn. long. Species 2. Temperate and tropical 
AoBiralia. See Fatmt. 



t. F. Mnell. (Arlca monoilJUMya, Mart. 
Kintia monoitishga, F. Muell.). Trunk 6-12 ft. bigb: 
Ivb. l>i-4 ft. long ; the sheath broad, coriaceous, about 
6 In. long, produced into 2 atlpular lobes; segments very 
irregular, acuminate, very variable In breadth and dis- 
tance, adnalfl to the rachls, or tapering at the base, the 
longestaboutlft.loDg. Queensland, N. S.W. B.M.66M. 
Jabed 6. Skith. 

BAlBIA (aftertheBusslanioStoglst. Karl Ernst von 
Baer). ConpSiilm, Callfomlan aanualB (or one peren- 
nial speolesi. wilb nnmerous showy, Incb'Wlde yellow 
fls. In early aummer. 

KlidUl, Qray (ffum-jJiapnfflKf, DC). Easily dis- 
tinguished from ActinoUpait eoronaria by Its hairy sts. 
and foliage and undivided Iva. : plant much branched: 
height 4~I2 in. : Ivb. opposite, connate, lioear-lanceolate; 
fls. solitary, on slender terminal peduncles : involucre 
leafier than ia Aeiim>ltpti4 eoronaria, the scales longer, 
downy, InSserleB: rays 6-12. B.M.37SS.-TblB is likely 
to be cult, as Laithtnia Califomica, which, however, is 
not hairy and has much longer Ivs. 

S, chniiiltoma. Fitch. A Ma;. Lvi. nanowlj linear, 1 line 
or leas wide : it. lanei tliaa- In B, etscUIs ; habit more erect. 
—B. eorcmdria— Aetlnolepili coroauia. 

BALAEA (the Fijian vernacular name). Patmieea, 
■tribe Arieta. DiSerB from PtychoBperma In having 
the seed not sulcate, and In tbe halt-rhomboid seg- 
menta of tbe Ivs. ; and from Drymopblceus In tbe form 
of tbe leaf and tbe caducous epatbes. Species 2. Fiji 

BrtDMOnl, BeCO. IPtyehatplrma Siimanni, H. 
Wendl.). Fig. ITS. Caudei aleuder. 8-12 ft. bigb, 
straight, ringed, about 1 In. Id diam. : Ivs. pinnatlaect, 
4 ft. long; segments emse-dentate at tbe apei, alter- 
nate, 9 on each side, aeroi-rbomboid, obliquely truocale, 
the upper margin longer, cuspidate at the apex, tba 
terminal one deeply biSd. Growing ae underwood in 
dense forests. Fi}l. — Stems used for spears by natives, 
because of their strength and straightness. Fig. ITS la 
adapted from Seeman'a Flora Vltiensis. 

Jabid Q. Smith. 

BALLOOI VUTB. %tB OardUnptrmvm. 

BALM (if«Iia((iofNc<nd»s, Linn.}. Zabiita, Sweet 
herb, the Ivs. being used for seasoning, particularly In 
liquors. It has a lemon-Uke flavor. It Is a hardy peren- 
nial from BDuthem En, Tbe plant grows 1-2 ft, high, 
Bomewhat hairy, loosely branched, with ovate-crenaM 
Iva. and yellowish or whitish fls. in 
loose axillary clusters. Thrives in 
any warm position, and Is easy to 
grow. Prop, by seeds ; also by dl- 



gardcn Balsam. Balsam i>od. 

BAL8AX, Itnpitient Balidmina, Linn. (Balaimtna 
horUniis, DC, Balidmina Impitieni , Hoit, ImpAlittit 
cBcelnia. Sims, B.M. 12561. OironiAeea. An erect, 
much -branched, half succulent annual, long ago intro- 
duced (roni India, and now widely colt, for its abowy 



126 



BALSAM 



Bs. It hM Tul«d ImmeDuIr Id tlw donbUns, tiM ud 
eoler of ttt Aa. u>d In the BUturs of Uif> plant. It wu 
known to Q«ntrdB in IG96. Tho plant has laaMoUla, 
toothed Its., the lower ODOB being mostly tn pain. The 
fli.ara dniterad In the aillt «f the Its., on Terr 'bort 



stalki ; sepals and petals ilmilarlj coloied and not 
easll; dlitlngaiahsd, one of the lepals (of which there 
aeem to be 3) loDg-spaiT«d ; peuija apparently 3, but 
two of them probably represent two imlC«d petals, 
thus making 5 ; itamens 6. Tbe pod, shown In Plfts. 
179 and ISO, is eiploslTe. Ic has 5 carpels aod Terythln 
partlCloDs, and seeds borne on aille placenUe. when 
the capsules are ripe, a pinch or concnsslon will cause 

thrown with eoDslderable force. 

The fuU-donble Balsams are known ai Che Camellia- 
flowered varieties (Flg.181). In well selected stock, the 
KTsater part of tbe Bowers from any batch uf seedtlnfn 
shouiil ourae very double. The colors range from while 
to dark blood-red, yellowish luid spotted. Bslsams are 
of very easy culture. They are tender, and should be 
started In tbunib-pots or boies Indoors, or in the open 
when dauKer of froRt Is past. The seeds are large, 
and gennloate quickly. The plants prefer a rich, asu^y 
loam, and must not suffer for moisture. Transplanting, 
aud pincbing-ln the strong shoots, tend to make the 
plants dwarf and compact. It is well to remove the first 
flower-bads, especially If the plants are not thoroaghly 
established. Better resolM are obtained when only a 
few main braoches are allowed to fcrow, alltheeeooDdary 
and weak ones being pinched out. The lower Ivs. may 



in. The tardea Balsam. 

lie removed If they obscure the fls. Well grown plants 
should stand 2 ft. apart each way. and the tall kinds wilt 
reach a height of 2-2Xft. Seed of the Bneat double 
strains Is expensive, but Inferior or common seed 
gives little satisfaction. Plants started early In May 



BAMBOO 

ahonld glr» Ba. Id Jnly. and should bloom nntU frost. 
A fall grown plant Is ahowa In FHg. 182. At tbe present 
time. Balsams are grown chiefly for their value as 
Qower'garden plants ; but some years ago the fla. were 
largely oaed aa "groundwork" in Borlsts' designs, par- 
ticularly the doable white varieties. The flowers were 
wired to toothpicks, and wen then throat Into the moss 
which formed the body of the deaign. i n r 

BALBAX0BSHlZ&(Ot«ek,hiltaMnMe). CompStila. 

Low perennials with thick, deep, resinous roots, tnfts of 
radical Ivs., and large, yellow tls. Cent, and W.N. Amer. 
HoAkerl, Nalt. Height 4-12 in.: Ivs. laneeoUte, 1-2- 
plnnately parted : fls. solitary, on naked scapes. Int. 
1881 by E, Olllett, but acareely known to horticulturists. 

BAMBOO. Tarioas giant perennial grasses consist- 
ing of the genera and species of tbe tribe Bambiita. 
order Oranfdsa. Usually large and often tree-like, 
woody, rarely herbaoeoua or climbing, of wide fceo- 
graphical range. The species are Irregularly distributed 
throughout the tropical cone, a few occurring in sub- 
tropical and temperate tones, and reaching iheir maxi- 
mum development in the moDSOon regions of Asia. 
About 23 genera, only 2 being common to both hemi- 
spheres. Something more than 200 species a» recog- 
nised, of which upwards of ISO occur in Asia, about TO 
la America, and G ia Africa. They extend from sea-level 
to altitudes of more than 10,000 ft. in the Himalayas and 
15,000 ft, ia the Andes, and nnder the most favorable 
eondlcioDS some speelsa may attain a height of lOO-lSO 
ft., with a dlam. of culm of 8-IZ inches. 

An attempt to portray the many economic uses of the 
giant-grasses woold greatly overreach tbe field of this 
article ; but as objects of grace and beauty in the garden, 
conservatory, and special conditions of landsespe, the 
Bamboos are invalaable. Not only are they available to 
plaatera where the climatic conditions aro very favora- 
ble, but it ia possible to grow certain species where the 
cold of winter may reach sero Fahrenheit, or even occa- 
sional depressions of greater severity. 

Bsmliooi delight in a deep, rich loam, and generously 
reapood to good treatment. A wsrm, slightly ahady 
nook, protected from the prevailing winds of winter, 
and where moist but well-dralaed soil Is plentiful, is an 
ideal location tor tbese beautiful grasses. A top-dress- 
ing of manure and leaves Is not only beaeBcial In winter, 
by preventing the frost from penetrating the ground too 
deeply, but it also preserves tbe moisture that is so es- 
seollsi to the welfare of the plania daring the growing 
seSBOn. Borne species produce rampant subterranean 
stems, and spread rapidly when once established. It ia 



The most effective results* to be oblaloed by plan 
Bamboos are secured on gentle banks above clear vater 

Bokground of the deepest green. 

e gracefully arched stems, tbe 
dainty branches, bending with their wealth of eoft green 
ivs., and the careless lines of symmetry of each individ- 
nal, lend a bold oontrsat ol tbe richest beauty. It will 
require a few years to thoroughly establish a clump of 
Bamboos In the open air, and until this is effected the 
vigor, hardiness and beauty that characterise some noble 
sorts ara lacking. Daring the early life of tbe groups, 
some protection sboald be given where the winters are 
trying, and even with this precaution it la likely the 
piaots will snffer to some extent at first during cold 
weather. Planted out in conservatories or oonflned in 
tubs or large pots, the Bamboos present many admirable 
qualities. As decorative pisnts In tubs or pots, either 
alone or associated with palms and other stock, several 
apecles offer many inducements to their eultivalian, es- 
pecially as they may be grown ia summer aad wintered 
in a coolhause. Propagation is best effected by careful 
division of the clumps before the annual growth has 
started. The dmculty of procuring seeds In some In- 
etances Is very great ; indeed, tbe fruiting of a number 
of species has never been observed. Some species flower 
snoaally, but tbemajority reach this stage only at '--— 

oda, la some species 



d frequently widely separated peri- 



le"]^" 






BAMBOO 



127 



in <ith«r« the Its, ImII from the calm* before the fls. 
■ppeu-, or the iDfloreueaee Is prodaoed on leftQeSB, radi- 
eiil name. Prnociflcalion doea not exhaust the Tltollcr 
of Kime speeles ; bat achers, on the other haiid, perlBh 



to the dlfilenltf In obtaining flowering apeolm 
BfttemUlc Brnugement or nomenclature of the Bamboo 
is in* sad plight. Aait is aometlmeH even irapogsible to 
accarauljr determina the genus without Qs,, the correct 
positloDs of same forms are not known. 

Four inbtrlbea of Banibusen are regarded b; Haekel, 
namely : Ariindiiuiriai.~Stt,xtiaat 3 ; palea 2-keeled : 
fr. with the leed grown fast to the seed-wall. To this 
belongs Arundlniiria. Eabamtiuaeat. — Stamena 6: fr. 
with ttae seed fused to a delicate seed-wall. Bambusa is 
the only gnnleD genus. i)endraea la nm. — Stamens 6 
irarely more) : palea 2-kee)ed : fr. a nut or berry. Here 
belongs Dead roc alamns. Jfeloeannea. — Charseters of 
last, but palea not keeled. Melocanna Is an example. 

The ^oera Arundinarla, Bambnsa and PhyllostaBhys 
contain the most import&nt species in caltlTatlon. some 
of which are briefly described below. Roughly, the 
species of Amndinaria may be separated from Phyllo- 
stachys by the persistent 
sheaths and cylindrical 
stems. InPhylloataebystha 
sheAths are early deciduous, 
and the intemodes, at least 
thoseaborelhebase.areaat- 
tenedononeside. Aruodlna- 
rla and Bambuaa cannot be 
sepanl«d by horticultural 



It i 



robable 



idlns 



. subgenus of Amndinaria. No Ja 
are given below, although many B'amboos are Hlill sd- 
Tertlsed under snch names. Tbe prevailing tendency is 
to discard Japanese native names in every branch of 
horticulture, as they breed hopeless confnuion. 

B. angustifoUa, IS ; B. aruDdlnacea. 11 ; B. aurea, 28; 
P. anrea. 38 ; A. aaricoma. 16 ; P. bsmbuBoldes, 32 ; 
P. Castlllonis, 2G ; A. cbrysaotha, IT; B. thrynantka.n-, 
B. dlstleba, IB; B. erecta, 10) A lalcaW, 9; Ji, fal- 



tala, 9 ; A. Faleonerl, S ; T. Faleontri, S ; A. Fortunet, 
U; A. Fortunii, var. aurta, 16; A, Fortunti, var. 
viridLt, 22 ; B. forlanei, U ; B. Fortitnii, var. aurea, 
16 ; B. gracilis, 8 ; B. Benonit, 30 ; P. Henonis, 30 ; 
A. Hlndsll, 10; A.hnmltls, 22; A.Japontca, 6 ; P. Kw 
naiaea, 33 ; P. Eumasesa, 33 ; A. maorosperma, 4 



B.Haz 



1,29; £. Mtlakt,6: 



i.T: 



that many of the forms i 
classed as species of BaiD- 
bnsa will erentually be found 
lo belODK to Arundinarla. 
Extended Information re- 
garding tbe Bambnsen may 
be foand in the following pi 
Hnnro's Monograph, In Tran 
the Ldnutsan Soc.ety, vol. 
Haekel, in Die NacUrliohen 
rallien, vol. 2, part 2. p. 89 
liab Translation by I^mson- 
Southworth, as The True Gra 
1890; papers by BeanlnOardei 
icle III., 15: 167, et seg. (1894) 
Hltford, The Bamboo Garden, 
Haemillan, p. 224 ; A. and 

Lea Bamboos, Paris, 1879. T 

aresyslematlc; theotbersoontainpopular 
and cultural notes. The following species are commended 
as being among the hardiest : Phylloiiaehyt Benonii, 
P. nijjro, J*, viriai-glauceicttii, AmiidinariaJaponiea, 
A. nifida, A. macrotptma, Bamlmta palmala, B. ttt- 

The lllnstrations in the present article are adapted 
from Hilford's Bamboo Garden. Mltford's work cannot 
be praised too highly. It has done much to create a 
popular appreciation of Bamboos, and also to clear iip 
the complete confunion into which the trade names have 
fallen. Mltford's book has a literary quality that is 
very rare in horticultural writing, and represents a type 
thatdeserves the warmest appreciation InAmerlca; viz., 
tbe discriminating enthusiasm of the expert amateur. 

Amndinaria is derived from Latin nrundo, a reed ; 
Bambusa from a Malay name ; Phyllostachyn from 
Greek pMj/llon, leaf, and ttachyi, spike. W. M. 

The following alphabetical list contains all the kinda 
of Bamboos known to be cull. In Amer. A=^Aru 



.£5; P.mltls,25; 
if.nana,18; A. Tfarihim,! ; B. ffarihira,7i B. nigra, 
21; P. nigra, 23; A.nltlda,3; B.palmaU, 19; B.plieata, 
7; A.pumila, 2; B.pumila.2: B. pygmiBa,21; B. qnad- 
rangnlaris, 12 ; B.Quilioi,29; P. Qu!liol,29 ; B. Baga- 
moicikil, 20; B. ruKifolia, 33 ; P. ruscifolla, 33 ; A. 
Slmonl,7; jB. Sinumi, 7; A. tecta,B; B. tessellata, 20 ; 
A. VelCchll, 1 ; B. Veitchii, 1 ; B. VHmorini, 15 ; B. 
ritntnali>,3.1; B.viola*cms,2i ; P. vlolascens, 24 ; B. 
viridi-tlriala, 1 ; B. it>idi-(ia«e*»ee«i, 31 ; P. vlridl- 
glaucescens, 31 ; B. vulgsris, 13. 

SecTIOKI. — Inlemodet not rtaltetud : thiatln per$UI' 

mt. {Tht genera Arundindria and Bairibdia.l 

A. Color of tUm$ purple, or pHrpUlh. 

B. Beighl 1-t n. 

1. A.VUtohU,N.E.Brown<^am6i)ia Vlitchii.Okrr.). 

Fig. 183. Height about 2 ft. : steins par- 



which are picturoa of B. palmala, as explained lu G.C. 
III. 15:209.-Thls Is also liable to contusion with B. lei- 
lellata. No. 20. The edges of the Ivs. wither In lale au- 
tumn, giving a variegated but shabby appearance. 

2. A.p(imila,Mltford(B.Ffimi;a,Hort.). Helghtl2>20 
in.: stems very slender, purpUnb, white-waxy below the 
noiies : Ivs. 4-5 in. long, « in. orlesa wide, minutely pu- 
bescent, bright green. — Much rarer than No. I, dwarf er, 
the Blema merely purplish, the Ivs. shorter and nar- 
rower. The IvB. are a darker green than in A , humilii, 
ahorter, narrower, and tapering less gradually : nodes 
less well defined and lens downy, but having a waxy 
bloom; Intemodes about SK in. long, 

HB, Height 6-3 n. or more. 

3. A, nltida, Mitford. Fig. 184, Stems slender, about 
the sise o( a goose-quill : Ivs. 3-^ in. long, >lin. wide, 
shining green above, pale beneath ; sheaths purplish, 
pubi'Hcent. China, M, 73, G.C. 111. 18: 179; 34:311. On. 
49, p, 388. -Considered by Mitford the daintiest and 
most attractive of ell the genus, and exceptionally 
hardy. Some shade is needed, as the Ivs. curl up in full 
sunlight. Easily distinguished from Nos. 1 and S by 
the deeper color of the stems, which are almost black, 
and from A . Faleoneri, which it resembles in habit, the 
branches of both occurring In dense clusters. 

AX. Color of llemt green. 

B. Heighl mors than e fl. 

o. Speeiei native (o the C S. 

4. A, m»erofp*nna,Michi. Large Cane. Height 10-20 
ft., branches numerous, short, divergent : Ivs. 4-6 Id. 



loDfc, ^-2 In. broul. imoothiBh or pnb«>ceiit : ibeMbi 
very penlstent : ■lemi arboreteeDC, rigid, limple the 
flrat year, brwiehliiK the aecoiid. kflerwards frnllioK kt 
IndeflDltfl periods, ajod aoon ftfier deof lug. Bankioithe 



BAUBOO 

a, Brattckei bem4 In dtn4i, Mtni-vtrticlllalt tlutltrt 
{•ehirk taiily ditlinguit)u» llu Bimalaifan tpe- 
ciei from Phyttoilarliyat. 

T. Fla*U lometimet variegated. 
T. &.8tiiital,A.uidC.Blvl6re [B. Simoni,Cmrt. B. 
viridi-tlriHa. Hart. A, and B. iVsnMrn, Bort). 
Height 10-20 ft.: Ivi. S-I2 Id. long, abont 1 in. wide. 
pale beoeath, very minutely pnbesecDt.Mpering to a loop;. 
One point ; mld-velD glancou* on one lide toward tbe 
apai, green on the other. HlmnJ. and China. Q.C. 111. 
15:301; IB: 181. -A silver Tarlegated tomila aometlinee 
known at B. MaxintOKlczU. Hon.. and B. plieAta. Hort. 
B.U. 7146. ThI* U the tsllest of the g«nna, and, next to 
P. milii, the talleet ot all bardy Bamboos. The plant ia 
rery late In beginning growth, aod many of the culms 
should be removed In order to let the strong ones ripen, 
u weak ahooti are untidy. It flowers occaaloDally. but 
doea not die thereafter. It bis a shabby appeanujce 
until mldsommer, and may take several years to br. 
oome established, meanwhUa sending up dwarf, slender 
ahoota and narrow foliage, bat HIttord nrgea patienoe. 
•a tbe plant Is hardy, and ultimately very rlgoroaa and 
handaonte. 

rr. PlantM never variesated. 

6. &.rUMHiail, Mftford (7. FdkoniH. Hook. f. B. 

pnii;ilif,Hort.,DDtWall.). Height 10-15 ft.: atema slen. 

der. bright green, the Intemodes ffhlte-waxy : Ivs. thin, 

3-4 In. long, about H In. wide. Himal.-Not very hardy. 



Tbe I 



larger rivers N. C. to Fla., forming oane-brakes. — Thla 
and the next are tbe only two speciea of Bamboos native 
to tbe L*. 6. They are rarely ealt. In Calif, and En. aa 



5. L.ltVU.'UabX. (A.maeroip^m 
Munro). Smai-i. C*kk. Switch C. 
Heijcbt 2-15 It.: stems slender : 



r. tutfrutiedta, 
Scotch Canc. 
aa slender: Ivs. 3^-8 in. long, 
ah: sheath bearded at tbe throat. 
Swampa and moist soli, Md. and 8. Ind. SDUtbward. 
B.B. 1: 233. — Sometimes fruiting several years In anc- 

cc. Sptcitt not native to t\t U. S. 

D. Pianti reladvely hardy. 

E. Bmnchti borne lingly in the axili. 

«. A.JapAnlo*. Sleb.AZu«.{9.Jr(f(fifce.Sleb.).Helght 

6-10 ft.: Ivs. 6-12 in. long, l-'J in. wide, above smooth 

and sblnlng, below whitened and flnely pubescent : 

sliestbs conspIcuDUB. Jap. M. 1. O.C. 111. 15:239; 

lS:l8.>.-The comtnoneat of all bardy Bamboos, and 

readily dlBlingui'<bed from all other tall kinds by Ihe 

sbestba wbich almost cover the Rts. It Is especially dis- 
tlnituished from A. Simoni by tbe bud being a simple 
flstli^b scale instead of a complex scaly one, and also by 
tbe leas amount ot waiy bloom on the St. Particularly 
- - * d for cities. 



QOth, c 



le top, wiib- 



a fringe, and with an elongaled llgula j wbl. . 

talcata.tio.d. has very downy leaf-sbesthi. fringed wltb 
long balrs at the intersection wlib Che leaf. The aerra- 
tloDS of Ihe leaf-edges are more pronounced in A. Fat- 
CDHfn, especially on one aide. Venation ot IvB. on npper 

e. A.tftIaliU, Vwa(B. falcila, Hort. J. Height 6-10 
ft.: Iva. 3-5 In. long, about Kin. wide, light green: 
stems annual (perennial under glass), slender, tnfted. 
Himal. — Tbe great majority of Che plants enlt. under 
a really ,*. Faleontri, which has  



. In 



aall s 






inguisb 



from No. S aoij by the glabroua leaf-sheaths of tbe 
latter. The flower-bearing and leaf-bearing sta. of A. 
talcata ara distinct, the former flowering and seed- 
ing each year. 

10. A, HlodlU, Hnnro (B. erieta. Hort.). Height 
sometimes 7 ft., braocbes quaal-vcrtlelllal« : Iva. Up- 
right at first, ot various lengths np to 9 In., and abont 
% in. wide ; veins conspionoualy tesaelated ; Intemodea 
3-T In. long, woxy-whlte ; leaf -sheaths with a few bain. 
Jap. — The erect habit of growth is very marked. A re- 
cent Hpecies of doubtful hardiness. Adv. by Dr. fran- 
ceschl, who eonalders It one of the hardiest. 

DD. Planli relatively tender {Xot. 11, It, ti,. 
K. Brftnthet spiny. 

11. B. anmdlnfaMk, Rets. A majeatlo species, often 
attaining aheight of more than 40-60 ft. The stems, which 
are t>rDdaced In dense clumps, are green and shining, 
with moreor less spiny branches: Ivs. 4-8 In. long, }iin. 
or a llttlemore wide, nearly glabrous ; sheatba persistent: 
fls. are produced at long Intervals, and after perfecting 
seeds, the plants die. lodla.-Noa. 11 and 12 are green- 
house plants, not recommended by Mltford for ontdoora. 

)2. B. qnadnngnliiil, Fenil . Sterna square, eapeelally 
In older plants. 20 ft. or mors hinb : Ivs. deep green. 
serrate, 6-7 in. long, about 1 in. wide. Jap. — Franceachi 
says it is as hardy as any Pbyllostacbys. See No. 11. 

13. B.«iilgkTU.Si'hrad.HdKht2a-80 ft.: stems hollow, 

Internodes 1-1 M ft. long': Ivs. uaually 6-10 in. long, 8-1-^ 
llneswide'.HOmeclmealft. long. 2 in. wide, rough OQ and 
Dearths margins and benesth. India. G.C. III. 26:.^t90. 
-Sold souch. but not rerommeudfd by Hitford. This 
and D. qiganleue are the only two Bamboos extenslvi'ly 
cult. In tbe Orient, though others are more useful. Ii la 
also naCurallied and cult. In the W. Ind., Mei. andBrai., 
but there is no evidence of an Amcr. origin. 



BAMBOO 

BB. Iteielit If Utan S ft. 

c. Yariegalio* wMtt. 
14. A. ItaVaoA. A. ud C. Blvi^re {B. FMunei, V&n 

Houtto, kDd Tsr. tunejfdfa, Hon.). Height 3-1 ft.; Its. 
4-5 [D. loDg, hftU u vide or % little more, stripm with 
white. Jap. F.S. 15: l&Sa.-LoHealtalvB. In winter, hut 
qalckly recovers In spring. More popular tbui the next 
two species. The Interoodes are rarely more than 1 In. 
kpart, while In A. auricoma the; &re 3-S In. apart. Var. 
anrta, Hart., with fellow variegation. Is A. aHricoma. 
Var. riridU, Hart.>=.4.kumtl{i. This Is an old fayorlte, 
and far more eommon than the next 4 ipeeles. Rbi- 
■omes are mora aotlve than the next, and demand more 



15. B. ancnatUUlA, Mittord (B. VilTnorini, Hort.). 
Heifrht about 1 ft. : sta. slender, parpllsh or light green : 
Wa. 2-1 Id. long, about H In. wide, serrate, freqaently 
variegated with white. Jap. 



16. A. urieoma, Hltford {A. and .5. F6rlunti, var. 
oAiva, Hort.). Height S-3 ft.; Its. &-6 in. long, about 1 
In. wide, brilliantlj Tariegmtad with yellow, softly pu- 
bescent beneath, lerrste. Jap. 

IT. A. ohlTBlatha, Hltford (B. chrysOntha, Hort.). 
Height 3-6 ft.: Its. 5-T In. long, 1 In. Or l«Bs wide, 
ne&rly smooth, sometimes Taclegsted wltb yellow, bat 
not so brightly as lu A. auri«otna. Jap. Also dls- 
tingnlsbed from A. aurieama by the lower anrface of 
the leaf being markedly ribbed, and lacking the soft, 
velvety down. 'Being neither frankly green nor frankly 
T»rieg«t«d, It Is rather a disappointing plant."— Mittord. 



IB. B. dliUaha, Hltford (B. ndna, Hort., not Boib.). 
Helgiit 2-a ft. : branches numerous : Its. 2-2H in. long, 
M in. wide or less, serrate, green, produced in two ver- 
tical ranks. Origin nncertain. A recent and rare spe- 
cies of great interest, the distichous arrangement ot Ivs. 
iMlng qalte nnlqne among Bamboos, and giving a very 
dlnutct habit. 

DD. ArrangemtntatlvM.notdiiticlioui. 
X. Lvt. Urns, 10-18 in. 

IS. B. palukU, Bnrbldge. Pig. 185. ~ - 
Its. 10-15 in. long, 2~3S In. wide, brlghl 
serrate, smooth and shining above, bets 
nutely pnbescent : longitudinal veins i 
Jap. M. 79. On. 49, p. G9, shows a clnn 
ft. in clrenmference. 



20. B. tMMlltta, Hnnro (B. Sasamtn 
Hort.). Height 2-3 ft. : Its. 12-18 In. 
long. 3-4 in. wide, smooth and shin- ^^ 
ing al>ove, whitened beneath, sharply 
•- - — I---"! promlnen* — "" 



>ear[Dg t 
uid Jap. 



line 






_ _. .. , . is especially re I 

able on account ot lU dwarf habit. Mud 
fused in gardens, but unnecessarily, wl 
yrilehii, as the lomeutose line on ont 
of the midrib is nnlqne in B. Itattllata. 
Iva. are ased by the Chinese for wrappli 



BAHBOO 129 

Hort.). Height 2-3 ft.; branches In 2'b and 3's, long in 

SroportEoD to sts. : Ivs. 4-6 In. long, the largest abont 
iln. wide ; iDtemodes 2-5 in. apart. Dies down in a 
hardy winter. A rare species, liable to confusion with 
A, pumila, No. 3. 

SicnoN II, — Inlentodts flattened, at leatt on one tidt .• 
iluatht tarly deeiduoua, {The genua PhgUStlaehyM.) 

A. Color of tlemt black. 
23. P. nigra, Mnnro [B. nigra, Lodd.). Buck Bam- 
boo. Fig. lee. Height 10-20 ft.: stems green at first, 
but changing to black the second year : Ivs. very thin, 
2-e in. long, 6-10 lines broad. China and Japan. M. 142, 
andfcontls. G.C. III. 15;369 j 1S:1S5. R.B. 23, p. :J68. 
—One o( the most popuUr of all Bamboos, and very dis- 
tinct by reason of Its blsok stems. Var. pimotita. Hort. 
Franceschi, has yellowish stems spotted with black. 

2i. P. TloUsoens, A. and C. Rlvlftre (£. violdwtne, 
Carr.). Heigbt sometimes 13 ft.; stems violet, almost 
black the first months, changing the second year to a 
dingy yellow or brown ; Its. Tcry TM^able In slie, 3-7 in. 
long, ii-2 In. wide, theiargerlvs.bomeon young ahoota 
or on the ends of the lower branches near tbe sround. The 
Its. are sharply serrated and have a wetl-deBned pur- 
plish petiole. Franceschi snys It Is hardy, and that P. 
bambtttioidee Is often sold under this name. 

JLA. Color of ttemt ]/tUawiih, or atriped yeltota. 

25. F, mltli, A. and C. Rivlire (B. mltii, Hort., not 
Folr.). Height 15-20 or more ft.: stems arched, yellow- 
ish ; Intemodes at the base not short : leaf character* 
identical with P. aurea, with which It Is closely allisd. 
Japan. Qn. 17, p. 44. -Tbe tallest of all Bamboos, bnt, 
imfortnuately. Dot one ot the hardiest, 

26. F. OaatUUnll, Hort. [B. Caitillinii, Hort.). 
nnlqne In the genns for having both sts. and Its. varie- 
gated. Height 6-2Dft.: sts, 1 In. or more thick, mucli 
slgzagged, bright yellow, with a double groove of green: 
Its, sparingly striped yellowish white, 7 hi. long, IK in. 
wide, serrated on both maritlns : leaf-sheath topped by 
a whorl ot dark brown or purple hairs. Jap. — Cult, by 
Dr. Franceschi, Santa Barbara, Calif. 

ST. B. ItrUU, Lodd. Height 4-5 ft.; stems stHpad 
yellow and green, as thick sa the thumb ; intemodes 4-6 
in. long : Ivs. &-8 in. long, ii-1 in. broad. China. 



21. B.pTKmBa,Hlq. Height S-Ift.: 
der, much branched : Ivs. 3^ In. long, a: 
•errate, pubescent, bright green at>ov( 
pnbescent iMneath. Jap.— Thesmallesti 
remarkably iiardy. It is especially valnatile for making 
a thick carpet In wild places, but Its rampant growth 
makes it a nuisance in a border. The sts. are purple ; 
the nodes promineut, and furnished with a waxy, glan- 
eons band round the base. 

22. A. hftmilil, Mittord {A. Pdrtunei, var. vlridti. 



B.H. flOT9, which shows a flowering specimen with oon- 
splcuous anthers, red-purple at first and fading to lilac. 
Not described by Mitfoni. Sold S. and by Xokohaioa 
Nursery Co. 



130 



BAMBOO 



BANANA 



28. P. aftreft, A. and C. Riviere (B, aiirea, Hort.). 
Height 10-15 ft. : stems straight, yellowish ; intemodes 
at the base remarkably short : Ivs. narrowed from near 
the base to the apex, minutely and regalarly serrate on 
only one border, usually 2-4 in. long and ^in. wide, but 
variable, light green, glabrous ; sheaths deciduous, 
marked with purple. Japan. On. 8, p. 206. A.F. 5:41. 
—The name is not distinctive, as others of the Phyllo- 
stachys group have yellowish stems. Hardier and easier 
of cult, than P. mUis. 

AAA. Color of stems greeny often yellowish when ripe. 

B. Height 6-18 ft. 
C. Lvs, spotted with brown. 

29. P. dnilioi, A. and C. Riviere (B. Quilioi, Hort. B. 
Mazili, Hort.). Height sometimes 18 ft.: habit looser 
than in P. tnitis or aurea : 

stems arched : lvs. much 
larger and especially 
broader than in any other 
Phyllostacbvs, the largest 
8 in. long, 1^ in. wide, the 
serration of one edge con- 
spicuous; lvs. dark green, 
often spotted brown, very 




186. Phylloetachys niffra. 

glaucous beneath ; leaf-sheaths a peculiar feature, be- 
ing pinkish brown, deeply mottled with purple spots. 
Cult. S. and in Calif. -Rare. 

c?c. Irvs. not spotted with brown. 
D. Habit slightly zigzag. 

30. P. Hendnis, Mitford {B. Hendnis, Hort.). Height 
5-15 ft. : stems arched : Ivg. 2-3 In. long, a little under 
Hin. broad, narrowed below the middle to the base and 
long attenuate at the apex, bright green ; sheaths decid- 
uous, yellowish, inclined to purplish: intemodes 5-6 in. 
long near the base and middle of the stem, distinctly 
grooved with a double furrow. Japan.— This is Mit- 
ford 's favorite Bamboo. 

DD. Habit strongly zigzag. 

31. P. vlridi-gUaodiceni, A. and C. Riviere (B. viridi- 
glauc4scenst Carr.). Height 10-18 ft.: stems slender, 
zigsag, arched, bright green at first, fading as they ripen 
to a dingy yellow : lvs. 3-4 in. long, about Hln. wide or 
little more, bright green above, whitened below. China. 
Gn. 7, p. 279. G.C. III. 15:433; 18:183.-The name is 
unfortunate because not distinctive, as all Bamboos have 
green lvs. with more or less whitened lower surfaces. 
Very hardy and common. 

32. P. bambnsoides, Sieb. & Zucc. Height about 5 ft. 
in the second year : stems zigzag, green at first, ripen- 
ing to yellow, the branch-bearing side flattened rather 
than grooved, as in other species of Phyllostachys : in- 
temodes long in proportion to length of stem, sometimes 
8 in. : branches in 3*s, the longest at the middle of the 
St., and only about 9 in.: lvs. of various sizes, the 
largest 8 in. long, IK in. wide, edges serrate, sharply on 
one side. Jap.— Cult, by Dr. Franceschi, Santa Bar- 
bara, Calif. 



BB. Height i ft. or less : habit zigzag. 

33. P. nudldUa, Hort. Kew. (P. Kumasdea^ Munro, 
P. Kumasdsa, Mitford. B. ruseifblia, Sieb. B. vimi- 
ndlis, Hort. ) . Height 1 K-2 ft. : stems zifirzag, dark green ; 
sheaths purple : lvs. 2-3 in. long, about 1 in. wide, ovate 
in outline. Jap. G.C. III. 15: 369. G.C. III. 18: 189.- 
The stem is channeled on the branching side, almost 
solid : nodes 1-2 in. apart : branches in 3's and 4*8, 
not more than 1-lKin. long.— Dwarf est species of 
Phyllosuchys. c. D. Beadle. 

The f oUowinc are trade names in America of rare kinds : 
B. ogriMtis, Poir. India. Cochin China. Adv. by Yokohama 
Nurs. Co.— B. argintea, Hort.— B. argentea-striata. Regel 1—B. 
aureo-stridta, ReKel. Jap.— J.. folOs-variegdHs, Hort., is pre- 
sumably A. Fortonel, the commonest low-growins, variegated 
Anmdinaria. —B. Marlideea, Hort. Adv. by Yokohama Nnrs. 

Co. as a "wrinkled 
Bamboo.'' Donbstles 
named after M. La- 
tour Marliac, the cele- 
brated French hybri- 
dizer of water-lilies, 
and dealer in Bam- 
boos and aquatjrs.— 
D. membrandeeus, 
Munro. Height at- 
taining fKhlO ft.: 1>'S. 
4-5 in. long, 4-6 lines 
wide, roundish or narrowed at the base, mucronate. 
rough above and on the mai^in, hairy below, petio- 
late. Burma. Rare. Adv. by Dr. Fnuiceschi, Santa 
Barbara, Calif.— P. Aeteroc^cia, Carr., the ''Tor- 
toise Shell- Bamboo," is really an abnormal or 
malformed condition of several species, especially 
P. mitis, avrea and nigra, as eoLplained in G.C. III. 
24: 92. For the first foot or two above ground each 
intemode is long on one side and veiy short on the other, 
which makes a grotesque appearance. M. 100. G.C. lU. 15: 550. 
—A. Metdke, Sieb.— A. Japoniea.— A. Narihira^ Hort.. Yoko- 
hama Nurs. Co., is presumably A. Simoni.— J9. oritntAlis, 
Nees. E. Ind. Adv. by Dr. Franceschi, Santa Barbara, Calif., 
who regards it as a form of B. arundinacea, with lvs. larger 
and velvety to the touch. It forms clumps quickly.- P. quad- 
ranguldris, Hort., Yokohama Nurs. Co.— B. quadrangnlaris f — 
B. seriptdria, Dennst. (Beesha Rheedei, Kunth)— Melocanna 
bambusoides, Trin. This was John Saul's favorite hardy 
Bamboo at Washington in 1800. but is no longer advertised. 
— B. striatifdlia, var. aurea, Hort., John Saul, 1800, an aban- 
doned trade name never recognized by botanists.- JB. stricta, 
Hort., Saul, 1800, an old trade name, probably not B. stricta, 
Roxb.— D. strietus, Nees. Int. 1880 by Reasoner Bros., On^'o, 
Fla., and now adv. by Dr. Franceschi, Santa Barbara, Calif. 
Height 50-60 ft. : sts. 3 in. in diam. The true species flowers every 
year. Ind.— B. variegdta, Sieb.— A. Fortunei. — B. verticilldia. 
Hort. Franceschi. Height 15-20 ft.: stems orange-yellow : lvs. 
in whorls, striped white. w^ ^ 

BAHANA (Miisa sapiintium, Linn., chiefly). Srit- 
amindcece. This very valuable tropical plant is prized 
for its fruit, textile fiber, and decorative effect in land- 
scape gardening. Most species are cultivated for their 
fruit, and one or two species for fiber- although all 
sorts have a fiber of considerable value. Every spe- 
cies is worthy a place in decorative planting. For an 
account of the species and their ornamental values, see 
Musa. 

The species mostly in demand for frolting seldom or 
never produce seeds, and naturally increase by suckers 
around the base of each plant. These form a large 
dump, if allowed to grow without care. They are most 
readily separated from the parent root-stalk by a spade, 
and are then fit for further planting. This is a slow pro- 
cess of increase, but it is sure, and the suckers so pro- 
duced make large and vigorous plants. A quicker 
method of propagation is to cut the entire root-stalk 
into small, wedge-shaped pieces, leaving the outer sur- 
face of the root about 1 by 2 Inches in size, planting 
in light, moist soil, with the point of the wedg^ down 
and the outer surface but slightly covered. The best 
material for covering these small pieces is fine peat, old 
leaf -mold, mixed moss and sand, or other light material 
which is easily kept moist. The beds so planted should 
be in full open sunshine if in a tropical climate, or g^ven 
bottom heat and plenty of light in the plant-house. The 
small plants from root-cuttings should not be allowed to 
remain in the original bed longer than is necessary to 
mature one or two leaves, as that treatment would stunt 
them. The textile and ornamental species, also, may be 



BAPTISIA 



131 



qploklj ^Town. uid with ie»a trouble. The seeds of 
Buikamii should be sown bb fresh u posgible. treating 
tbem the eame u recommended for root-cattlngs. As 
■con u the seedlings show their first leaves, tbev should 
be trui (planted Into well-prepared beds of rloh, moist 
sol], or potted off and plunged inio slight bottom heat, 
•s the needs of the grower or his location ma)' demand. 
Doth seedlings and root-cuttiags shoiJd have proper 
timns pi anting, sufflclont room and rirh soil, as a rapid, 
aoehecked growth gives the best and quickest 



■ana, and soatbwestward to the Pacific coast. The plants 
will endure a slight frost without injury. A frost of 5 
or S degrees will kill the leaves, but If the plants are 
nearly full grown at the lime, new foliage may appear 
and Irah ma; form. If the entire top 1b killed, new 
suckers will spring up and bear fruit the following year. 
A stalk, or trunk, bears bat once ; but the new sprouts 
which arlBO from the roots of the same plant coutintis 



The I 



Itiratton of B 



It is I 



ivery 



extensively In all tropical countries. Id the West Indies, 
Central America and Mexico, they are raised for export 
to the United States and Canada. The site selected Is 
usually a level plain In the lowlands, near the coast, or 
in ralleyB among the hills, where the rainfall or artificial 
moisture Is sufflcient. The variety most commonly 
grown at presentlBtheMartlnlque,having large bunches, 
with long, yeilow fruit. The Bara^oa (or Red Jamaica) 
is more sparingly grown now than formerly, and Its dark 
red fruits, of largest site, are not commonly exported. 
For distant shipping, bunches of fruit are cut with 
'machetes" or knives, after they reach their lull slie 
Ud are almost mature, but qnlte green In color. Ripen- 
ing is efifected during shipment in warm weather, and 
by storing in dark, artiQcially-heated rooms daring eold 
weather. Banana fiour is a valuable product of ripe 
Bananas prepared among the plantations In the troplet. 
It la nutritious, and has an Increasing demand and use 
as human food. A recently Invented process of drying 
ripe Bananas has been found very saccessfnl, and the 
industry promises to be o( vast Importance aa the mar- 
ketable artlele finds ready sale. Iii the nnlted States 
there is little commerelol cnltivatlon of Bananas, since 
the froBtless sone Is narrow and the fruit can be grown 



--..f^^ea- 



o moeb more cheaply in Central J 
ndiee. Small Banana plantations are common in south- 
m Florida, however, and even as far north as Jackson- 
ille. They are also grown In extreme sonthem Louis- 



Ut. Tip oi flower-duMer al Banana. 

the fmlt-bearing. A strong sprout sbaold bear when 
12-lB months old (from 2-3 yean In hothoases). The 
plantation will, therefore, continue to bear for many 

Kiars. A bearing stalk, as grown Insouthem California, 
shown in Fig. 187. 

The peculiar flower-bearing of the Banana is shown tit 
Fig. ISS, which Illustrates the tip of a flower-cluster. 
This cluster may be likened 1« a giant elongating bad, 
with large, tightly overlapping scales or bracts. Three 
Of these bracts are shown at a a a, la different stages of 
the flowering. As they rise or open, the flowers below 
them expand. The bracts soon foil. The flowers soon 
shed Uielr envelopes, but the styles, b, persist for a 
time. The ovaries soon swell into Bananas, c. Thebraets 
are royal purple and showy. g. N. Reahoner. 

BAHCBOFT, OEOSOE. The famous American his- 
torian (I800-1M91) deserves remembrance omoDg bortl- 
culturtsts for his splendid collection of roses at his sum- 
mer home in Newport, H. I., an account of which may 
be found In the American Garden, 1891. For a portrait 
and sketch, see Appleton'B Annual Cyclopedia for 1890. 
In Hr. Bancroft's garden, George Field found a rone wilh- 

Mme. Fenlinand Jamin. It was introduced by Field & 
Bro. OS the American Beauty. Though Utile known 
abroad, it is, probably, tbe most famous of all roses cult, 
(n America. 

BAVZBESST. See Aclifa. 

BABESIA (Sir Joseph Banks, IT43-1S20, famous Eng- 
lish scientist). Pralfdcta. Many species of Australian 
evergreen shrubs, with handsome foliage, but scarcely 
knoim In cult. here. Prop, by nearly mature cuttings, 
in frames. 

8AXTA> TBBE. See .Ficu* Indica. 

BAOBAB. See Adanionia. 

BAPTtfilA (Qreek, to dyt, alluding to the coloring 

matterln some species). Sjb... Podal^ria. LeguminisiE. 
Small genus of perennial herhs of eastern N. Amer. 
Corolla papilionaceous, the standard not larger than the 
wings : calyx campanulate, the G teeth separate and 
equal or the 2 upper ones united : stamens 10, distinct : 
pod stalked in Uie calyx. -Plants usually turn black in 
drying. Baptisias are suitable for borders. They thrive 
in any ordinary soil and under common treatment, pre- 
ferring free exposure to sun. Prop, by division or 



' 



132 



BAPTISIA 



A. Lv», simple : fls, yellow. 

■iaiplidfdlU, Groom. Branchy, 2-3 ft. : Its. 2>4 In. 
long, aessUe, broadly ovate and obtuse : fls. in numerous 
terminal racemes. Fla. — Int. 1891. 

perfoliita, B. Br., of S. Car. and Ga., with small axil- 
lary fls. and broad perfoliate Ivs., is occasionally planted, 
and is hardy as far N. as Washington, but is evidently 
not in the trade. B.M.3121. 

AA. Lvs. compound, S-foliolate. 

B. FU, yellow. 

tinetdria, R. Br. WiIjD Iitdioo. Bushy -branched, 2-4 
ft., glabrous : lvs. stalked, the Ifts. small, obovate or 
oblanceolate, and nearly or quite sessile and entire : fls. 
Kin* long, bright yellow, in numerous few-fld. racemes. 
Common in E. States. B. M. 1099. Mn. 5: 81. 

lanoeoUita, Ell. About 2 ft., pubescent when young, 
but becoming nearly glabrous : lvs. short-stalked, the 
Ifts. thick, lanceolate to obovate and obtuse : fls. large, 
axillary and solitary. Pine barrens, N. Car. S. 

BB. Fla. blue. 

avstrilii, B. Br. (B. earklea, Eat. ft Wr. B. exaltdta, 
Sweet). Stout, 4-6 ft., glabrous : lvs. short-stalked ; 
Ifts. oblanceolate to oval, entire, obtuse : fls. lupine-like, 
nearly or quite an in. long, in loose-fld., long terminal 
racemes. Penn. W. and S. J.H. III. 29: 64 ; 34: 511.— 
Handsome. Probably the best species for cultivation. 

BBS. Fls. white or whitish. 

Alba, R. Br. Wide-branching, 1-3 ft., glabrous : lvs. 
stalked ; Ifts. oblong or lanceolate, obtuse, thin, dry- 
ing green : fls. white, Kin* long, in long-peduncled, 
elongated lateral racemes. N. Car.W. and S. B.M. 1177. 

leiio&ntha,Torr. & Gray. Branching, more or less suc- 
eulent, 2-4 ft., glabrous : lvs. stalked ; Ifts. obovate to 
oblanceolate to cuneate, very obtuse, diring black : fls. 
white, nearly an in. long, in loose-fld., lateral racemes. 
£. states. 

lenoophaa, Nutt. Stem stout and angled, but low and 
wide-branched, 1-2 K ft., hairy or nearly glabrous : lvs. 
short petioled ; Ifts. oblanceolate to obovate, stiff, dry- 
ing black : fls. large and cream-colored, on slender erect 
pedicels, borne in 1-sided declined racemes. Ga. W. 
B.M. 5900. Mn.3:177. F.S.23:2449. L. H. B. 

BASBAC^NIA (Barbacena, a Brazilian governor). 
Amarylliddcea. About 20 Brasilian plants, with scape 
bearing a single large purple flower. Grown mostly in 
baskets, after the manner of many orchids. B. pnrpturoa, 
Hook., is occasionally seen in fine collections, but does 
not appear to be in the Amer. trade. Grown in a warm, 
moist house. It has many scapes and long, grass-like, 
toothed lvs. B.M. 2777. 

BABBADOEB LILT. See Eippeastrum. 

BASBABfiA (from the old name, Herb of Saint Bar- 
bara). Crueiferfg. Hardy biennials, with yellow fls.; 
allied to water cress and horseradish. 

▼nlgirii, R. Br. Cokmon Winter Cress. Upuimd 
Cress. Yellow Rocket. Height 10-18 in. : lower lvs. 
lyrate, the terminal lobe round, the lateral usually 1-4 
pairs : upper lvs. obovate, cut-toothed at the base. Eu. 
Asia. —Cult, for salad. Var. TariegAta, Hort., lvs. 
splashed and mottled with yellow, is cult, as a border 
plant, and grows freely in rich soil. If the fls. are picked 
off, stem and all, befere they open, the plant will be 
practically perennial. A common native. 

praooz, R. Br. Early Winter, or Bell Isle Cress. 
Distinguished by the more numerous divisions of the 
lvs. (4-8 pairs). Slightly cult, as a salad, and known S. as 
Scurvy Grass. Naturalized from Eu. j^ g^ Keller. 

BABBE BE CAFUCDT. See Chicory. 

BABBEBBT. See Berheris. 

BABBI&BIA (after J. B. G. Barbier, French physi- 
cian). Leguminhsce. A genus of only two species, one 
from Porto Rico and one from Peru. Its nearest allies 
familiar to the horticulturist are Indigophera and Te- 



BARRY 

{>hrosla. It Is distinguished from allied genera by the 
ong fls. Tender evergreen shrubs, with odd-pinnate 
lvs., numerous entire Ifts., and awl-shaped stipules : fls. 
large, racemose red. Prop, by seed. 

polyph^lla, DC. (Clit^ria polyph^lla, Poir.). Lfts. 
9-11 pairs, elliptie-oblong, mucronate, pubescent with 
age : racemes few fldt . shorter than the lvs. : fls. 2 in. 
long. Porto Rico.— S. giabilla, Hort., Peter Henderson 
A Co., 1899, is probably a variety. 

BABE* Is often used in a general ^ay to designate 
the softer outer envelope of a stem or root. In this 
sense, it includes all that peels readily, as the bark of the 
hemlock and oak, used for tanning leather. In a stricter 
sense, it is applied to the corky layers formed on the 
outer surface of woody plants. It is formed from an 
active laver of tissue,— the phellogen. The bark is de- 
veloped in different ways upon different trees. So dis- 
tinct are the resulting tissues that species of trees may 
be readily recognized bv their bark alone. Cork of com- 
merce is the bark of the cork oak, a native of south* 
western Europe. ^. w^, Rowlbe. 

BARK^BIA. See Fpidendrum. 

BABLftBIA (J. Barrelier, 1606-1673, French botanist). 
Aoanthdcea. Many species of tropical shrubs, mostly 
AJErican, sometimes seen in flne collections of stove 
plants, but not offered in the Amer. trade. They have 
large fls. (yellow, purple or white), often in clusters. 
Prop, oy softwood cuttings. B. cristAta, Linn., E. Ind., 
is a good blue-fid. bedder. 

BABLEY. Various kinds of Bdrdeum of the Oramin- 
em. Conunon Barley is H. sativum, Jess. According 
to Hackel, it **undoubtedl3F- originated from H. spontd- 
nettm, C. Koch, which grows wud from Asia Minor and 
Caucasian countries to Persia and Beloochistan. as well 
as in Syria, Palestine, and Arabia Petroa.'* The com- 
mon Barley has a 4-rowed eac or head. There are also 
2-rowed and 6-rowed races, and other well marked forms. 
They are probably all domestic forms of one parent stock. 

BAB68XA {heavy scent). ButAeeee. Some 25 to 30 
South African heath-like shrubs. They are evergreens, 
and in the K. must be grown under glass. Prop, by 
mature- wood cuttings. B. polohAlla, Bart. & Wendl., is 
now handled by florists from imported stock. It grows 
3 ft. or less high, and has axillary purplish fls., with 5 
sepals, 5 petals and 10 stamens. 

BABBY, PATRICK. Plate II. Nurseryman, editor 
and author; was bom near Belfast, Ireland, in May, 1816, 
and died in Rochester, N. Y., June 23, 1890. He came 
to America at the age of twenty, and after four years of 
service with the Princes, at Flushing, on Long Island, 
he founded, in 1840, with George Ellwanger, at Roches- 
ter, N. Y., the Mount Hope Nurseries. £llwanger and 
Barry introduced fruit-growing into western New York 
at a time when there were no collections of fruits, no 
railroad or telegraphic facilities, nor anv fast ocean 
steamers to bring over their importations from Europe. 
From 1844 to 1852, Barry edited «The Ctenesee Fanner,' 
an excellent and influential paper— afterwards merged 
in <^The Cultivator and Country Gentleman." After the 
death of A. J. Downing he succeeded to the editorship 
of **The Horticulturist," which he removed to Rochester, 
until June, 1855, after which this famous magazine had 
many vicissitudes until 1887, when it went to swell the 
number of periodicals now represented commercially by 
"American Gardening." In 1851 appeared his "Xreatise 
on the Fruit-Garden," a new and thoroughly revised 
edition of which was issued in 1872, under the title of 
"Barry's Fruit-Garden." It is still one of our most 
popular books on pomology, and deservedly so. The 
catalogue of fruits which he compiled for the American 
Pomological Society is a monumental work. Mr. Barry 
did much to make Rochester a city of nurseries and 
western New York a famous fruit-growing region. The 
Western New York Horticultural Society, of which he 
wan president for more than thirty years, and until his 
death, has long exercised a more than sectional influence. 
The work of Barry was truly national, and essentially 



BABBT 

thkt of K plODeer. He must be considered In the front 
rank ot pomologlciJ aathora, with the Doimilaefl. Warder, 
and Thomiu, whone rombined weight gave a great 
bnpulse towMdg eBlabliBhiog orcharding on a large scale 
In America. For a fuller account, with portrait, see 
"Annals of UorticultDre,'' 1B90, 287-290. w. H. 

B&EIOHIA. 8te MtnUtlia, 

BABTKAH, JOHB. Called hj Linnnus the greatest 
imtural botaolst !□ the world. Was born at Marple, neir 
Durbf, PunnsylTaDia, Mar. 23, IdW, »nd died Sept. 22, 
1777. He was a Quaker farmer, who became interested 
In bdtany after the afce ot twenty-tour. In 1728, at Klng- 
seasing, on the Schuflkitl Kiver, be established the tint 
botanic garden In America, which, together with hli 
house, built In I7:il. of atone hewn by hie own hands, ii 
happily preserved to^iay as part of the park sysieni of 
Philadelphia. He traveled much In America, and was 
for many years the chief medium of eichange between 
Earope and America of plants of all kinds, especially 
new and important epecles, as Shododtndron maximum 
and Cypripedium acault. His correspondence with . 
Peter Colllnson lasted nearly half a centan. The let- 
ten, preseTTed to ns in Darlington's 'Memorials of 
John Bartram and Hamphrey Uarahall," are rich in 
botanical, historical and general interest. 'Observa- 
tions on the Inhabitants •   made by John Bar- 
tram in his Travels from Pensllvanla to Onondago, 
Oswego, and the Lake Ontario • • • London, 1761," 
la similarly readable, and a doooment of great value in 
the stady of aborigbial races. 

At the age of seveDtybe nndertook, with his son Wil- 
liam, an expedition to Florida, which is recorded In the 
"Joarnal Kept Dpon a Journey from St. Augustine np 
the River St. Johns." Bartram was probsbly the first 
American (o perfarm successful experiments in hybridi- 
aatlon. His sons, John and William, continued hli 
garden. For many years it was the largest and best col- 
lection of trees and shrubs in America, and the services 
of the garden to early American hortlcaltara were very 
great. He Is commemorated in Bsrtramia, a genus of 
mosses, and In 'Bartram's Oak," for the Ilteratare of 
which, see I. C. Hartinale's "Notes on the Bartram Oak, 
Quireta \eUrop/ii/lla, HIchx.," published at Camden, 
N. J., 1880. Bortrsm's garden is a unlouo spot In 
America. Many of tlie trees have attained great age, 
alae and beauty. The garden also contains many quaint 
and pleCoresque relics which have associations of great 
interest. On the whole, John Bartram is one ot the most 
illustrious, and by far the most picturesque, ot the early 
botanists and hortlcultudets of America, and his simpls, 
wholesome, powerful personality presents  picture that 
la altogether amiable. New editions of the works ot 
Bartram and Dariiugton are much to be desired, and 
otter a promising field to crlilcnl labors. John Bartram's 
■on William Is well known to stuitents of American 
history for his " Observations on the Creek and Cherokee 
Indians, 1789.' It is very much to be regretted that no 
Huihentle portrait of John Bartram Is known. For an 
cxi^fllent illustraCed account ot Bartram and his garden, 
(•ee the article by Hiss H. L. Dock in Garden and Forest, 
9; 121-124 (1S9S|. See also Harper's Mag. 60; 331-330 



BABtLLA {native Malabar name). ChtnopodHcea. 
HA[.ABiB KioHTSiuiiE. A gcnufi Containing only one 
apeciea, which Is, however, remarkably variable. An- 
nual or biennial herbs, cult. In the tropics as a pot-herb, 
like spinach. Rarely cult. N. as an ornamental warm- 
house climber. It may also be started indoors, and set 
out in May tor use as a garden vegetable, to follow 
spinach. Prop, by seeds. 

rtbia, Linn. Lvs. suecnlent, alternate, rarely oppe- 
aite, almost entire, of various forma : 9s. not pedicelled. 
In simple spikes or racemes ; spikes short or long, lax, 
few-fld. The following species are now considered only 
forms ot the above : alba, a white-9d. form rarely cult, 
as a trailer from roofs of warm-honses, or as a basket 
plant ; eanlnitilia ; eordifdlia, with heart-shaped lvs. 
4-5 iu. long and 2-2ii in. wide ; eraiiifdlia ; Japiniea ; 
H«Mii, from India; itlirm, a Chinese form ; ramdsa and 
MlAMIb. Under the name of Sweet Ualabu Vine, A. 



BASKET PLANTS 133 

Blanc advertises a form with tiny yellow and red fli., 
and lvs. variegated with white, pluk, and green. He 
■ays, "with age It assumes a drooping habit. When cut 

BASIL. Species of Oeimum, of the LabWa. They 
are Indian annuals, and are cult, aa pot-herbs, the clove- 
flarored foliage being nsed as seasoning In soups, meats 
and salads. They ore ot easiest culture, the seed being 
sown In the open as soon as the weather is settled. 
Common Basil is O. BaiUicvm, Linn,, a ft. high, branch- 
ing, with ovate toothed lvs.. and white or bluish white 
fls. In leafy terminal racemes or spikes. 0. minimum, 
Linn., the Dwarf Basil, Is lower, and smaller in all Ita 

out and dried 

BASKET PLAHTS. Fig. 189. Under thla term are 
included all those plants which, from their habit ot 
growth and blooming, have been 
found especially suitable to 
hanging baskets. Most of i 
dwar&sh plants of indet 
growth, of gracefully droi 
vine-like habit, and orevalu 
for their grace, or for free 
daintiness of bloom. Som 
plants used in baskets are Ol 
habit. These are either 
plants of naturally small 
stature, or are practically 
such for a season from a 
slow habit of growth. Th« 
suitability ot these erec^ 
growing plants for the ' 
purpose is determined, 
aside from their stature, 
by their freedom of bloom, 
beauty of foliage, striking 
form, or graco of habit. 
Such plants are used prin- 
clpally for filling the cen- 
tral part of the basket ; 
whereas, plants of trail- 
ing habit are inseried near 

others to twine upwaidi 
on the cords or haudle by 
which the basket is sus- 
peuded. In addition to tho 
long drooping or climbing 

number of half-erect « 

hablt.likethelobelia, VL, 
sweet alyssum and r*f 
rUBselia. These may 
droop somewhat, bat are 
not ot a truly vine-like 
habit. Some plants are 
more suitable than others 
for shady places : the 
selaginellas, for instance. 
Others thrive only with 
severe! hours of direct 
sunshine each day. 
The following list of 

braces a number of the 

most Important basket plants, arranged according t* 
their habit of growth and blooming. The list is not given 
as a complete one. Any list would need amending from 
year to year to suit individual tasle and experience. 
Plants which will bear considerable shade are marked 
with au asterisk (*); those which will bear more are 
marked with two asterisks (") : 
1. PLANTS OF VINK-IJKB HABIT. 

••English Ivj,*KBnllworth Ivj-.Tlnea major. "V. Ha«^ 
risonil. Sultisfa sanBontosa, ^sani dls«loT.> Uonn- 
wort Ivy, Tropmlums (Nastnrtlnmi). Lonlcera Halll- 
ana. L. snru. var. reticulata, Nepeta QlechoDW, Ampe- 
lopgis anlnanefolla. A. Veitchll. 

Nora.^-The Ampelopsis Is deddnons, and not soltaUa 
for winter baskals, 



134 



BASKET PLANTS 



BAUHINIA 



5. Gumnro. 

MaiDutuidla, **Li7godiimi scandens. *8eneeio acAndens, 
ThunbeririA, Cobea scandens. Japanese Variegated Hop, 
Manettiabtoolor, Lonioera HalUana, L. anrea, var. retiea- 
lata. Clematis ooodnea, Tropa»olam peregrinam. 

0. ShOBT'DBOOPINO, OB Halt-bbxct. 

*Lobelia Erinns, *Othonna crassif o]ia.*Sweet Alyssom, 
*Tradeseantia. Petnnias, Ozalis floribnnda, *RasseUa 
jnneea (also bears son well), *Fittonia. *Faehsia proenm- 
bens. Ice Plant, Verbena, *It7 Qeraniam, **SelacineUas, 
*Beconia glaneophylla, var. scandens, *Sednm Sieboldi, 
*S. eameum, var. variecatom, 'Asparagos Sprengerii, 
*Pas8ifloras, *Panieam Tariegatom, Oasania splendens, 
AbntUon Megapotamieam and var. varieMtam, fjantana 
delicatisaima, Solannm Jasminoides, S. peaforthiannm, 
Convolvolns Maoritanioos. 

2. PLANTS OP UPRIGHT HABIT. 

a. LOW-OBOWINO. 

1. F%ou>ering FlarUt. 

*Torenia, *Pans7, Caphea platyeentea. C. tayssoplfoUa, 
*Primula oboonica. Dwarf Alyssom, Belli* iwrennis, 
Linnm or Reinwardtia trigynnm. Phlox Dnunmondil, 
Dnteh bulbs. 

2. Foliage Flanti. 

*Peperomia, *Begonla Bex, *FaTfuginm grande. Alter- 
nanthera, **Maidenhalr Fern. Geraniums (especially 
Mme. Salleroi), *Isolepis gracilis (droops with age). 

5. Tallkb Gbowino. 

1. Flowering. 

Geraniums— Pelargonium *Fuehsia8, Petunias, *Bego- 
nias, Browallia, *Stevia serrata. var. nana. Madagascar 
Periwinkle, ^Nierembergia. Lantana,*Impatien8 Sultana, 
Cuphea Llavea, Swainsona, Chrysanthemum frates- 
eens. Salvias. 

2. Foliage. 

♦Dusty MUler, •Crotons, •Palms, •♦Perns, •Fancy Cala- 
dium.H, Coleus, Achyrauthes. ♦♦Aspidistra, ♦Cyperus alter- 
nifolius, ♦Dracsna indivisa, ♦D. terminalls, Coccoloba 
platyclada. 

Some of the above plants make laree subjects when 
arrowing in the open ground. Of such, only young or 
amaller plants are available for use in banging baskets. 
Ordinarily » several different sorts of plants are used for 
filling a basket.. In some cases, however, a pretty 
basket is made by using but one kind of plant. A hang- 
ing basket filled with sword fern, for instance, makes 
a handsome object. 

Baskets of a variety of patterns are obtainable from 
florists and other dealers. The baskets most extensively 
used, perhaps, are made of strong wire, woven into hem- 
ispherical or other forms. These are sometimes plain, 
and again of ornamental character. The better form has 
a flat bottom, or a stand, formed of wire, to support the 
basket in an upright position when it is not pendent. 
Another style is fcrmed of rustic work. Here the vessel 
or plant basin is covered about the sides with rough 
bark or knotted roots. For this purpose the roots of the 
laurel are much used. Above the basket there is an arch 
or handle by which it is suspended. Again, earthen- 
ware vessels, to be suspended by wires, are offered for 
sale in a variety of shapes. Some of these are moulded 
and painted in imitation of logs, and are known as *^ stick ** 
and "log baskets." Such baskets are often without pro- 
vision for drainage. When this is the case, holes should 
be drilled at the lowest point In the bottom. A special 
form of basket is much used for orchids. It is made of 
square cedar slats in raft- or log-fashion. Fem-flber and 
broken bits of brick, flower-pots or charcoal, are used 
for fllliug them. 

The soil used in hanging ba.«)kets is simply good, 
common florists' potting soil. This usually contains 
about 25 per cent of humus, and a small amount of 
sharp sand to make it porous. Prior to filling, wire 
baskets must be lined with moss. This is merely com- 
mon woodland moss from rotting logs, or rich, damp soil. 
In filling baskets, a few drooping or climbing plants are 
disposed around the sides ; then one or more upright- 
growing or half-erect plants, according to the size of the 
plants and basket, are planted iu the center. Immediate 
effects require plants which have already made consid- 
erable growth. Florists usually carry a stock of suitable 
plants. In case seedlings or cuttings are grown for the 
purpose, it is usually best to start them in seed-pans or 
cutting-boxes, and transfer them later to the basket. 



Seeds may be sown, or the cuttings started in the basket, 
but it is so long before they fill the basket that there is 
no advantage in it. 

A common mistake in arranging baskets is crowding, 
or filling them too full. Fewer plants will appear more 
graceful, growth will be more vigorous, and the basket 
will retain its grace and beauty for a longer time. Exer- 
cise vigilance and care in watering. After the roots 
have well filled the basket, watering is best done by 
dipping the basket in a tub or barrel of water, and al- 
lowing it to remain until it ia well saturated. Dipping 
the basket in weak liquid manure once or twice a month 
will greatly promote vigor when the plants have been 
long in the basket. These remarks also apply in a 
general way to vases and rustic stands. 

Ebnkst Walkxb. 

BA8BW00D. See Tilia, 

BAST. The soft part of the flbro-vascular bundles in 
plants, abundant in the inner bark. It increases in 
thickness simultaneously with the wood, but much less 
rapidly. The flbrous elements in the bast of Basswood 
have been used in making cordage ; also in making 
strong paper. 'VV. w. Rowlkb. 

BATATAS. See Ipomcta. 

BATEKAVKIA (in honor of James Bat«man, the dis- 
tinguished collector and cultivator, and author of im- 
portant works on Orchids). Orehiddeeatf tribe Vdndea, 
Pseudobulbs short : leaf -blades coriaceous : fls. large, 
23^-3 in. in diam. , single or in pairs. Cult, like CattJeva. 
During the growing period they should be well supplied 
with water and kept from strong sunlight. 

Cdlleyi, Lindl. Petals and sepals purplish or umber- 
brown, shading to yellowish green at the base. Deme- 
rara. B.R. 1714. B.M. 3818. 

Kel«4grii, Beichb. f . Petals and sepals paJe yellow, 
brown toward the summits, broad at the base : labellum 
white at the base. Brazil. 

B. B^rHiy Endr. ft Reichb. f ., with 1-fld. peduncles.^Zygo- 
P®**!'^™- Oakes Ajiss. 

BAUHlVIA (after John and Caspar Bauhin, sixteenth 
century herbalists ; the twin leaflets suggesting two 
brothers). LegumindscB, but there is nothing to sug- 
gest the legume family to the northern horticulturist ex- 
cept the pod. Mountain Ebont. A genus of over 200 
species, allied to Cercis. Tropical trees, shrubs, or vines, 
with showy fls. ranging from white to purple, and Ivs. 
which may be entire or 2-lobed, in some cases the Ifts. 
being entirely free ; the petiole is prolonged into a 
short but characteristic awn between the Ifts. : petals 5. 
The number and fertility of the stamens are important 
characters in determining the subgenera. They are 
much cult, in S. Fla. and S. Calif, in sandy soils. Prop, 
by seeds ; rarely by cuttings of half -ripened wood. 

B. variegata and JB. purpurea are two of the com- 
monest and showiest small trees of India, and, although 
frequently introduced into northern greenhouses, have 
rarely succeeded permanently. B. variegata is much 
cult, in India, and, when covered with blossoms, resem- 
bles a gigantic Pelargonium. The astringent bark is 
used in tanning and dyeing, and the Ivs. and fl.-buds as 
a vegetable, the latter being pickled. *^The reason for 
these plants being so little grown in our hothouses," 
says J. D. Hooker, ^is, no doubt, that they must attain 
some size before they flower, and that they require a 
dry season to ripen their wood, the giving of which, 
without killing the plant by drought, is the standing 
crux of all establishments." Great numbers of species 
of Bauhinia are likely to be introduced from time to 
time because of their gorgeous appearance in the trop- 
ics. In the experience of Old World gardeners, the most 
reliable species under glass are B. variegata^ B. corpm- 
bosa^ and B. Natalensis, These can be planted outside 
here In summer, and kept over winter as oleanders are. 

A. Lvs, divided not to the middle. 

B. Fls. usually colored. 

▼ariegjlta, Linn. Tree, 6-20 ft. : lvs. ^-4 in. across, 
orbicular, 9-11 nerved, lobes rounded ; petiole 1-2 in. 
long : fls. about 7, in a short raceme, 4 in. across ; calyx 



rose-colored. Ae lowest one larger, broader »boT_ ._. 
middle, atroii(rlyi^arked with crimson : pod 1-2 ft. long. 
India. B.M. 6818.— The coiorinjt of the fl«. varies. 

Var. e«adU», Soib. {A. dlia, Back-Ham,). Helglit 
13 ft.: fls. white, beauClfuliy veined with green; fla. 
Feb. to Hay. B.M. T312. "A taller grower than A. 
aeiitrtinalaf blooToing in late winter and early spring. 
Very qnlek-growlng, and ornamental even when not In 
bloom.'— R^ksoner Bros. 

p nr pftraa. Ltnn. Height 6 ft.: Ivi. ooTiaoeoaa,mfons- 
tomentose beneath when yonng ; Ifts. broadly ovate, 
4-nerTBd : petals red, one streaked with white on the 
elaw, lanceolate, acute; fertile stamans 3, very long, the 
rest stehZe or abortive - pod 1 ft, long, India, Burma, 
China.— Without doubt one of the finest flowering small 
trees in S. Fla. Flowers are borne In the greatest pro- 
fusion, 3 to S inches across, varying In color from 
almost white to a shade of rich pnrple, and marked 

and hardy here, growing to a height of 15 feet in less 
than 2 years, and blooms all winter and spring, 

Qftlpiiii, N. E. Brown. Half-cUmblng abmb, 6-10 ft. : 
Its, l-3in. long, 2-lobed from one-flfth to one-hsK their 
length, 7-nerved ; petiole about Hln. long: racemes 
6-10-tld.: pelals 5, all alike, 1-1 3^ in. long: claw as 
long as the limb [ limb orbicular, ouspidato, brick-red ; 
fertile stamens 3 : pod 3-5 in. long ; seeds dark brovn. 
S. and Trop. Alr,_ B,M, 7*94.-Di»oovered 1891, FU 

BB, FU. pure vhile. 
nn. Height 5-6 ft.: Ifts, ovste, scuml- 
-nerved, closing at night; fls. 2-3 in. 



BEAN 135 

12) Kidney Bean (Fha>eo!u> vutgarit, which see ; Pigs. 
191,6,192). This Istheplautwhlchis everywhere known 
as Bean in North America, comprising all the common 
Held, garden, snap and string Beans, both bash and 
climbing. By the French It Is known ai Haricot, and this 



is; fen 






and n 



LHy fre. 



the 



9 short, connected, and sterile. 
-One of the most ssliafactory of all, either for opei 
ground or Kreenhoase culture, as it will bloom the flrsi 
summer, when hat a few months old and but a foot oi 
two high, and In succeeding summers blooms continu 
ously from Hay to Septemlier, 



190. Broad Bean 



-Vlda Paba C 



. . IK-2 Id. long, outer edges slightly rounded, ii 
edges straight aod psrallel; nerves2-l: fls. i 
corymbose, 1 In. across, rosy, ithw Buted petals, and 
characteristic venation ; stamens 3. bright red, 3 very 
long, the rest abortive. China. B.H. 6)121. 

BB. Ltafltlt tnlirely fret! fls, while. 

VataUnali, Oliver. Siuall nhmb : Irs. numerous ; 
leaflets each 1 in. long, with a midrib and a few nerves, 
dark green ; petioles !-4-J4in. long : fla. single or in 
2'b, l>iin. across, white, Ibe midvein of the 3 upper 
petals reddish ; pelala erect or spreading, the 2 lower 
one* larger ; stamens 10, 5 long and S short : pod 3 In. 
long. S. Afr. B.M, 6086.-Not advertised at present. 

B. BoAlxrf, F. Uoell.. from AoKra],. and S. BielMTdtml, 
Eort.. Frueeaehi. are alio ndvertlsed at preseat. 

E. N. BuBOHiR and W. H. 

BAT-TKEE. See Launu. 

BEAH. A name applied tovartons plants of the Ltgu- 
juiniia. Tbe Beans chiefly known to agriculture are of 
five types : (1) The Broad Bean ( Vieia Faba), or tbe 
Bean of history, an erect -growing plant, producing very 
large and usually flat, orbicular or angular seed a. Prob- 
ably nadvato B.W.Asia (Figs. 190, 191, o). »ee Vieia. 
These types of Beans are eiteu si vely grown In Europe, 
mostly for feeding animals. They are either grown to 
full maturity and ameal made from the Bean, or the plant 
is cot when nearly full grown aod Used as forage or made 
intoensilage. Tbe Broad Bean needs a cool climate and 
long season. In the U, B. the summers are too hot and 
dry for Its successful cultivation on a large scale, and the 
plant Is practical!]' unknown there. In Canada, tbe plant 
!a used in connection with corn to make ensilage ; and 
this coablDation is known as the "Robertson mixture." 



word la often foand in our literature. Its nativity Is on- 
known, but it is probably of tropical American origin. 
For inqairles into the nativity of the Bean, see DeCan- 
dolle, Origin of Cultivated Plants ; Qray & TrambnII, 
Amer. Jour. Bel. 26:130 ; Sturtevant, Amer. Nat. 1S8T: 
332 ; Wittmack, Ber. der Dentschen Bot. Oesellscbsit, 
e:3Tl (18H8). (3) Lima or 8ngar Beans {Phateolut Iv- 
luftu, which see). Long-season, normally tall -climbing 
plants, producing large, flat seeds (Figs. 101, c. 193). 
Native to S. Amer. See Bailey, Bull. 87, Cornell Eip. 
Sta. «) Various species of Dollchoa (as D. teiquipe- 
dalis). Vines which produce very long, «lenderpods and 
small, narrow Beans (Figs. 191, d, 194), Native to trop. 
Amer. See Dolirhos. (5) Soy, or Boja, Bean {Qlj/cine 
, which see). A busby, erect, hairy plant, pro- 



nclng SI 









a (Pigs. 



, 1951 , In this country comparatively little kno 
and used mostly forforage. Native to China and Japan, 
wbero It is much grown. Aside from these types, there 
are others of leas economic Importance, The Scarlet 
Runner type Is a perennial Phnseolus IP. miillifloi-ui), 
grown in this country mostly for ornament (Fig, 196j. 
Various other species of Pbaseolua are also cult, nl 
various parts of the world under the name of Beans. P. 
radialHi Is priied in Japan, and has been Int. Into the 
U. S, as Adiukl Bean (aeo Ooorgeaon, Bull. 32, Kans. 
Eip. Sta.). rifna SineiitiK, known in N. Amer. as 
Cow-pea (which see), ia sometlmea called a Bean, The 
Velvet Bean of the South Is a MucunB(wbich see). Tfie 
Jack BesD Is a Canavaiia (Fig. 197). Tbe Sea Beans fo 
the Florida count are seeds of various tropical legumi- 
nous plants, and are transported by ocean currents (see 
Coe, In G.F. 7:503). L. H. B. 

CuLTUHB or THK B BAH.- The practical grower usually 
divides the many varieties of Beana into two graups- 
the bush and the pole Beans. Tbe one loclades all thos* 



groirnu'aeM BeKna' for the dr7-sbelled seeds, •• tdao 
both the gresn-podded knd the yellow-podded jtnrden, 
Btring, or Biiap BeaQS. The pole or running lorta are 
Qsnallr grown for garden purposes, and rarelj for the 
dry-Bhelled Besn. The ordinary bush B»ns amke no 
great demands for soil fertility. They do veil on ordi- 
narily good, warm farm loam. It the soil ciralaios a 
fair proportioD of homaB, the plants will secure much 
of their nitrogen from the air ; and If additlooal fer- 
tiliiera are needed, they may be given Id potash and 
pbosphorie acid alone. Plant only after danger from 






■C7.J 



mrnttog rellov-podded lorts are Blaek Wax or Q«niiaii 
Wax, Golden Wax. Kldaey Wax and White Wai. Tbe 
Wai or Yellow-podded aoits need a richer soil tbao tha 
other kinds. A good string Bean baa a thick, meat; 




^ are to be from 2-3 
feet apart, with 
plants standing 
alnglv ever; 3-6 In., or in 
buDcbee of 3 or 4 ever; 
12-18 in. A quart of aeed 
will plant aboQt 150 ft. of 
row. Keep the aail be- 
tween the rowa well stirred 
with a flne-tootbed, nar- 
row enltiralor. 
Hand • bo* 



TlngB. 




formed, and 

must be picked 

clean it the plant Is 

long in bearing. Pods 

left to ripen seed stop 
the growth and de- 
velopment of others. 
Id growing field 
Beans .early and even 
ripening Is desirable 



in. Commofl or Kidney Bean — Phaaealua vulcaria. 

pod, which snaps oS completely when broken, leaving 
no string along the back. Fig. 198 shows Ideal pods. 

Pole orrunnlngvarietiesot Beans require fertile soil; 
and for that king of Ubie Beans, the Lima of all forms, 
too much can hardly be done in the way of enriching 

success in growing pole Beans. When poles are to be 
Qsed for support, they should be set not less than 1 ft. 
apart each way, before the Beans are planted. Four or 
five Beans are to be placed around each pole, t to IH In. 
deep. While it Is a safe rule to put the aeed eye down- 
ward, it is not a necessary condition of prompt and 
a germination. In case of absence or sesrcity of 



poles 



sable, 



be constructed by a 
g the row, c 



ling posts fliroly at proper dis- 
, KinDecting them with two wires, 
tfew inches and the other G or 6 ft. from the gronnd, 
and finally winding cheap twine ligiag fashion around 
the two wires. Cultivate and hoe frequently. A top- 
dressing of good fertillier, or of old poultry or abeep 



the plan 









lelp in keeping np t 



continue 
ingtl 



supply dnr- 
D,th« 



llreins hisplda. f. Pltaaeolua 

vesting the crop, special tools have been deylsed and 
are in use by those who make a business of Bean-grow. 
lag ; but when a regular Bean-puller is not available, 
or wheu hand labor ts cheap, the plants may be pulled 
by hand and placed in rows on the ground, bottom- 
aide up. and when sufBcieotly cured put in stooks or 
taken to the bam. and. in due time, thieshed with the 
flail or with aregularBean-threaher. After helngcleaned 
by running through a fanning mill, picking over by 
band will also be required In moat cases. 

Among the leading sorts of field Beans are White Mar- 
rowfat, Navy or Pea Bean, Medium, and the KiduBya. 
For atring Beans, Early Valentine, which has various 
strains, probably stands first In papular favor as a 
greon-podded variety (or the market-garden at the 

S resent time. Other good current sorts are Stringless 
reen Pod, Early Mohawk, Refugee, etc. The best 



ben large enough, 
uiuii tie gathered fre- 
qnently and otean. 
Among tbs varieties 
used both for string and 
shell Beana. we have the 
Green - podded Creaae- 
back, aeveral wax varie- 
ties. Golden Clualer, and 
the popular Horticultural 
or Speckled Cranberry 

ber of others, A very 

fine Bean is the Dutch 

RunnerlFig. 1961. which 

approaches the Lima In 

quality and resembles It 

in habit of growth. The seed ll of largest alie and 

clear white in color. Highly ornamental is the closely 

related Scarlet Runner, with its abandance of sbowy 

scarlet bioasoma. This Bean is grown in Europe for 

eating, but is rarely aaed for that purpose bete. 



BEAJf 

Ot ftll pole Beans, the LImu hare iiDdoDbtei!l; the 
greatest economic value. Tbey enjoy a deaened popa- 
lariiy, and are uiaell; grown with proflt bj the market- 
gardeaer. Tbe rarietles might be classed In three lypen, 
— that of tbe Large Lima, the Dreer Lima, and the 
SnuU! Lima or SlevB. Each of them baa a number of 
aub-varieties or atnlna, and appears In both pole and 
bush form. The old Lari;e Lima (Fig. 193) Is a veiy 
large, fiat Bean, and yet largely grown for main crop. 
To the lame ty)>e belong Extra -early Jersey, King ot 
the Qarden, and others. The podti of Iheae are very 
large, and tbe Beans in them somewhat flattened. The 
dvart form of this type Is known as Burpee's Bush 
Lima, The Dreer Lima of both forms is appreciated 
especially for its high quality. The seeds are more 
ronndlsh and crowded close together !n the pods, the 
latter being much smaller than those of tbe Large Lima. 
Tbe seeds of these two types are light colored, with a 
greenish tinge, but the Large Lima Is also represented 
ny red and speckled (red-and-white) sports. The Small 
Lima, or gieva, with its dwarf form, Henderson's Busb 
Lima, seems to be hardier and earlier than the two 
larger types, bnt pod and Bean are quite small. Tbe 
color of this Bean la nearly clear white, bnt there Is also 
a speckled sub-Tariety of it. Wherever there is a place 



r the Sleva, It 



will b 



Dclati 



BEAUMONTIA 137 

tentlon In the cooler parts of the couutry. Being about 
as bardyas peas, tbey maybe planted mnch earlier than 
would l>e safe tor ordinary Beans. The Windsor Is used 



. Tbe 



bush forms of the two larger types, '. 
uniformly prodnctive enough to take tbe place of tbe 
pole forms entirely. The latter will often be found 
preferable where a long season ol continuous bearing Is 
desired. Fir further notes on Lima Beans, dwarf and 
pole, see Bailey. Bulls. 87 and 115. Cornell Eip. Sla. 

Beans are easily forced under glass, In a temperature 
suitable tor tomatoes. They may be grown either In' 
polo or beds. The bush varieties, as Sion House, are 
preferred. Keep them growing, and look out tor red 
aplder. Son Bidley, Porclag-Book ; and for the forcing 
ot pole Beans, see Rane, Bnll. 62, H. H. Eip. Sta. See 
Forcing. 

Tbree other members of tbe Bean tribe might be men- 
tioned in thii connection ; namely, the Black Bean or 
Cow-pea ot the South, tbe Japanese Soy Bean, and tbe 
English or Broad Bean. The Cow-pea takes In some 
measure the same place in the southern states ttaat red 
clover takes at tbe North, being used both as stock food 
and as a green-manure crop. There are many varieties 
of it, early and late, some of strictly hush habit and 
some producing long runners. (See Ooa-pea-i Of 
greater value for the same purposes, north of New Jer- 
sey, seems to be tbe Japanese Soy Bean, which la early 
bnongb to eome to maturity almost anywhere in the 
United States. Its foliage Is rather thin or open, how- 
ever, which Impaire Its value for green -manuring. The 
dry Bean constitutes one of the richest vegetable foods 
known, and its flavor seemsnnobjectionable to all kinds 
of Block. Sowlbua.totheacre. Similar to this In value 
la tbe Engltsb Broad Bean, several varieties of which, 
ai the Broad Windsor, tbe Horse Bean, etc., i^ grown 




and are popular In England and In s< 
European continent- In moat parts ot tbe United States 
tbey are scarcely known, and In none generally culti- 
vated. Only a few of our seedsmen Hat (hem In their 
Otherwise complete catalogues. Yet they are a decidedly 
Interesting group of plants, and worthy of greater at- 



by people In England much in the same way that we 
□se Lima Beans ; but the latter are so mnch better 
that in the United States we have no need ot plant- 
ing the former as a »ble vegetable. ^ Qhbikbb. 

BEABflEBBT. See Arcloftapkl/lo». 

BEAB'8 BBBECH. See Acanthui. 

BBADCABHEA. SeeJVoIina. 

BEAVKOBTIA (after Htb. Beaumont, of Bretton Hall, 

Yorkshire, Eng-). Apacj/nicea. A genus of three East 
Indian trees or tall climbers, with very large, white, 
fragrant, bell-shaped fis. in terminal cymes. The genus 
Is more nearly allied to the familiar greenhouse 
shrub Trachelotpertnum jatminoidei than to the splen- 
did tropical climbers In Allamanda and Dipiadenia. 
B.grandi/Iora has been neglected of late, presumably 
because It needs sorouchroom. It abould beplantedout 
In the strong, fibrous, loamy soil of a warm house, as It 
warely succeeds in pots. It is best trained to the roof, as 
full light is necessary for flowering. If not for growth. 
Tbe sboots may be thinned If the large Ivs. cast too 
iimcb shade on the plants beneath. Tbe wood should be 
well ripened to produce an abundance of winter bloom. 
The fls. are produced on the growth of the previous 
season. After fiowering, tbe plant abould be severely 
pruned to produce lateral aboots for the next season's 
In Its native country, thla vine climbs over very 
tall trees. 
grandUUn, Wall. Lvg. obovate, eatpldate, wavy 



138 



BEDDITJQ 



BEDSnO, or BEDDIva-OUT. T)i« temponuy Die 
oaC-of-doon of plknts thnt mre muied for ahawy ud 
■trJklDtc effecU. Then are tour mfttc types ; sprtnic, 
Bummer, Bubtropleal. and rsrpet bedding. 

Spbimq Biddiko 1b the mont temponry of til, uid Ii 
niiullf falloWMl by taminei beddiDg In the aame arak. 



NtCnnl she. (3«« B«an. p. 135.) 

It la the only kind that Urgety enplofB b&rdy planta, as 
crocuses, aereiasi, daffodils, tulips, hyaclathB, Uid other 
I>utch bulba. All four types of bedding ftre oommonty 
■eea !□ pnbllo parks, but spriug bedding (a the most 
appropriate for amateur and home use, aa the bulba 
flower at a dreary time of the year, when their brave 
oolora are most cheerioK, and also because they are 
mush more familiar than (be aubtruplcal and foliage 



BEDIWNa 

plant* of aamnier. Then, too, hardy bnQM are moN 
easily eultivated than any other class of plaota, and they 
are cheap. The main principle is to plant them early 
enough to secure a strong n>ot derelopment. Hence 
tbey aboald be ordert^ early, and planted in the latter 
partof October or flrtt of November. The colors may be 
massed or mixed according to taste, tbe terma massed and 
mixed bedding referring to nnity or variety of effect. 
and being applicable In each of the four main typea men- 
tioned above. Oppoaed to tbis style of bedding la the 
naturallilDg of bolba In the lawn. Crocaaes and squills 
are particularly charming when tbey appear singly, or In 
twOHOr threes, at unexpected places In the lawn. Daffo- 
dils are asually naturallted In large maases In apola 
where the graaa is not mowed. Panaien are the only 
otbar plants that are used extensively tor spring bed- 
ding. Kngllsb double daisies and calchflies are Urgcly 
nsed for edgings. Pausles are net out between April 1 
and 15. In lirgeoperationa, pansy seed is sown In August 
of the preceding year, and the young plauta are trans- 

C 'acted once and wintered in a coldfnune. After flower- 
g, the plants are thrown away. The other method is u> 
BOW the seed In a greenhouse In January. Tbe Augnst- 
Bown pansies give larger and earlier bloom a, but tbe Jan- 
nary-BOVD pansies will last Icinger, and in partially 
■bailed places will give scattering bloom all aommer, 
especially if protected from drought. 

Sdmhkb BaoDiNO often follows spring bedding In tbe 
same apace of gmnnd, and employa chiefly geranluma, 
coleus. begonias, ageratum, salvia, vinca, alyssum, 
petunia, verbena, bellotrope, graaaes. cacti, and aqnatic 
planta, the cnlture and varieties of which may be sought 
elsewhere In this work. Aa to tenderness, these fall into 
two groups, the flrst of which may be Bet out about 
Hay IS In New York, and the second about June 1. 
Oeranluma are the most important of the first group, 
and coleus Is an example of tbe tanderest material, 
which Is set out limultaneoaaly with subtropical plants 
when all danger of frost Is past. Aa to fondness for 
Bnnlight. there are again two groups, but the only bed- . 
ding planta ol Importance that prefer shade are tuberons 
begonias and fuchsias. The wonderful popularity lately 
achieved by the former In Europe will probably never 
be duplicated In America. The secret of thelrcultnre la 
■bade, shelter, and moisture at tbe roots. Hence a clay 
bottom la desirable for a bed of tuberous begonias, aa 
being more retentive of moisture than a sandy or porous 

possible, bal not the direct rays of the sun. Bence the 
north aide of a bnlldlng is better for tbem than a station 
under trees, as the trees usually give too dense a «hade, 
and their roots interfere. On the other hand, colons is 
more highly colored In full sunlight than In shade. 
The only Bbroua-rooted begonias largely used for bed- 
ding are varieties of the semperflorens type, of which 
Vernon and Erfordli are extremely popular at presect. 
In the manipulation of tender perennials, there are often 
two methods of propagation, either of nhlcb may be 
better, aooording ta tbe Ideal In view. As a matter of 
general tendency, propagation by cuttings gives bloom 
that ts earlier but not as continuous or profuse as by 
seeds. Salvias and verbenas are pronounced examples. 
On tbe contrary, cuttings must be depended on, aa a 

mission of seeds In nature seems to be to produce more 
variation Chan can be attained by non-sexual methoils of 
propagation as by bulhs or cuttlngn. Salvias arealsoan 
example of plants that are particularly effective when 
seen at a great distance, and also of plants that are 
generally massed (or unity of effect, and not mixed with 
other* Verbenas are commonly grown by themeelves, 
hut thH it because tbey demand much room by reason 
of their trailing habit. 

bl BTElOPrrAL Beddiso is a department of summer 
bedding vihieh employs chiefly cauoas, niusas, castor-oil 
plants protons, palms, ferns of coarser habit, screw- 
plce^ draoB^nas, araucarlae, elephant-earcaladiums, and 
to a lesser extent, abutilon, acaJyphas, acbyranlhes, 
anthericum Carica Papaya, aancheila, and others. 
Cannae are by far the most popular at the present time, 
especial!} for mass-work. Hometimes the tall, purple- 
leared. old-fashioned, amall-fluwered types are ustd in 
the center or at the back of the bed, and the dwarf. 



BEDDINO 

modera, large-flowered types uonnd the edgei or In 
front. Prequentlj, mMslng with » single variety of 
onnk la practiced. Next to euiDKe In popal&rity prob- 
ably CDTDO the crotons or codiieuniB,— the brood-leaved 
tfp«*, aa Qa«ea Victoria, being better for thiB purpose 




\9I. Tha Ctalckww Lima, or Jack Be< 
CanavaUa culformla (X H>- 
(8« Beu. p. 135.) 



than the E 
rloiu kinds, 

and O. twfHf urn, which belong 1 



leaved or simply en- 



fan- 



139 

large elasa of tender material— as palms, aerew-plnea, 
the coarser ferns, dracnnas, araocarlas— a class of foil- 
age plants which really does bettor ontdoors dnrlng 
eammer In a shady and sheltered position than Indoors 
all the year round. In the more formal ntyles of orna- 
mental gardening, such plants often form the nneleua of 
a Bubtropieal bed, the large tubs of the palms being hid- 
den by lower-growing plants, as begonias, or whatever 
may be left over from the spring operations. In less 
formal gardening, the tubs may be bidden by plunging 
them halt-way Into the ground and grading the sod,whlch 
has been previously broken, in auFh a manner as to 
conceal the tubs entirely. The plants are arranged in a 

begonias and the like maybe dispensed with. The chief 
dangers to such plants are from the sun and wind* 
Palms ODc6 scorched or wind-whipped are ruined.  
Hence, a sheltered position on tbe north side of a build- 
ing, or under Che shade of trees, Is usually the best spot 
for tjieir summer vacaUon, 

Carpet Beddino is the moat formal and most expen- 
sive of all kinds uf bedding, and employs plants Cbat 
stand pinching and shearing, as eoleua, achyranthes, 
altemanthera, lobelia, one of tbe dusty millers [Ctn- 
taurea eitmiiocarpa,-0. catuliai»aima will not bear the 
shears), certsiQ succulents of the ben -and -chickens 
type (as echeverias), and many othera, which Hat may 
be found in a classifled and convenient form at p. 215 of 
Bailey's Garden-Making. The terms "geometrical bed- 
ding" and " fancy bedding" are somewhat synonymous. 
Here belong the Imitationa of buildings and animatSf 
the portraits of men. the lettered greetings to conven- 
tions, the calendars, floral clocks, and similar Ingenui- 
ties. A single example ts pictured in Fig. 199. Aground 
plan for a fancy carpet bed " ' • "• " 



(XK).(Se 



(' oollecllons. For carpeting t 

ground in a croton bed, two variegated 
trailers can be used with good eSect. the 
wandering jew or tradescantla and Op- 
liimtnut Burmatini, which is famil- 
iar to gardeners as Panicim variega- 
turn. The large leaves of bananas give 
a very rich tropical effect, especially if i 
they can be so sheltered that the wind '' 
will not split them. One of the very ;' 

' best plants (or encircling a public 
fountain is the huge-leaved elephant- 

,) ear caladlum. For interesting points 



ing its I 



e Color. 



Among the first halt-doxen favorites tar subtropical bed- 
ding la the CBstor-oll plant, or ricinua. Its marvellous 
growth from seed in a single season make* It one of the • 
very beat of all planta for rapidly Hlling up large areas -■ 
temporarily, (irseses furnish an exception to tbe general " 
rule that bedding plants are tonder. There are many 
kinds of bamboos that are perfectly bardy in the north- 

A favorite combination of grasses for bedding Is 
.^rundo I^DRoi, the giant reed, surrounded by eulallsa. ' 
tiraases and their kind are particularly effective In 
aquatic groups. No well kept esfablishment ia complete 
without a pond or body of water in which aquatic plants 
are naturalized. For a more extended account of this 
attractive subject, see tbe article Aqualiei. Theic la a 



,nd toi 
reader Is referred to tbe numerou 
subject, to Mottet'a La Monalculti 
llshed by Geo. A. Solly & Son, Springili 



infum 



, the 



.n iKwkB on the 
and to a book pub^ 

, Mass. This 

ityle of 'bedding requlrea the higheat degree of tech- 
nical skin, and Is especially enjoyed by tbe Qeimans, 
whose gardenere excel in it. 

The position of a bed Is far more Important than th« 
style of bedding or the kloda of planta that are used. 
The natural school of landscape gardening, as opposed 
to the varlons schools of ornamental gardening, makes 
no objection to beds in themselves, but dislikes tbeir 
□auat position. They are commonly given the moat con- 
spicuous places, where they muat be seen, whether peo- 
ple like them or not. They should be In a place by 
themselves where they do not interfere with the quieter 
■ad larger pictures of tbe whole place. Sunken areas, 



die of a large lawn, because it distracts the attention 



140 



BEDDINQ 



from the lir^r pictnre, ftnd beeanse the lawn la the 
CMivM upon whirh the Undscftps B*"!*''" makes bl« 
picture. The chlet merit of beds is their ■ttractivenHs 
(uid briKhnieni>, which sccoanta tor their presecoe In 
parks and pablic places. On the other hand, they are 
eipenslTe, and they are at their bent only two or three 
months In the year, while a mud-bole la a lawn for 
nine months of the year in an unsightly object. Pormal 
lieds, espeelally of tollafte plants, with their frsudy colors 
and anchangiuK monotony, are considered by some the 
most unnatural and the leiut u-tlstic style of garden- 
inK. NeTertheless, they reqiUre a high degree of t^cbni- 
eal skill, which deserves appreciation. 

A few pmcticol snggeatlons may be given for making 
a bed. The soil should be rich and full of vegetable 
matter. If a foot or 18 In. of the surface soil is so poor 
that It mnet be removed, It may be replaced by two parti 
of fibrous loam and one of well-rotted manure, with 
some upturned broken sods in the twttom for drainage. 
The fat] Is the proper time to apply manure, and It the 
bed be thoroughly spaded over and left rough during 
the winter, the alternate freeilng and IhawlDg will Une 
both the soU and the fiber of tbe manure. Beginners 
nearly always fail to supply perfect condittotu tor wa- 




tering. A midsummer mnlch of half-rotted nunnre en- 
ables the plants to take all the moisture they need dur- 
ing the drought and to keep It. The soil shouldbe in ideal 
condition before the plants ore set Into it,-mellow, 
rich, full of fiber, and of firm and UQltorm texture. 
Be^ln In the middle and work toward the edges. When 
the bed Is finished, give It one thorough soaking, to settle 
the .oil at the roots. Robert Shoe.. 

BESCEEB, EEHBT WABO (181^1887). The cele- 
brated American clerygyman and orator deserves espe- 
cial remembrance for bis work as edi;or of the Western 
Farmer and Gardener in pioneer days of western horti- 
culture. A selection of bis contributions was printed in 
lB.i9BS a book of i20 pp., entilled " Plain and Pleasant 
Talk About Fruits, Flowers and Farming. ' A second 
editlonwaspubllsbedlnlSTt as "Pleasant Talk, etc. .-a 
book of 49a pp., containing also articles written for the 
New York Ledger, These papers have a higher literary 
quality than is usual iu horticultural trrlllngs, and are 
still entertaining aud suggestive. They did much to 
spread the taste for country life and (ranleuing. Beecher 
was always deeply Interested In horticultural affairs. 

BEET. There are 4 or fi species of the genna Beta, 
which are sometimes cultivated under the name of 
Beet, but Beta vulgarii, Hun., ]itbe ouly one of practi- 
cal InipoTtanoe. From it all our common ganlen varle- 
tlel art derived. According to DeCandoUe, the aborigi- 



nal slender-rooted species Is found In sandy soli, and 
especially near tbe aea. throughout southern Europe, 
and on nearly all the coasts of the Hedllerranean. It 
also occurs as far eastward as the Caspian Bea and 
Persia. " Everything shows that Its cultivation does not 
date fr«m more than two or three 
before the Christian e 



iQ of large 



med In aU 



I direction of large 
oots, and is much 
civilised countries. 



Young Beets constitute one of the 
most important early crops In truck- ' 
gardening. Many acres of them are 
grown near all the city markets, and , 
as they bear transportation well, they f 
are often grown at comparatively 
remote places. LargB quantities are 
shipped early from Norfolk, Va., and 
from other soulhem points to north- 
em markets. Like all root crops, tbe xi. BaHano Beat. 
Beet needs a loose, light, friish, 
clean, rich sell, which must be In the beat condition 
ot tillage. No fermenting manure should l>e used, but 
instead fully rotted bam manure, with some good pot- 
ash (ertilicer. The seed for the first crop is sown 
early In sprtDg, as soon as the soil eon be weQ 
worked, where Intensive gardening Is practiced, the 
drills may be as close as 1 ft. apart, in which caae the 
young Beets are thinned to 6 in. apart In the row. But 
In ordinary gardening, It will be found most convenient 
to run the rows 2-^ ft. apart, allowing cultivation with 
the horse. The plants in sach rows can be left 4 in. 
apart at thinning time. The thinning Is done when 
the young plants are large enough to be pulled for 
"greens," for which purpose they find a ready msLrket. 

are stored for winter use. When this is to be done, the 
seed is sown In June, and the plantation Is mansged in 
all respects like the spring sowing. Beets are nome- 
times forced In greenhouses, but as they are hardly 
profitable, they are grown only iu vacant spaces or after 
other crops are out. When the young roots are ready 
for the early market, they are pulled and tied In bunches 
ot five or sfi. Tbe fall crop la pulled soon after the first 
frost, the tops are removed, and the roots stored In pits 
or root cellars. 

The most popular varietal types of the garden Beet are 
tbefollowlDg: jSa«*ano( Fig. 201). -Flesh whlteandllgbt 

than formerly. £arly Blood Turnip. ^Rleii.ieep blood- 
red, flattened turnip-shape ; an old and wall-known 
lort. Sdnaitd.— Moderate sise j handsome, rounded, 
smooth, deep red ; good grain and flavor ; not qalte 
first early. fccHpje. — Uniformly globular, bright red; 
fine-grained and sweet ; one of the beat quick -growing 
early Beets. BgypHa* Turnip.— tops quite small; 
roots fair slie, rich, deep red ; a standaird early variety. 

For field culture of culinory Beeta, the long-rooted 
varieties are ohiefiyused. These are sown in tbe field 
as BDou as the weather Is settled, la rows far enough 
apart to allow of tillage by horse. Most of them require 
the entire season in which to mature. They ore grown 
mostly tor storing for winter use. They were once 
grown for stock, but the Mangel-wuraels give much 
greater yields. The various types of Dong Blood Beet 
(Pig. 202) are chiefly used for field culture. 

Favorite varieties ot Mangel-wnnels are Golden 
Tankard, Ooldeu Yellow Mammoth, Mammoth Long Red. 
Several aorta of Sugar Beets, mostly imported from Ger- 
many, are being grown in divers places in America. Ot 
Chard, there are no selected varieties offered In America. 

The varieties of Bela vulqnrii may l>e conveniently 
divided into five sections, though the distinctions are 
somewhst arbitrary and of no fundamental importance. 
These sections are oa follows : 

I. GaBDIN BllTS. Varietleswlthcomparativelyamall 



BEET 

mota, the Uttar treqaently rlnliig soma dlBtanee out of 
the gromid : r«ther coarBe-gnlned, EiMnslvely grown 
for stock- feed 1 Hit. 

3. SuoAB fiiBTB. Sometimes SBid to belong to another 
apecles. but doubtless to be clusified here. Bather 
■mall-fcmiriiiK vuietlee, irith medlam tops : roots 
■mall to medlam, usually fuiiform, gmoolh, Dearly 
always yellowish or whitish. 

4. Chard, or Swibb Chabd. Varieties with oompara- 
ttvely larfce (ops, broad leaf-blades and very large, buc- 
culeot leaf-sleniB, which are cooked aod eaten somewhat 
like asparagQB. Tbe thrifty, tender young Itb. make a 
Tery eicelleot pot-herb. Cbard has sometimes been re- 
ferred to a Beparate species, Btia Ciela, but should be 
Included with £. culfiaris. &ee Chard. 

fi. FoLiAOB B»TB. A race whiob has been developed 
to produce luiurlaat foliage □( many colors and varied 
markings. Of such varieties are tbe BraElllau, ChlUaD, 
VictoHa. and Dracnna-leaved. The ribs of the Ivs. are 
Dsually beautifully colored. Where the leaf-blight tauRUB 
la not serious, these foliage Beets make excellent bor- 
dera where strong and heavy effects are desired, and 
thef are excellent for bedding. Raised from seeds, as 
other Beets are ) roots may be kept over winter. 

The Beet Is not often damaged by insecta. It is 
■ometlmes attacked by rast, rot, spot-diseases, and 



chief precautions is, Iberefore, to avoid following pota- 
toes with Beets. For tbe most part, clean cnltnre and 
proper rotations will forestall serious injary from plant 



BEOOHIA (named after H. Begon). Benimiiteta. 
Elcpkaht'b Ear. BiirsTEAs Geoaniuu. A large ge- 
nus of very popular and useful plants for the bouse, 
conservatory and garden. Succulent herbs or under- 
abmbs, having the Btem In some cases reduced to a thick 
rtiiiome, Id others to a distinct small tuber, while a fev 
others poneess a semi-tuber, In wbicb there are a num- 
ber of closely set scalen or Buppreosed Ivs., resembling 
bulbs : Ivs. variable, alternate, more or less unequal- 
aided, entire, or lobed, or toothed, ovate-acuminalr, or- 
bicular or peltate : fis. usually in axillary cymes, ntonoe- 
clous, large ; males usually with 1 petals, females with 
fi (rarely 2), pink, white, rose, scarlet, yellow, and all 
Shades of these, being represented ; stamens numerous ; 
fllaments free or united at the base ; styles 2 or 4. free, 
aometimes connate ; Btigmas branched or twisted like a 
eorkscrew : fr. Dsually a 3-winged capsule, which Is 
often colored : ovary iDferior ; seeds numerous, very 
minute. The first Begonia wasintroduced into England 
In I7TT. Since then, ont of the 350 ipeeles known, aboat 
160 have proved of value to the horticulturist. Few 
other plants have been Improved ao rapidly, there being 



BEaONIA 141 

In their Ivi. Their geographical distribution Is very dla- 
Janctive and localiied. They are indigenouB b> Hex., 
Cent, and S. Amer., Asia, and S. Afr. They seem to 
have no genetic relationBhlp with other plants now 
living. For literature, see Dryander, The OenuB Be- 
gonia, Trans, of the tiinn, Soc., Vol, 1, 1TB9 ; Klutisch, 
Begoniaceen-Oattungen und Arten, IS plates, IB&B ; De- 
Candolle's Prodromus. 15, 18414; Raveusorott, B.C., Be- 
gonia Culture for Amateurs, 1S94 ; Wynne, Tuberooa 
Begonias, 

The Begonias now In cult, may be roughly divided 
into four sections or gronps ; 

I. FlBItOOS-BOOTBD, OB WlHTJtB-ri 

Nos. 1-71. 

11. SlUl-TCBIBOOH, OB BOOOTBANA. 

Nos. 73-76. 

III. TOBXBOUS, OB SuiaiBB-rLOWIBIH 

Noa. 77-99. 

IV. BlX. OB OBNAI1BNTAI-I.IAVXD, 

Nos. lOfr-103. 
In 



following a 
European dates. 



nt. the datei refer to Intro- 
□t Into American trade. They 

P. B. GlKNIDI. 



There are four sections of the Begonia family, and as 
each requires somewhat different directions for their 
cultivation, it la desirable to treat them separately. The 
first section, tbe Flbroos-rooted. comprises such varie- 
ties ai B, nitida, tempertloreni, var. giyanlea rosea, 
albo-piela, Baageana, and Duchartrti. Cuttings taken, 
from clean, healthy stems will strike readily in an ordi- 
nary propagating box or bench, and if potted-ou. as 
they require root-room, will make flno plants for late 
winter- and spring- dowering. As boou as one neglects 
good treatment, especially in regard to light, freih air 
and fresh soil, the red spider, a physiological disesHe 
appearing like rust, and the dreaded nematodes, will 
soon attack them and give them a sickly and stunted 
appearance. They require a temperature of from S5-fiO° 
at night and 65-70° iit the day time. Tbe plants should 
bo kept close to the glass during the early stages of 
their growth, on account of the tendency of mauy of the 
varieties to send out ratber long shoots. A compost of 
3 parts good loam, 1 part well-rottad manure, and 1 
port sand, will be found very suitable for their growth. 
While Begonias In general are Injured by too strong 
sunshine during summer, they are benefited by ai! tbe 
sunshine tbey can get during tbe winter and early spring 
.months. Strong sunshine, however, pouring through 
imperfect glass upon wet foliage, is apt to blister the 
leaves of any Begonia. Such varieties as B. J}rtgti and 
Weltonientii, whiuh produce at their base a thickened, 
fleshy stem like a potato, may be propagated either by 
division or by cuttings. Nearly all the varieties be- 
longing t< -'  -' "- ■- 



cellent 



B plan 






rubra, iperalala, argyroitigma, var. pieta, ricinifolia, 

Tbe second section, the Semi -tuberous, comprises 
such Begonias M B. Sacolrana and Qloire de Sceaux. 
They require greater care, and should be grown In a soil 
with considerably more leaf -mold and a temperature of 
65-70° in the daytime and 60° at night. Of Ololre de 
Sceaux and other hybrids, plants 2 years old will bo 
found best for decorative purposes. 

The third section, the Tuberous Begonias, are grown 
in pota, boxes or baskets, under glass, or as bedding 
niants In a shaded border. If tbe plants are Intended 
for pot culture in the greenhouse, it Is best to use the 
tubers. For early flowering, start tbe tubers in February 
or March, either in small pots or shallow boxes. The soil 
maybe composed of loam, sharp aand and leaf -mold, and 
the temperature about eO^-CS". When the plants are 
ready for repottlog.well-rotted manure may be added, and 
when the roots have taken a fresh bold a cooler tempera- 
ture may be maintained. For bedding purposes, seed- 
ling plants, as well as tubers, may be used, providing they 
are of a flrst-class strain. Tubers are preferred If early- 
flowering plants are desired. Tbey bloom more abun- 
dantly in Ibe early part of the season, as they have the 
strength of the already formed taben. Plant in the mid- 



isldeofsbulldingis lobe preferred; 
jtbeerowded. Plsnl;of MghC, wltbmoli- 
I, uid  malehtuK with balf-rottsd learei 



I. Touii£ pluite ■tartloff fram tli« Inc 



Id hot wsBther, will grektly benefit Ibe pluita. Water, 
when neeesiary, under the leavei. See Bedding, 

The tnbers should be lifted «fter the first light frost, 
and Btared. Seeds town In Much will produce fiower- 
Ing plvits by Jaly or August, but Z-year-old tubers 
are mere sMlBfoctorj for contluusl blooming. The seed 
ma; be sown in any shallow boi or seed-pan, vbich 
should first be filled with matertal whloh will give plentr 
of dralaage, over which place some finely sifted soil to 
receive the seed. Scatter tbe seed thinly. SufBolent 
corerluit will be giTen by simply pressing the soil down 
level. Keep in darkness by covering wi*b gUss or paper 
tor a few dsys, in a temp, of not leas than 70°. As SOOD 
•• tbe Beedllngs appear the covering mast be removed, 
and when the little plants attain nwts about Kin. long 
they may be pricked Into nicely prepared soil. In most 
places In this country, Tuberous Begonias do not thriva 
Out-af-doors. but In some places and with careful treat- 
ment they do welt. They are very satisfactory for 
blooming in a well. shaded greenhouse In the summer. 

The fourth section, tbe Bex BegonlsB, are grown en- 
tirely for the beauty of their foliage. Tbey may be 
prop, by means of either ahoot. or leaf- cuttings, the 
latter being the better when plants have to be rslsed In 
quantity. Large and 
well-matured, but still 
healthy and vlgurous. 



BEOONIA 

made eoaraer wlUi each potting nnUl, In tbe final shift, 
an nnsif^ eompost of 2 parts toun, 1 part leaf-mold, I 
part well-rotted manure, and 1 part sand, la nsed, add- 
ing a sprinkling of lime. While watering, avoid wetting 
the laavei aa much as possible, and keep large, well de- 
veloped plants in a shaded house, with plenty of ven- 
tilation day and night during tbe suinmer. 

BoBSBT Sbobi. 

The Begonia is exacting in Its requirements ; yet these 
requirements are simple. It responds readily to intelli- 
gent culture ; most of the varieties are extremely rapid 
In growth, and a year's time will produce an excellent 
specimen from a rooted cutting. For horticultural pur- 
poses. Begonias at« usually divided into three general 
classes : tbe Tuberous -rooted, Rex, and Shrubby or 
Flowering sections. Tuberous -rooted Begonias attained 
a short-lived popularity in this country some 12 or 15 
years ago, when they were Impurled In large quantities 
from France and England and used as bedding plants. 
It was hoped that they might share patronage with the 
Geranium, but our burning summers and long-continued 
droughts wrought such havoo with tbem that they 
speedily fell Into disfavor, and very few growera now 
handle them. This la much to be regretted, for tbey are 
gorgeous flowers, and careful selection has produced 
blooms of enormous slie and wonderful form, in the 
most vivid shades of rod, white, yellow and pink. 

The Rex division has been a great favorite for many 
years. In no other class of plants are the rich aetalllo 
ihadee of Tarlons colors toond so satisfactorily blended 



principal 






the unde 




Tbe 


leaf is th 


en pegged or 


weighted 


down 


n tbe 




of a 


well- 


drained 




bed. It 




uUy 


shaded, 




U be 


formed a 




out, a 


tiny lea 






(Fig. 20a 


,and t 


he lit- 


tie plant 


ng^y'L 


he in- 


serted si 


small 



Eots. Another method 
I to cut the large 
leaves Into triangular 
parts, with a bit of the 
--'n petiole at the tip 



of ei 



and Ina 



tbe lower or thickest 

end of the rib down- 

JM. Plant ari«oB from ihs hMB ward (Pig. SM). Still 

(« tip) ot a ttUniular leaf- another method la to 

cutting. cut the leaf in two, 

across the velna [Fig. 

205), and stand it edgewise in the propagating bed. The 

foung plants may be pott«d-up Into small pots, using a 
I gbt, porous, sifted soil. Keep shaded In a low house 
with a moist atmosphere. Tbe soil may be gradually 



109. UpliBbt leal-oitUng of Begoola. 

aa here, while tbe form and alie of tbe Ivs. are of the 
greatest Tarlety ; those of the old Bex and of Mrs, Bon- 
ner are frequently a foot and more In length, while little 
Marquis Peralta makes a compact mass of tiny zoned 
foliage averaging only 2 or 3 in. long. To tbe ±t«i va- 
rieties showing bright green, pure silver, bronie, and 
velvety green, have been added Lucy Cloason and Louise 
Cloason, both showing bands of bright, rosy plum color, 
and Mme. Oache, with its lone of tight, dull red. A 
class of Hybrid Bex contains some of the most useful 
and beautiful of ornamental plants. They are nearly all 
crosses between Lesoudll and Dladema. These all 
show the Rex texture and general habit, while the Ivs. 
are deeply notched and Koned ; they are more substan- 
tial than the average Rex, and they make symmetrical 
specimens with less trouble. Some of the principal 

Elsla Cotes, Bertha McGregor, Flora Hill, Mrs. Shep- 
herd, and Richmond Beautv. Rex Begonia culture Is 
simple. Soil should be a mixture of loam, woods earth, 
sharp sand, and well-rotted cow-manure. It must be 
light and porous. Temperature required is a warm 
greenhouse for growing; but grown speeimenscan be 
hardened to a much lower temperature. They enjoy a 
moist atmosphere, and must be shaded from hot sun- 
shine. They have few insect enemies. Of later years 
they have been subject to the attack of a very destruc- 
tive fungous-like disease, but eareful attention lo han- 
dling and propagation will keep It In check. The propaga- 
tion of Rex Begonias Is very simple, a leaf, or portion 
of leaf with a strong midrib, rooting very readily in the 
propagating bench with bottom heat. 

The Shrubby or Flowering Begonias comprise a nnm- 
ber of ornamental sorts with Inconspicuous flowers, and 
also varieties that are hnge bouquets of bloom. Among 
the former m Albo-piota, Diadema, Nigricans, Mme. 



BEGONIA 

Llonnet md Metalllea, all fonning beantlfnl speclmeiiB 
of foUkge. 0( the flovering sons, two of the most 
Wldel)' cnlUvBted are Ihe old tavoriles, Rubn and Wel- 
tonleasia. Vernon and Erfordii are veritable weeds for 
growth, aad are eotered with bloom. Paul Bruont Is 
one of the fi«eBt bloomera of tbe group, the plant being 
eoTered with fls,, while the lv8. are large, dark, pointed 
BDd shining. Qluira de Lorraine la the most waaderfui 
of reeeot Begonias, a well grown plant being a sight 
never to be CorgotleD. The Bs. are large, bright ptnlc, 
and borne In wonderful profusion. It la semi-tuberous 

The Semperflorena (^gantea claaa is a very useful one, 
and many improved varieties now add value to It. 
AmongthemareLaFrance, Elegantisaimaaiba. Goliath, 
Mastodonte and Obeiiaqne. The Shrubby section thrives 
In much the same soil as Rei, or a trifle heavier, re- 
qniring less heat and moisture. Cuttings can be strucit 
as easily aa those of the geranium. g. G. Hiu.. 

Index to the Begonias here described : Abel Carriers, 
No. IH ; Abundance, 39 ; A. Dalll«re, 105: Admiration, 
99iA; AdonlB,T4; Adrlenne Schmidt, 105; alba fimbrlata, 
99AAJ Albatross, 20 ; albo-eocclnea. 19 ; albo-pkta, 15 ; 
Alice Manning, 99ia ; athniflora, 99aa ; Amelin, 40 ; 
angularis, 41 ; argenteo-guttata, 33; artyrottigma, 2S ; 
Aaeotiensls, 42 ; alropnrpnrea compacta, 20 ; Autumn 
Rose, 76 ; aucubafoUa, 12 ; Baron A. Vrlere, 104 ; Bau- 
mannil, 86; Bertha de ChateaurOcher, 43 ; Berths Mao- 
Oiegor, 1D8 ; Bextey White, 99Aa ; bieolor, 87 ; Bijou, 
76; BtjoudeOand, 44; Blsmarokl, 45; Bolivicnals, 81; 
Bruanli, 47, sub 3; Oattra,U\ Uannell'a Qem, 99iA ; 
earolinlnfoUa, 46 ; Carriers. 47; Charles Baitet, 99aa ; 
Che1soni,83; cinnabarina, 89; Clarkel,84; Clementino, 
105; eocclnea, 29; Comledi Litnminghe.W; carallitia, 
29 1 Corbeille de Feu, 48 ; eoronata, 26 ; Count Erdody, 
108; Coontasa Louise Erdody, 107; Couuteas of Craven, 
93aa ; Grednerl, sub 3 ; Crlmaon Qem, 20 ; crlnita, 90 ; 
cjelophylla, 91 ; dedalea, 32 ; Dandy, 99aa; Darisll, 
77; Dewdrop. 47; Diadem, 20 ; d i edema, 49 ; disltata, 



BEQONLA 



143 



50; Big 



u, 66; dit 






lifolia, 87; 



Domini, 107 ; Dr. Masters, 99aa ; Dr. Nachtigal, 23 ; 
Dregel,24; Dachartrel, 2 ; Ducheese de Brabant, 108; 
Dneheas of Edinburgh. 30; Onchessof YoFk,20; Duchess 
of Leinster,99AA; Daks of York, e9iA; Duke Zeppelin, 
99aa ; D. Wettstein, 106 ; echinosepals, 61 ; Edward B. 
Kennedy, 104 ; Ed. Pyniiert. 104 ; elegantissima, 20 ; 
elliptiea, 16 ; Erdody, 107, 108 ; Erfanlll, 52 ; Evansi- 
»na,a5: Pairy Queen, 20; Feastil,53; Flamingo, 99aa; 
P. E. Lalntc. 99a ; folloaa, 14 ; Proebeli, 7B ; Froebell 
Temalis, 78 ; fuchsioiies, 13 ; geranltolia, 92 ; gera- 
nloLdea, 80 ; GllsonI, 54 ; glaucophylia, IS ; Glolre de 
LorrmiDe, 75; (Jloire deSceaux, 76; Glory of Stanatead, 
99aa ; QoegoenalB, 30 ; Goliath, 20 ; gracilis, 87 ; gra- 
cilis, var. Hartlana, 87 ; Orahamiana, 19 ; gratidiHora, 
»t; ?niiidia,85. 107; Griraihi. 100; Runnersfolia, 9 ; 
Haageana, 3 ; Bamkarll, S ; Hecia, 99aa ; Henri Dor- 
neck. 105; Henri Vilmorin, 104; HenshBwRusaell,9gAA) 
hemcleitolla, 33 ; himanditr folia , 03 \ hybrid a multi- 
flora, 55 ; hydrocoty lifolia, 8 ; Illustration, 20 ; imperi- 
alls, 4 ; Imperlalis, var. smaragdiua. 4 ; incornata, 12 ; 
lngraml,S6; iniignit, 12; John Heal, 74; Julia, 74; 
Knawlaleyana, 57 ; Kunlhiana. 58 ; laclniata, 101 ; Lady 
Balfonr of Barleigh, 99aa : Lady Grinthorpe, 99aa ; La 
PmnCB, 20; leopardinua. 107; Leopoldi, 107; Leaoudll, 
109; Llnie, lOS ; Lothalr, 99aa; Loulae Classon, IDS; 
Lionise Chretien, lOS ; Lubbersl, 59; Lucanln, 60; Lucy 
Closson, 108; lueida, 16 ; Lyncheana, 61 ; maculala,. 
28 ; maculata, var. corallina, 29 ; Mad. d'Lamagny, 105; 
MadamedeLesaepa,62; Hod. Treyve, 104; Had. Fun ck, 
101; Had. F. Alegati^re, 104; Mad. Georges Bruant, 
105 ; Mad. Chas. Weber, 10* ; Mad. G. Van Meerbeeke, 
104; Mad, Jos. Moens, 104; Mod. Luiiet, 104; Mad. 
Isabella Bellon, 105; Mud. D. Wettstein, 105; Mad. 
Wagnet, 107; manleata, 17; manirata, var. aureo-macu- 
lata, 17 ; Hargarits, 6 ; Marquis de Peralts, 108 ; Jfur- 
(iniid, 12; Mastodon, 20; HaFgarita, 99aa; Matilda, 108; 
H. Crouasa, 105 ; metaiilca, 10 ; minor, 23 ; Miranda, 
107 : Hisa Edith Wynne. »9aa ; HIsa Falconer. 99aa ; 
Mlaa A. de Rothschild. 9aAA ; Uoonligbt. 99aa ; Mrs. 
Braaaey. 99aa ; Mra. J. Thorpe, 99aa ; Mrs. Hcttnnrt, 
99aa; Natalensin, 93 ; neiumbiifolla,63 ; nlgrlcans'iB; 
nltlda,23; nltlda, var.odoraU Blba,23 ; Obelisque, 20; 



obliqtia, 23 ; Oetavie, 99aa ; oetopetals, 94 ; Olbla, 36 ; 

Otto Fonter, 107; Packe,99AA; palmata, 50 ; Papillon, 
105; parvi/olia,2i ; Paul Bruant, 64 ; Pearoel, 88; pel- 
tata, S ; phyllomanlaca, 22 ; PIcotee, 99aA ; picia, 100 ; 
Pictavensla, sub 3; platanltotia. 9; polypetala, 95; Pros. 
Belle, 104 ; Pres. Camot, 65 ; Prea. de Boureulllea, 68 ; 
Pres. de la Devanaaye, 101 ; Prince Troubetrkol. 107 ; 
Prlnceas May, 99aa ; Queen of Whites, 99aa; Reading 
Snowflake, 20 ; Rei, 103 ; Reixdiadema bybrlda, 103 ; 
Beixdiscolor bybrlda, 103 ; rioinifolia, 11 ; £<.(ili>,61 ; 
roanSora, 79; Rosy Horn, 99aa; rubella, 34; rubra, 29; 
Tubricaalls, 96 ; Sandereonl, 66 ; sangulnea, 31 ; Saall, 
53a ; scandens, 16 ; Scarlet Qem, 9eAA ; sceptra, 49 ; 
Behartn, 3 ; Scharffiaua, 1 ; Sehmidti, 7 ; Schmldtlana, 
7 ; Sedeni, 97 ; Selloitii, 20 ; semperflorens, 20 ; sem- 
perflorena elgantea rosea, 21 ; Sieberlana, 21 ; Sir Jo- 
seph Hooker, 104 ; Soeotrena, 72 ; Souv. de Mad. 
la Baronne de Blelohr6der, 104 ; Sovereign, 99aa ; tpe- 
eioia, 23 ; apecQlata, 35 ; Stanstead Surprise, 90aa ; 
stlgmosa, 67; tlHgilloia, 32; snbpeltata nigricans, 68 ; 
8jnderbruehi.69; Sntherlandl,98; teDen,9J; Teuacheri, 
37; Theodore Schmidt, 105; Thuratoni, 70; Tkaailtiii, 
99 ; Torrey Loing, 99aa ; Triomphe, 99aa ; Triomphe 
de Lemolne, 73 ; Triomphe da Nancy, 73 ; Veltchl, 82 ; 
Vernon, 20; yersciaffcUi, 27 ; VerschalTeitlana, 27; Ve- 
suvius, 99AA ; Wanhingloniana.S; Weltoniensia, 2S ; 
WettateinU, 71 ; Wllhelm Pfltier, 105 ; WintecGem, 74; 



pellaU. 

O. Siaeoflet. large.mon than tin. vtdi. 
D. I'li.uitk Tid kafra on u»d»T turtaet ofpeiali, largt. 
1. Seluirtlitllft, Kegel. FIr.206. A robust herbaceona 
perennial, 1^ ft. high : Iva. large, thick, fleshy, hairy, 
olive-green above, crimson below ; stipules very large 
and prominent : fla. Waxy wbite. Bras.— This Begonia 
requires warmth and care to succeed well. When well- 
grown, it ia an excellent bracket plant. 



WO. BcEoma Scbafffiana. No. L 

2, Dnchirtrel.Hort., hybrid (fi.ecAino<r*BolnKScAar/- 

fiina ) : st. 2-3 ft. high, branched profusely, hairy, pur- 
ple: 1 vs. ovate-lanceolate acuminate, green above, hairy, 
red below: Bs. large, waiy white, a few red hairs on the 
under surface of petals.— Int. by Bruant in 1892. 

3. HaagttfaiB, Watson (B. Schdrf/i, Hook.). Fig. 207. 
Tall-shrubby, whole plant hairy : Ivs. ovate -cordale, 
acuminate, wavy, red-nerved above: fls. rose-pink, with 
a cyme S-12 in. In dlam., males with 2 round and 2 nar- 
row petals, females wltb 5 equal petals, BraiU. G.C. 



144 



BEGONIA 



1II.16;G.-13 (IS94). BM. 702a, ±M S. Sekarm.-Oot ol 
the mmi beaDliful pluiis of tbe gcDui. Uaa boeo dii- 
trlbuted ta B. Sckarffiana bymlslslte, 

B. Oridntri. Hort. IB. Stkanridtia k metdlliea). Int. 
by Baage & Schmidt. 1890. Th«r« Ik mother plant nuned 
B. Credneri. which wu nimd b; Lemoine Id 1891 from 



8pl» 



B. Pic( 



rj; pe- 



BB. SAape ot leavii itici$td. or pariid. 
C. Fit. ahitt OT v,hiHt\. 
S. pUtanUAlin. Oraham. St. 6-6 ft. high, erect, robngt, 
amootb. green, jotnts anDulatecI : Itb. S-10 Id. in diam., 



renilorm, lobed, blapid on both aid*), dark gr«an, loba 
■CDte, toothed, ciliated : fla. Id ailllarv dlehotomon* 
cyme*, larfiie. vhlte, tiDMd me. Brai. B.H.3591.-B. 



All three 



. le distinifiilshed from 
B. HanQta^a b; their smaller Bowera and the pedunelea 
atandlDK erect anu not fcracetally bendloK over, aa Id 
HaafieaDa. There is another plant spelled B. PiclaviniU, 
nised b; Bruanl in 1681, m cross at B. SehmldtiirteM- 

S^rflortmi. It baa alto beeD called B. Bmanti, (See 
.H.lSB2.p.3n; 1883, pp. 8,52.) 

Dlt. Fli.iekitt or grttnitkKMIt,tMaIl. 

i. Inpnlilia, Lem. St. short, berbaeeODi, ktccd; Its. 
4-6 Id. wide, very balry, brownish Rreen, with irregular 
bands o( bright ffreen aloDg tbe nerves : lis. InslgDiB- 
oiDt, white. l.H. S;iT4. Var. mavnlita, Hort., has 
brown Its. with green blotches. Var. nauacdliu, Hort., 
has wholly bright green Iva. l.H. T: £62. 

6. paltit^ Haask. (B. Hdiikarli, Zoll.). Bt. per- 
ennial : tvs. peltate, ovate -acnm in ate, thick and sdccd- 
lent, covered with a whitish tfimeutun],6-9 In, long: lis. 
small, white, on long pedancles. Bras. -It Is tbeonly 
Begonia In colt, with thick, felted, peltate, silver}* Ivs. 
cc. aiuoflv.tthall.tftauinltn.tBldt. 

6. MMgMlUa, Hort. (B. metdUicaxeckinotipala). 
Plant 1-2 ft. blgh : its. purple, hairy : Ivs. ovale-aeuml- 
nate, sinuously dentate, green above, red beneath : fls. 
in cymes, large, rose colored ; sepals with long hairs at 
the base. — Int. by Bruant in 1884, 

T. SebmldtUa*, Begel (B. ScXmidH, Hort.). Dwarf, 

ootbed, 

reddish 
edwith 
1.56.57. 
iry use- 




KM. Bcisaia 



(XX). No. 



gvHiura/olia , Liud. (B. WatkingtOHiana, Hort.). once 
ottered by Saul. Is very similar to this, bnt its Iva. are 
Dot so deeply lolied and the lla. are very iDsignlflcant. 
I.H. 22:212. 

CO. Fl$.piHk. 

10. meUUiea, O. Smith. SU. perennial, sncenleni, 
hairy. 4 ft. high, branched : Its. obliquely cordate, lobed 
and serrated, 3-6 In. long, upper surface green, abaded 
with a dark metalllo color : He. bluah-white. under side 
of pelals clothed with red bristly hairs. There are a 
nnmber of varieties; n. g.,vBr. varisgita, rar. TilfitinB, 
var. efprea, but they do not differ much from the origi- 
nal. Bahla. R.H. 1844 : 218. Q.C. 11.5:3»T.-A very 
attractive plant, Iwtb in foliage and flower. 

11. rioInilAlla. Hort. {B. Iitraelfifdliaxpipimifilia). 
St. a short, thick roolstock : Its. large, broQiy green, 
lobed, resembling cnstor-oll plant ; Ss. nnmerons, on 
long, erect pednnclea, rose pink. 

tA. Zvi. flolrrOHi, or only a ftr lealttrtd hairt o* Iht 

upper lurtace or an lAa martini. 

B. Under turtace ol It'I. jreeii. 

c. Uarjim entire or loolhtd. 

D. Widt)ionti.!ei*lha»Iin. 

■. FIi. pink, trarlel, or carmlws. 

12. Ineuntta, Liuk A Otto IB. aueubatdlia, Hort. 
£.Jtfar4idn<i,Schlecbt. B.intignit.Qrah.). St. erect. 
herbaeeons, 2-3 ft. high : Ivs. an equally cordate, lanceo- 
late, toothed : fla. rose-eolored, abundan). males 1 S^ In. 
across, with 2 ovate and i narrow petals ; females 
smaller, with S equal petals. B.M. 2900, as B. imiffHii. 
A.G.16:37. A.P. 12:724-6; 13:588. B.H. 1870, p.266 ; 
1875: 151. Tar. (nndUUik. Hort., is a new and much 
improved variety, which is very naetal (orent-Uowenor 
decoration In winter. 



IS. taahlMdM, Hook. ng. 208. Bootatoek mrady : 
•ti. UU and raocnlmt : Its. otkM, IK In. long, tlDg«d 
wilb wd «h«D 7Mlli|t ; fla. drooplDK lik« a fneiisla, rich 



BootaUuk ereeplDg ; Iva. petUit«, ovale, leaXiuay, 6 in. 
long : peduDclea 1 ft. BoDg, coral red ; male fls. 1 In. 
kcrosi, with 4 petals ; female fle. also of 4 petal*, wblM 
above, ooral-red beoeath. Flower* In nbiter. Braa. 
B.R. 3S:3S. B.M. 4172. 

KB. SUM trect. 

20. aampnOAma, Link Sc Otto [B. Silloieii, S:.). 
Fig. 209. St. herbaceoua, ■mootfa, green or reddish, 
B-IS In. high : IvB. ovate, rotandate, obtuse at tbe base, 
tootbed and ctllatu along the margin, pale glossy green, 
tlnKed with red on the midrib and petiole ; pednncles 
ulTtar;, few-flowered : Bn, white or rose-colored ; malee 
with * petala, females with 5 petals : oapinle green, 
wings tinged with red. Brai. L. B.C. 15:1439. R.H. 1897, 
p. 46. B.M. S930.-This Is an exceedingly variable species. 
An endless nnmber of garden forms has been produced 
from it. Some of the most important are as tollova : 
Var. atropurpiiTia compdffa, Ql,44,p. B70 ( Kfmon), an 
excellent bedder, deep red ; Fairy Quee», bright ro*j 
carmine, bedding ; I}ucliti» of York, crimson, bedding ; 
Orimion 0<m, foliage crimaon-bronie, fls. elegant car- 
mine ; DuckiMi of A'diHburgk, fls. large, white, easily 
grown from seed ; Beadiitg Snotcflake, white ; J>ia- 
dim, dark n>se ; IlIuilraHan, carmine; AlbalrOMt, 
tUfanliiiima, Matlodonle, Goliath, La Franet, Obtlii- 
fl«e,etc. 

21. Var. BlKUitta rAM* {B. imptrfldrttuxLynthe- 
ina). Veiy distinct; rootstooli woody : 8t». gnccalent, 
abont3ft. high: Ivs. on short petioles, ovate or reniform, 
toothed at tbe margins, about 7 in. across, bright green, 
with a red spot at base of sinus : pedonciea aiTllary, 
stent, 4-^ in. long, bearing large panicles of large n>*j 
red fls., of which the males have 2 ovate petals, the ti- 
malesZ-lsmaller petals. A.f.l3:IW6. A.Q. 16:41.-Om 



•earlet, males with 4 petals, females with S petala. Nc 
Oranada. B.M.42S1. Var. miniita, Linden ( B. einw 
toHiM, Bort.), differs ouly In having flesb-colored II 
B.H. 1SS5:Z2I. F.a. 8:787. 

IE. Fli.tckiUCTVXUUh.imaU. 

14. fallAM, HBE. Sbrabby, sis. herbaceons, slende 
branching : Ivs. frond-like, very small, 3-lobed, 
glossy green : fls. white, tinged with rose. Blooms 
early snnimer. New Granada. — An elegant basket 
and ornamental plant. 

15. Albo-pieta, Hart. Shrubby, compact growth, 
freely brancbed : Its. elliptical, lanceolate, covered 
with numerous small silvery white spots: fls. green- 
ish white, males with 2 broad and 2 narrow petals, 
females of 5 snbequal petals. Brai. — An elegant 
foliage plant. Int. by Bull In 1885. 

DD. Widlh of lui, m«rs than 1 ia. 
"■. Blcm rkiiomatCKS, erefpinn, or elitnbii%g. 
18. Miiidasa, 8warti|S. tiieJda.Otio & Dletr. B. 
Miptica, Kunth). Sts. climbing or trailing, clingbig 
by means of short aerial roots : Ivs. ovale, acuminate, 
lobed. glossy green, 4 In. long: fls. small, white, bang- 
ing in ball-like clusters. W. lod. R. H. 1879, p. 300. 
—An ezcelleni basket or climbing plant. 

17. manleita, Brongn. A short-stemmed, suocnle 
plant: Ivs. ovate, obliqaely cordate, thick, fleshy, smoot 
sblny grern, 6-8 In. long : petioles covered with flesh 
Bcale-like hairs: peduncles a foot or more long, bearii 
loose panic lea of pink dipetalous fls. Hex. Var. aftrei 
■MnUta. Hort., has large blotcbea of yellowish whi 
ODthelvs. F.E. 8:1159, F.B. 2:435. 

18. sUnMphfllB, Hook. (S. glaueopJiftla BpUnden 
Hon. B. glaueopkilla icdndEfu. Hort. B. Oomte i 
Limminghe, Hort.). I'mbably a hybrid, but parents ni 
known. Sts. long, drooping or creeping; Ivs. ovate, 
wavy, 3 In. long, glaucous -green, reddish and variegated 
in hod : fls. rose-red, males 1 In. across, with 2 ovate and 
2 narrow petals, females of 4 equal petals. Brai.I B.M. 
7Z19. — A good basket plane, flowering freely all winter. 



3tt. BCBonia scmperilonDS, vai. Slaberiana. No, 21. 

of the best Begonias for winter decoration In the greea- 
faoDse. Int. by Lemolne in 1888. Var. SlebeiUaa, Int. 
t'y Lemolne, Is shown In Fig. 210 (from the French). 



146 



BEOONU 



22. pkyOomanUMt, Hut. Fig. 311. St. perennial : Iva. 
obllqaelv eordkt«, kttentute, t-e in. long, ■IlKfatljlacliil- 
■Md and fdnffcd ; fla. p>le pink. B.H. S2M. Bnill.- 
Thl>ap«eleilB pmalUrinthat itprodneeafnnntheatem, 
potloles and Ivb. Innmnerable IfU. or small ^rrowths. It 
It one of the moat intereatlug of planta, though not of 
muah decorative value. 



Heahy, woody, at the ba«e when old : Iva. obliquely < 
wavy, 4-6 in. acroaa, gloaay dark green : fla. on long, 
■illfary peduncles, pale pink, with a silvery blaih ; 
males 1% in. acroas, with 2 broad and 2 narrow petals ; 
females smaller, with B equal petals. Jamaica. B.M. 1016. 
— A very nseful plant in the greenhonae, flowering all 
winter. Also iatereatiag on account of being the flrst 
Begonia introduced into Eorope ilTH). Var. odoiita 
Alb* Is a very handtome variety of tbii specie*, which 



BEGONIA 

BB. Lv4.Ttd,reddiikarrtd-BeintdvnHuHnd»rMurfat*. 
O. JfafyiiM entire or terraU. 

28. UMoUiU, Baddi IB. arsymligma, Fisch.). St. 
erect, branching, woody when old : Iva. cordate, lanceo- 
late, wavy, t-6 in. long, upper surface sometimea with 
large while, roundiah spots: fla. pale roae or white, males 
with 2 ovate and 2 narrow petala, femalea with 5 equal 
petals. It inclndea aeveral forms. Brai. B.R.666. Var. 
argyiuaUgmB plata, Hort., la a common form, with very 
large white spots on the Iva. 

29. eoeelma. Hook. [B. rAfrni, Hort. B. maeutila, 
var.e»ratIlHa,Hort.). Tall, succnlent sts. : Ivs.onshort 
petioles, obliquely oblong, an^lar, with wary red mar- 
gins, 1-6 in. long: fla. deep coral-red; malea !it in. acroas, 
with 1 unequal petals ; females more attractive, owing to 
the length and rich color of the ovary, which baa 3 amatl 
■nbequal wings. Bras. B.H. 3S90. — The Ba. ate very 



Orah. B. nnifSrmit, Hort.). 
Roottloek a fleshy, globular tuber ; sts. suocnlent, an- 
nual, 1-2 ft. high ; Its. thin, amall, green, deeply ser- 
rated, reddish on the under side : fla. white, small, 
profuse. Cape of Good Hope. B.M. 3720. 

25. WaltOnUndi, hybrid (parents not known). St. 
reddish, lK-2 ft. high : Ivs. light green, smooth, ovate- 
aenmlnste, lobed. dentat«, IK~2 In. aeroaa : petiole red, 
1~IH In. long : fls. pink, profuse, on short peduncles.— 
Int. by Major Clarli, of Welton Park. Var. «lba, Hort., 
baa white fls. 

DD. Width of tvt. mare than t in. 

26. eOTOnlta, Hort., hybrid {B. earoHniaflHiaxpolv- 
dntha). St. Bhnibby, coarse, 2-3 ft. high, covered with 
numerous withered stipules : Its. large, lobed, on long 
petioles : fla. pale pink, with large, aomewhat droop- 
ing cymes. 

27. Veneluaeltlfcna. Regel. i,B. Fertdiatrilli, Hort. 
B. manicataxcaroliniafdlia). St. a thick rbUome : 
Ivs. large, ovate, acuminate, lobed : Be. rose-colored, 
pendent on long peduncles. 1. H. 2:68.— Tall, coaraeand 
unsightly aa an old specimen, bat when well grown from 
year to year from cuttings makes a splendid plant. 



D. Sl.creepitif ; a i\ort,tklettrkivime. 
3.1. 1ura«UlUlla,Cham.ASchleefat.(B..7<i'nipita»Iia, 

Hort.). St. a short, thick rhliome: Ivs. 6-13 in. across, 

Iialmate, lobes toothed, rich green: peduncles 3-1 ft. 
ong: fls. white orrose-tlnted- Mei. B.H. 3141. B.B.1668. 
Var. nlgricani, Hort., has the margins ol the Ivs. bor- 
dered with dark green. B.H. 4983. Var. longipUa, Hort., 
baa long, Heshy hairs on the leafstalks and peduncles. 
Var. punctita, Hort., has green Ivs., reddish near the 
margin : fls. rose-colored, with deep red spots on tbt 
outside. 

31. rubilla, Hamilt. St. a short, thick rblaome : Iva. 
Isrge, cordate, acuminate, deeply lobed, smooth, spotted 
with Irregularly shaped dark brown marks : fls. pale 
pink, on long peduncles. Nepal. 

35. fpsonUU, Hort., hybrldl St. a short, thick 
rbliome: Ivs. broadly ovate, acnmlnate, cordate, on long, 
hairy petioles, dull green, rough, speckled with grey, 
hairy, reddish on the under side, veins very prominent, 
light green, profusely branched : fls. on long, hairy pe- 
duncles, pink-white, males and females both with 3 
petals : oapsulegreen, with small red spots. — Origin not 
knovrn, thoa^h quite common in cultivation. A hardy 
and useful Begonia. 



BEaOHIA BEQONU 14 

DD. SUmtrtci. a. OwMS* dt An (B. lemmrflomuXfiieluloldM). F 

36. OlhU. KerohovB. 8t. lathery, 2-3 ft. Ugh : 1t«. bright <ic™l-Ma.-Int.b)rL«iioii« in 18M. 

lobed. hairy and ollTe-greeD abore. smooth »nd red b«- «• iKiH«m^iand*n(B.««pW« How.). PUnt.sn.lilshi 1 

Heath, mar^ns reddish, petloleg grooved, smooth, veins ST'-r^S^J,"^™ ^ whlte.denUte: lls.lnilgii; 

prominent as dark lines: Oa. concealed by Wb., in small "" * ™™™' i.n.».«D- 
clusters directly on the St. without peduncle 
white, male and female In same eloater. Brai. 



irrower; Ivs. large, acutely lobed, ovate-lanteolE 
gins BOTTate, bright grasn above, with greyish 1 
ted-velned below: fla. In axillary clusters, brii 
targe. UaUya. l.H.26:3S8. 

38. arstatso-Knttita, Hort. (B. dlbo^telai 
Profnaely branching : Ivs. shining green, ovat 
nate. slightly lobed, smooth, 2mD. wide, 3-S 
thickly dotted with white spots : Be. In clusters, i 
petals white, tinged with pink ; capsule rose-pit 
by Lemolne, 1B89. 



orate. S In. lane, denUte: fli. lose-Iilnk.— Int. ] 



41. anauUrU, Raddi (B. wbrina, Hort.). St. am 
e&lsnt. a-8 ft hlch: Iti. eloocaM, OTate-aoamlute, 
— "-■ — -"-], gnea. veins white: fli. inilgniila 



Ble^i hil^o^, brl 



«. BrrfAo de Chaleaurielitr. E__.. 

flL bright eDirant'red.— Useful for cnt-flowBra. 

U. AjJDS d> Sand. Hort. CauleHcnt : Bs. rose, in 
Very similar to TeoKherl («htcb see). 

4S. BfmorcU. Hart. Caoleseent ; fl*. In clatters, n 
' lales a gorceom display. Vei7  



CUfta.UBUsn. SeeB. Dre«l. 

«. eamliiuiKaua.Beaal. St.nwt .. , 

lobes deeply divided Into 8 or 8 : fl>. pink, on lont pedunelsa. V3. BcBonla President Camot. 1 



.semperflorensXSchmldtiD.DlWDBOF. „ ^i/, 

I, aooQl 1 ft, Msh : 1»«, like Bemperfloreni : fli. rJruS^ 
It beddlncBeconls. Inl.br Bnunt Id 188S, hiaS 



. Lts. palmate, 10-13. 

bllquebr 
.. It pi- 
lose sepals. 

Si. ErtaTda, Hort. (B. ftshmldtll X semperflorens Vemon). 
Vbtj dwsrt ind hnshy, l^ft. high : fl.. abundimt, roi»™nalnB. 
—Excellent foi beddiiis. Int. by Hsaoe A Schmidt In imn. 

i3. niu[ii,Hort.(6.msiilgatlXh;di«oCyllfalU), St-aihort, 
thick rooUtock : Its. saboiblcolar, thick, red beaesth, entire i 
petioles Irre^arly marked : Qs. Ilfbt pink, on loufl peduncles. 
-Int. by John feait, of BalUmoie, before USD. 

Smkli. Hort., Is s newly Introdnced apeeiea from Gusteraala, 
rsiembllDi Fmtll In the ihspe and color of its lva„ bDt with a 
disthMt red slnui at Junction of peciale with leaf. 

51. fflbCHi, Hort, (Drisln Amcriran). Plsnt. 2 ft. hiBh : st. 
shrubby, eoarve: IvB.larffe. lobed: Us. on louf, erect peduncles. 
pale pliik.— InCareiclng h bsini the onlj doublB-ad. flbroos. 
rcmtsd Beconla. Named for OlUon. colored (ardener to Mn. 
Uvlngston. N. I. 

S5. tifibTiia nuIWUro. Hort. (B. hybrids floribnnda. Hort.). 
Plant 3-4 ft. hi(h : Irg, imall, 1 In. loni. Sin. acn>M. dentate. 
creen below : fls. rose-pink, ^■"g^"g In dusters Uke a fuchsia. 

M. ^n^raml. Bort. tB. nilidtXfuFbslaldeB). Camblnea the 
characters of the two species : Sa. ll(ht pink.— Int. by lucram 

tiulirnit. See B. Incarnate, No. 12. 

57. KnotBitlftfAna^ Hort, (orifln not known). Very similar 

58. KanthidHa, Wslp. Stem erect : Its. lanceoUle. scuml- 
B.U. G2H, Braiil. 

SB. IMbmi. E. Uorr. Stem a short rhliDine^ lv>. large, 
palmate, ffreen L da, pink, on long peduncles. Braill. G.C. III. 
U:301. b£. lUSS, p. Z2J. 

60. irtieiin«.Hort..hybrld(B.I,yneheanaXBruantl). Fls. 
large. In the aiiU of the lvs„ roBS.-Int. by Bruant in 1888. 

n. Lvnthfina. Hook. (B. RoslII, Recel.). St. erect, tall, 



^tl.'m^-Al 



NewOrsnada. B.^. S758. -Almost Identlcsl 



I. UB.t. 



m No. U. 



n. Sna-TUBSBons OB SoooTBUf SBcnoH. 



mtnUCa. Plueli. * UndwL Ii B. twhiloidM. No. 
<B, MaJam i* Lmv. Eia. US. Strenc. sreet (v 

•- '-"--I, UiBB, nurcliu -"- ' 

„ .._Bd b«Ior *- '-- 

n. naluatMinUa, Chui. * Behl. (B. herniuidlntolU, Hort.) , 
" ' 1. l»ft«. 12-18 In. lone. »-13 In. 



71. SoeetriMM, Hook. Fig. 215. St. nmiul. stout and 
■Qccnleat, formliift *t the base k number of closelT Hit 

, _. lokles or loppremed 1t«. resembling bulbs : Its. dark 

Teliwd baloir: 111. larga. whlu. Id kiUIut eliuten, grvtm, orbleulkr, pelUte, 4-TIn. >cn»B, center depreaaed, 

.i^<n...,c muvin recurred, crenate : 11a. in terminal lew-tld. 

CTmaa.brigbtroae. B.M.S5G5. Gn.2I;3Z7. On.49:1069. 

B.C. II. 15:8. A.P. 13:587, 688.-Seml-ltibera were 

brooght from the buming hot, aandj^ island of BocMnt 



a the under tide : Hi. b 



, .. a sbint. thisk rhlume 
irlds. peltate, baiir 
ToaHoloied. Max. 

Baalii. BecaL Sea B, LTnl^hean■. Ka. 01. 

W. B.PauISman/CB.manlutaXd) ). St, ihort, tUek : It*. 
large. ollTe-rreea timed with red. deeplr lobed : petlolea large, 
lona. itricied with red : a rinc ol floe bain at the Jonettan of 
inllole and leaf: Ol, ■bondaut, pale pink, large, on lone pe- 
dniides. B,H, lg8g,p.5M.— InCbrBnuntlnlWa. 

•5. PwrtilflU Camet, Wr^lS- Plant, 2-«fl.hl«h,l<«iT: 1™, 
OTata-lanoAolate. aeate-lobed, Hl» on the under tide red : fli, 
is a lai^ clatter ; male* amall. ln*lcnifioant ; femalee large, 
brl^t Ted.earmlne, 2 in. Ions, inolodlng capinle,— Btrlkbu, 

<8, Sdiubriinit, hrhrid (oilBla'not known. B. IMcwalllana, 
Hort.). Fla. Kailac, l«m. 

OuUl. See below B. Feaitll. Mo. G3. 

07. iCifrmija, Llndl, St, s ihort. oreepliijirhiionH: Its. lam. 
eordate'aeaU,lrregalarlj toothed, nnoothaboTe-hairr beneath. 
' <rowii blotehea : fli, inalcnifleant. white. In 



rfeew 



3 1B80. The 



. with porple-br 
•epauule*. He: 



Mft-hifh: iTi.orala.acDmlnale. blood' 

allafaUy BaiiT abore. *-« ln.lona,»-<ln.^._ 

nroftue: aapsolewlnxB equal, pink.— Vary luefnl for deeoi 
Var. Pra.itBBVTtiSaa. Hort,, hai 1ti, of s mnch rioher 



TO, n^nfrml, 



(B,me(am«Xiansuinea), 8t.)ft.blA: 
Lt«, ahlnj, amooth, rleh pnrple, red on tha 
le. Telna promtoeDt: fli, InslKiilfleant, nnal]. mer 
■lander pednnelea. A.F,  "" "^ — " — ' 



7: 728.-KiDiillont. 



, . nder Scott, the gardener 

aocompanjing the eipeditlou to Soeotr* sent oat by the 
Qeogr, Soo. of London. Bemi-tnbers ahoold rest doling 
lummer and be planted in heat in winter. 
The following are Soootiana deri*«tiTeH : 
71, rrtmpka^,I«Hite*{B.SoeotranaXBiBilil). 



Hort. Y\t. 214. St. a tool 
from the base: iTi.illghtlj lobed, eloneated, ovate- . . 

Bi. on Idiue, glender, Eracetol pedanclei. large. In clnitei 
bright red : capiole large, red and ihowr, rery profme. 
Mbrirw, Hort. SeeB.angnlarta, No. 4L 




below. tllTeiT and ahaped. 



InBegoidai. Ajutherhrbrfdn^ — _ 

dt Sane^, with fle. rleh jtilow In tbe eenvu, uud 

osier petati ot a paler hoe.— Int. br Lemoliw In U», 

7t, JbAa' Heal (B. Soeotrana X VlicaniiMsa DoneraHe) , A, 
tnberoDi Tarletr. Plant Intermediate between varanti. B In. 

»._. .. ... . — .,_ ^^ fr^, 1t^ obUqoelj beait- 

Soootraiuti light m — '" "" 



high, brauehing natnr^lr and freely i 

ahaped, not pehate, as In B. Soootranai IL— _ 

looaaly on grasefol pednnelee. atandlng wdl abore the foUags, 
eTSiT stem dsTeloMng mala Bawars, 1>t In- dlam., bright, mar 



, J5:aBL~No(ei 

Hfl, hare been prodniwd from thli bybTld,BO that aeedllngi have 
been Impoaslble. Prop, by oatttnf* and seml-toben. Int. 1^ 
John Heal In ISSS, jlilonli (John HealXtnberoni Tariety). 
Plant man lobnst : lls.twleeai large asJohnHeal,l)n.dlam.. 
all male, loft roaa solar, on graeefol, arching pednnelea.— Int. 
by John Heal, mnttr fftn (B, BoeotranaXe^nuon tobarooa 
rarlaly). HaMt like fi. Soeottana, bnt moie oompaet: lis. 
large, deep eaimlne.— It oomUiias the obsrscters of ttie tnba^ 
oni and ■eml-tnbeRmi aeetlona. Lit. by John HeaL /kto 
(SoBotranaXnibetoiis Taiiety). Tbe plant Is T«iy similar to a 
doable lammeT'aoirBrlDC tabenos Begonia, It kaa Ba. of a 

TS. OMft St Lumiiift (B, SoeotianaXDraeri). I/r*. noall, 
nearly regular, pore green : ds. almost eiiunilTely male, 4- 
petaled, lares, home in bn>ad panielei, eoTeitng the whcJa 
anperlor part of the plant, rose-eolored, not deddnoai. (H. 43, 
p, 101. A.F. 12!812. O.F. B:a4T. -Although B. Soeotrana Is 
■aml-taberoui and B. Dregel haa a thickened rhlume, the hy- 

many ihoota, which can bg eepsrated and Insure the m^t^> 
aatlon ot the plant. Int. by Lunalne In UBS.— Eieallent. 

70. QMn ii Seema (B. SoootranaXiubpeltata). Fir 210. 
Plant itout, half shrubby, erect, Tlgorons. compact, 2 ft. hl^. 
l-t>£ft. Boioai : iTi.darkmebdUevresn. thick, lane, ted be- 
neau, Telna red aboTe. aub-orUcolar, slightly oWque : fls. ho- 
fnie, beautlfiil roee-plok, sUny, (amales none, 71s. tnm Dec 
tillMay. K.H. 1884:610. "" -■"■ '— 
the flbrooi- tooted and se 
and Eetsleer In 1880. A 

Lrt. Intenoedlate botiri. , — 

oblliiQei fls.lnterniedlate,e]ear,deeproae. Fls.allwl 
tanning as oonnsetlng the flbimis-TOOtad and iemi-tniieRna 
aeetlona. Int. by John Heal, of Vetteh A Sons, 1883. JSjfeste 
another hybzld from the same paranti. with 1^^ green iTi. 
and led-oarmine fls-i males and tsmales pnsant. 

III. TtTDBBOna OB SlTIII(IB-n.OWEniHO SSCTIOK 

(Pigs. 217,218,219). 

AA, Sltmlttt, Ici.tpringing dineily from tiiiar. 

B. CoJor of fit, brifht rtd or bnllian' ^carUt. 

77. Dfcvlii, Yeiteh. Stemless : Its. springing direetly 

from a rootstock, orato-eordate, shining green, alightlj' 

b^rf, nnderslde red, petiole short, flesby : peduncles, 

pedicels, and Bh, bright tod. Pem. B,H. ^52. F.H. 

■179:231. Q,C, II. 15:669, -AfftTorite with hybridiata. 

aa given rise to numerous dwarf, erect-habited garden 

irniB, with amall but brightly colored fls. 

T8, Trmbell, A. DC. Stemlass: lTs.iitiiiiQroas,cordat«, 

tumlnate, green, coTered with flesh;, purplish hairs : 

I, Id tall, lax, drooping, branching cymes, brilliant scar- 

t, large. Winter. Ecuador. On. 12,p.37G.-A beauti- 

fui flowering plant, useful for conserTatoiy work In 

winter. B. FraMi vernali,, Hort.. hybrid fPrcobeU x 

Dregei), similar to type. Int, by Deleuil in ISSO, 



.— Intereailug aa « 

u aeotlan*. tnU b) _ 

M IB, SoeotTanaXInalniia). 

U, but larger than ««her. 



Ooior at fU. rott-rtd or wkfd, 

._. Hook. StomlesB : potioleB, . 

bneU, and sUpalfla brigbt red : Its. gr«en, 2-1 In. 



scnea, 



115. BcKonla Socotnu (X H). Ho. T2. 

on atimt, h^ry petioles, 2-6 Id. loDg, orblcalar, reuifonn, 
concave, autrglDH lobed. red, toothed : Qa. 2 la. ftcross, 
rose-red. Peni. B.M. S6Ha.-LlBht aolored acedllDgs o( 
tbia apeclea gave rise to Queen ot Whites, put Into oom- 
meree In ISTS, and destined to be » most Important 
factor In subsequent garden forms of the same color. 



.marglna . 

ated, green, principal veins radiating from a bTlg:ht car- 
mine spot near the center, nnder side pale green; petlolft 
thick, terete pilose: fls. SMin. in dttun^ clnDabar-red : 
capsule smooth, unequal wings. Pern. B.U.6663. F.B. 
22; 3326. —One of ths progeDitors of the Tnberoiu race. 
Int. lg6T. 

S3. OUlaonl, Hort. tB. SidimtxBelivUHti$). 'St. 
flenby, 2 ft. high : Ivg. obllqne, lanceolate, Irregnlarly 
lobed: Bs. large, orange-red, drooping. On. 4:109,— 
Int. bj Veltch In 1870. 

84. CUllksI, Hook. St. porpUsli, fleshy, stoat : Its. 
obliquel; -cordate, aeTrate : Ba. In pendoloaB racemes, 
abundant, large, bright red. BofiTJa. B.H. 56T9.— 
BeaemblesS, Veitckii. It waa the seed parent of VesD- 
vius and Emperor, tiro Important and useful varieties 
for bedding out. 

BB. Color of Hi. rota-red or pink. 

: B. grdHdit, 

.. „. 1, 3 ft. high: 

M-aente, sab-cordate, lobed, marf^ns dendoo- 

late, green above, under aide and peCiolea red, peduncles 
branching, aiilluy: fla. numerous, fleah-colored, large. 
Java, China, Jap.' B.M. 1*73.— A handsome and almost 
hardy species. Int. Id' 18U4 to Eew. Little cult. now. 

86. BaUuumll, Lemolne. Tubers as large as ostrich 
eggs : Ivs. large, orbicular, vltb short, thick petioles: 
peduncles 18 in. high, bearing panicles of 4-6 fls., which 
•re roae-red, 4 -petted, from 3-4 in. across, and fragrant 
aa roses. Bolivia. Qt. 40:1348: 42, p. 25. A.F. T: 561. 
G.F. 5: 7T.~It is described aa plentiful In the moist val- 
leya of the Cordilleras, where it is eaten by cattle. 
Sweet-scented. Distributed by Lemoina in 1890. 

B7. glielUt, H.B.E. (fi. bholor, Watson. S. divenl- 
aiia, R. Orah.). St. erect, not branched, sucou' - 
Ivs. thinly scattered along sts., almost beart-ah 
allghtty hairy, lobed, denticulate, cilinte : fla. on suuci, 
axillary peduncles, pink. Hoi. B.M. 296e.~In axils of 
IvB, between stipalce a cluster of bulbils Is home. 
These may be gathered and sown as seeds. Along with 
Its varieties. annnlAta, dlversilAlia, MartUna, etc., It 
makes a very beautiful summer-flowering greenhoQse 
Begonia. Int. by P. Neil, of Cannon Mills, Edinburgh, 
in 1828. 

88. Ftared, Hook. St. 1 ft. high, iuecnlent, branch- 
ing : Ivs. lanceolate, cordate, acuminate, toothed, gla- 
brons above, lomentose beneath, pale red on under sur- 
face : fls. In loose, aiillary panicles, large, bright yel- 
low. Bolivia. B.M. 5545.-It has been the chief factor 
In the production of the hundreds of yellow, bnft and 
orange-colored garden forms. Int. in 1865. 






(a) The following tuberous -rooted species are not 
known to be in the Amer. trade, but they are in oultlvB- 
tlon in greater or less purity : 

to. nnno&arliM, Hook. Sti. annoal, short, (rean, iliiaa. 
lUchtly dowiv ; Its. on abort vetloles. obliqselj ovate, lobed 



lot. In 1867. 

SO. gnaaloldM, Hook. Stemlesa, rootstock fleshy ; 
Ivs. radical, renitorm, 6 lo. across, lobed and toothed, 
green, hairy, petioles 8 In. long: pedunclea erect, 6-12 In. 
long, reddish, hairy, bearing a lax panicle ot fls., each 
IJiln. across, pure white, with a button-like elnater of 
yellow anthers. Natal. B.M. 55S3.-Planted In a border 
in a sunny greenhouse, tbis is a flue BegoDla, flowering 
profusely daring Oct. and Nov. Int. to Kew In 1866. 

AA. St.preteHl. 

B. Color of fU. etnitabar-rtd, orange-nd, bright rtd or 

tear let. 

81. BoIlTltauli. A. DC. St. herbaceous, succulent, 
2 ft. hl^, branching : Ivs. lanceolale. acuminate, ser- 
rate, 3-6 In. long : fls. In drooping panicles, cinnabar- 
scartet, fachsia-llke ; males twice as large as females. 
Bolivia. B.M. 5697.— Tfae first Tuberous Begonia intro' 
duoed Into England. 1864. 



la Qktira da Scaaux (X H). Ha. 19. 



A.USi. P.U.U; I3G.-Int.br Uaqdo- 



-.-^p IrncialArlr tooth»d. tlnfvd with nd on Ule nndpr Ma : 
pedoBcLM owit, T*A, prodiwlTiiE S p&la n>*«-eolond fl4, Bo- 
IMl B.U. MtT.-liit.bjVeltcbliilBM. 

Bl. (vcIovUfld.Hook. Stemlisit Lti, arbtcnUr, SIn.MKiu, 
|r««n, with flmbriftt«d mbr^n : p«ilanol«« «net. In. lou ! 
01. nH»«oloi«d. with the fcmsnn(e of kuh. ChluL B.H. 
g«2S.-lnt. to Esw Is 18BS. 

ta. BtranmUa. Boot. 8t.lft.blcfa,enet,ii««iiliih ; Wi.tof 
dMe. (abed. umUd. cnan. mftraitu red. whole ptsnt imooth ; 
fli. 3 er 8 an terminal pednnclH. outer petal* Drbicnlir. red i 
ttae two Inner Dbovata. white, '■'■"- B.U. I3S7.— Int. 1833. 

M. NaUMm. Hmk. 8u. fleahy. annnal. 1-2 ft. hl^ : In. 

H. Ktopitala, L'Her. (B. irandlllanL KddwI. * Wett). 
BtemliHi, In. long. •n«nlenC. downy, petlolei IX ft. Ions, oar- 
date, deeply lobed and wmttWI. bilMl inen: Hi. siBeDlab 
white, muee with B petala. femalea cenerallx fewer. Pern. 
B.H.BUe. F.S. 30: t09S^. A.F.4:3:S (Var.LuBoliud). 



Ch^la 



daoedfromilxipMlea ; ria., B. Bolivitntit, B. Ptarett, 
B. VtUtMi. B. rMBflera, B. Daeitii, Mid B. Clark**, 
by bdmiIdk and nicroMliiit : 

(1} BIKOLK-FLOWKRBD VARIETIEB. 

a. CuiisoiiSANDS<;xu.nii.— Jdnurotion.lla.TlTli 
•earlet, of dn-arf. eompaet hahlt. free flowering : 

BalUt, rlih, TSlTeti vertnlUoB ; Dr. Maiteri. Hi. lai 

Immenae iplkea, deep nd-?rlnuan : Fr E. Lainu, deep, rel- 
TBty cdiTiHii), fall and free : Ifrr. BnuMtti, deep, alowlng 
erlnuon i LtUiaiT, dark •earlet-earmlM : aearttt Htm, very 
dark Marleti dwarf, and Terr florlfenni i FsnniH, bri^t 
oiaiice-Karlet,eompHitaiidnM; on* of thafliiMt liedden. 

b, BOBi -COUnKD.^Lc^ O u int kor p t, nttaaloT, axtra larte 
and flue t Jfarvtnota, tarie, rannd da., white, with a maivln 
of brkkt pink ; Ftut*, aoft, row nd. ihaded U^t mMi 
Btautttad Surrrlt*, deep nne, *erT larie. 

a, Whitu.— AttaNM6riiibi,allne.larfe,poi«whlUtlown, 
wUh fringed petal* I Baley IFAtU, inlnimenae Bower of the 
p«ie*t whtl* i JTn. J. Thmv*. white, Che petal* edged with 
reddlih lake; Quimet WkiUt. large, ereet, piore white Us. 
of great (nbttanoe i MvmneU. pni* white, very free. 

d. Okahoi txo YiujOWB.— Dudkw of LtbttUr. orang»- 
boff, large, enot fli. i Ilia A. <U AoIAmUU, pore yellow : Bottr- 



a. Ion 



t, by FrsbSbi 

te, WBTT, filiate 
«lSln 



e-peUled : femele* imaller, B-petaled, reddlih. Conntr] 

koowo. B.M.418L-lnt.to Birmingham BoC.Oar.ln1»t4 

»7. Sidtai, Hort., hybrid (B. BolMemliXVeitehUI), 

loo». pale green ; fli. wUtarti brilliant red : female* 

Etal*; male* of S petal*. R,H.1ST2:M).— Int. by Thiban 
iWleer In 1813. 
98. SiltlitrlandH. Hook. St. annnal. herbaceon*, 1-3 Ft, 



green, with red ti 
Backhonae In 1IM7 



and margin : 



>;atal. B.U. M8S.- 



Lsdy Intereatlng a* 



Ceylon. B.M 

(aa) TbefolIowlnellaCfomprlseaaomeofthebeE't 
most dietlnct o( tbe innumerable Kardea forms and 
brids now existing, which have almost all been | 



ri4fn, rlfih golden yellow, very free, and ereeUent In every 
way; 7VirT(vi>iHntr,rBddl>lionage-yellaw,annnnnalaolor. 

(2) DOOBLKFLOWBRBD VAEIKTIEa. 

a. Cbihsons AMD SCAKLITS.— CaTwll't Oem. bright sear^ 
let ; i>ondu. IntenMly bright war lei, extremely free-floweringi 
Flamingo, brilliant scarlet; AnuAdu Aiuriil *earlet, one of 
the belt i Triompht. rich, bright erlmaon ; Duti ZtpptUti, 
daoling *carlet fli.. new. 

b. RoaE.<x)u}EiD,— A UkEf/IoTD. bright raayeolae. dietlnct: 
Dukeof York, deep rose: Olorv °/ ^UiMlMd, *oft rose, light 
renlsT ; Hacla, bright, (listening pink, free bloomer i Shut 
Horn, ro*e-plnk, luge, broad, wavy petal*. 

c. WHIT18.— OowbWm et Oravn, pur* white fl*., dwarf; 
Mitt Edilft Wipini. pore creamy while ; Octarir, pure white 
bloesoma, rery Horlferoiu ; PicaUr, dellcste white, pink mar 
gin, dwarf; Pr<n«H Jf Of, pure white, undolaled orerlmpled 

d. YiLutns.— JLodv Baltmr of JttiTleiaK large yellow fli.. 
erect : Miss Falamer. elear yellow : Ifra. Segruirl, chnirae- 
yellow, petal* prettily undulated ; Aliiv Manninii. prlmroee- 



B Obhai<ei(tal-i,kavii> Sectio; 



«t my, tliig*d with red on the otideT tide : fli. lMg«, 



101. iMlnUta, Roib. St. perennUI ; ha. roondlr 
oTate. lobed, pabeacent, black-purple, with ft broad lODe 
of greeii, reddlib on the under aide :_fls. fts i^_S, ^*- 



BELLADONNA ULT 



TBTbiWU. Jiiudv (TIsHiHi liTSTTiliii liar, but man Tteoioiu, 
wlui the blotehM mora nnmannu and battar dliMbMed. 
JTanruii d< PeraUa. Im. nnall, margliu h^ir, Dnmaroua 
■Unrr apota on anrfaea. Compact, danae grower. Datlntn A 



102. xuthhiA, Hook. Similar to 5. Sex, and probably 
only a form at that species : Iva. large, fleaby, oordate- 
ovate, acuminate, ainnate-elllated, dark green above, 
purplish beoeath ; fls. yellow : capsule with one large 
wing. B.H. 4683.-7ar. ploUlAlla, Hort., fi.H. 51IK. 
Var. Linll, B.H. eiOT. 

103. StS, Pnti. Fig. 220. St. a short, fleshy rbiiome, 
from wliich spring the long-atalked, large, ovate, wavy 
Iva., which are hairy and colored a rich metallic green, 
with a lone of silvery grey; peduncles erect ; fls. large, 
rose-tinted, matea 2 in. across, with 4 unequal petals ; 
femalee ainaller. with G nearly equal petals : ovary 3- 
angled, with 2 short and 1 long wing. Assam. F.S. 
]2:iaUS-1258. B.H. GIDI.-This magnificent species is 
the principal parent In the production of tbe numeroua 
omament«l-fo!lBiged Begoniaa. It has been crossed 
with a few species la the Hrat place, and tben hybrid 
seedlings have been raised attain and again from tbe 
progeny. Fig. 220 ia a cop; of a part of the original fig- 
ure to Flore dea Serrcs (1S57|, and Is given here for tbe 
parpoae of showing what this specie.i was like when lint 
known to horticulturists. 

Following are some of the derivative types of Bez 
Begonias: 

IM, Ray.iiK«liir tiybriOi. I.R.2a:4M. Mad. Jai. Kcmi, 
silveiT white, with gnea articulalloDa lowanla the marains, 
and a (nan disc. Vnd. Choi. Wibtr. greru. sinlMd with wHlta. 
Mad- a. Fan Mmerbttki, illTBrr, with a narrow Enen edge, and a 
eantral green diie running out along the vein*. Soud. dt Mad. 
la Barotu dt BUiekradrr, disc and brosd marjciD dowur creen, 
eential portion silvery. Jfod. FMiwk, disc and hroad margin 

'■-htapdls-graaB.lnt— -"-• " — " " ' "-' — 

-'arkgr 



dlMsdarl 

Mdy. Hmri Vtivmin. Frit. Belief Sir jotpti Hoektr. 'EdTPy- 
tta*n,Pru.a*UtDndnMy*,MaA.F.A.Uaatitrt,Abtl Carriirt. 

118. SazXdlndHu kybridt. R.S 
iMmdii, T«7 similar to B. Rsi. 



_. but larger leaved, jdr^fli 
scjiBtuH, arBen on uie marvns, marlced SJid spotted aiUcr In 
tbe center. OUmmHoo, iobea very acute, while blotchei In 
eenter. Jfod. Aiama4fnv. Ivs. vtry larBe, deeply' lobed, pure 
meullle-whlie, witb a nwu center. Mad. IiabtlU Btllm. 



S?.^ 



.d nurglD. Others are Tlttodnrt ScJimidt, Bnu 

Domirt, Liai*, PapiiUm, Mad. D. WttUMtn, D. IF((Ut(in, A 
DaUUn. MaA. Oeorau Bniant, Wiltulnt FfiUtr. 

IM. RaXSoeolraTui. . 
iTi. like B. Rei. but wl(h~aVori«r pe'lTofei 



u been produced which cc 



saier. Plant a^d to be evergreen. —InterAttlngha a < 



ik between tbe Rex ai 



J Reihrbridsfl 



■n origin i Stx Imp- 



to B. Hbi. bnt much IsTger. F.B. 18; 131T.-Iol, br Van Houlle 
In iwe. Orondia (ReiXiplendida). Verj similar lo B. Rei. 
y.8.13:t»0.-Int.b7RolH»on, WM J-Dr.In- IReiXimiierialis), 
I>wr. habit ; lv>. obtiqnel7 eordale, dark green, marbled with 
sHverr greriih green: As, greenlvb white. InconBt^lr-aoas. 
Miranda (EieiXIniiieTialll.vai.imanicdIna). Very aimUBrto 



6;I05. PriTiBI TroubfUtoi. 



ri Lotiitt Erdodv iJ 



twisted In a splnl manner, with aa n 
asrface ailverT. wilh veins deep grHU : 
piloaa, I,B.B1:51S. n.C.II.»:!»-Ir 
deoei to CoDut Erdodj. a Bongarisn ni 
1<W. Other 



nncertaln origin -. 



niODotypic genus, containing an do 

intereatlng hardy, herbaceous 
perennial plant, which is an old gsrden favorite. Tb« 
flrat of the popular names comes from the clusters of 
shining, black, roundish aeeds, and the second from the 
flower, which iBoraoge, spotted red. It Is more commonly 
sold as a Pardsnthua, which also means Leopard Flower. 
Perianth segments oblong, the 3 inner slightly shorter 
and spirally twisting as tbey-fade. Prop, by seeds or by 
division. Of easy culture lii rich, sandy loam and in a 
sunny place. Commonly spelled Belanuwnda. 

OUntillll, Leman, (Balamednda punelila, Moeneh. 
Iria Chininiii, Linn. Parddnlhtii Chin^Htii. Ker- 
Gawl. P.5(>i/)Mia,VanHoutte), Fig,222. Height 2-3 ft. ; 
rootstock a short, aloloniferoua rbiiome : Iva. about 8. in 
a Isi tuft, equltant, striate, l-l^i ft. long, 1 in. broad : 
outer apathe valves J4-1 in, long; padleels 1-2 In. long: 
capsule 1-lKin, long; valves refleiing, persistent. 
ChinaandJap. B.M.ITI. F.S. 16:16!t2. L,B,C. 19rl8/4. 
—The seed-stalks are sometimes used with dried grasses 
for decoration. It is said that the birds sometimes mis- 
take tbe seeds for blackberries, 

BELLFLOWEB. See Campanula. 

BEIXAD0H5A. See Alnpa. 

BELLADOflBA ULT. See .dmaryllja. 



BtUIB (UUd, btlluM, prstty). CmnsMta. End- 
USH Daibt. The Daliy, as It powi wtid in Englud, 
hki k yellow eenter. MnmniDded br nimiBrout imyi Id b 



■Ingle TOW, bat the (avoTlte onltl rated fomu are double, 
the rays lialng In tier npon tier, and freqaenCly erowd- 
iag out every trace of a yellow ceoter. The English 
Daisy is eesEntlally a pink or pinkish d. In Its general 
effect, the tip* of the rays sometimes and the under 
■orfaces usually being pink or red. There are 27 species 
In the ffenoi, octy one of which Is American. B, inttg- 
rifolia In fauod In moist soil from Kj. and Teuu. to 
Ark. and Tei., but Is too rare and sectional to become a 
general faTorlte. The plant that is most eommonly 
called Daisy In America la Cliryianthemum Ltuean- 
themum. For an Illustrated account of the various 
plants known as Daisies In America, sec Daiijf. 

Daisies are favorite border planli, and are much used 
In sprlDK beddlDK. especially fur eiljclaR. The; thrive 
In a cool soil and moist atmosphere, and are, therefore, 
tnnch better adapted to English than American gar- 
dens. A light mulch is desirable for winter protection. 
Id home gardening, the plants, after flowering, are di- 
vided Into single crowns. These are planted about S in. 
apart in good, rich garden soil. Each crown soon sends 
ont side growths, which, in time, form new crowns. 
Before winter sets in the young clumps can be moved 
r«adily to any place In the nrden where they are 
wanted to bloom. Daisies are sMo forced by florists for 
«inl«r bloom. When Daisies are desired for eclxlug 



and are placed 3 In. apart In a narrow trench. Tlwsv 

edgings must be renewed each year, as the plant*. If 
they grow well, spread too wide, or irregnlarly. In dij 
summers many roots ti^l, and U they remain in the 
same spot year after year, the lis. will degenerate U 



single Donditlon. 

The almple^t way o( propa;, „ „ = - = 

llah Daisies for spring bedding in tbls conntry la t 



I growing Eng- 



1 In shallow boxes aboat August 
■oon as large enoagh to handle, transplant S inches 
apart Into ooldframes, and when the winlsr eels In 
put on the sash, giving air wheuerer the weather may 
be mild. Transplant to the flower beds as early at pos- 
sible In the spring, where In a Tery short tune they 
will be a mass of hloom, and will continne to bloom till 
the beginning of June, when they ahonld be thrown out, 
and the summer bedding plants 
planted, Longfello . s . .. 

purpose. Jfyosofij 
Siltnt pendHla ma. 
same way, using 
edging when Id t1i< 
Others as center pie 
The Daisy Is prop 
(which are sown eai 
visions, the cbolcei 
ing maintained by th 
The main typee gi 
are the while, toh 
white wltb red 
center, all of 



less comnron. Of 
kinds prop, by 
seed, Longfellow I 

colored .and Snowba 

ety, the latter beln 
especially prised h 
florists for cut-flo* 
ers, as It has lon| 
stiff stems. Othc 



Boy, which la p«] 
haps the Iwst red. 

pntnalt, Linn 
Tana oh Ekolib 
Djiist. Hardy herbl 
ceons perennial, 3- 
In. high : Its. elm 
tered at the Tool 
spatnlate or obovatt 
fls. 1-2 Id. acroei 
solitary, on hair 
scapes. Apr.-Jnni 
W. En.; naturalise 
Id Catlt. : rarely n 



S. 6;SS4,w 

and-Chlckeua Daisy," in which a number of smatl fl-- 
heads are lionie on short stalks springing oat of the 
main fl.-head. Cockscomb farms, In which several 
■capes unite to produce a mouBtrouB flower, are some- 
times seen, hut cannot be perpetuated. The rays are 
sometimes wholly iDcurved, or refleied, or quilled. 
Other EDgllsh names of the Daisy are Herb Margaret. 
Ewe- or Uay-gowan, Chlldlnjr Daisy, Bone- or Bruise- 
wort, Bone Flower, March Daisy, Bairn -wort. 

J. B. KiLLiK. E. J. Canhinq, and W. H. 



•prlng flower beds, the clumps are divided Into single 
plants during the previous September, or early enough 



xi get a flrm hold before w 



IT StnuaB Ctpbus. See Sothia. 



BEBl. SeeSetamum. 



jaibRe. 



BERBEOIS 



153 



Se« Caryoptarii XaitacatMMt. 

BUHOABA (name of an lUllBii nobletnui). Otttur- 
hUieaa. One BpeeleB from E. Ind. Aimaal, numlDg, 
■qouh-Uke herbs, with aoUtuy yellow mODieelous fla. 
the itunlnate lonK-psdiuicled, the plattUate ceul; aea 
Bile ; ooioU* deeply lotted ; tendrllB 2-3-bruiched. 

tuOun^ SkTl. Fig. 223. Wax Qourd. Zit-kwa 
Cbinub PBBSBBTiNa Hn»H. Chinsbi Watbrmilon. 
Vine loDg, like a maakmelou, hidry, with cordate lobed 
It*.: fr. mostly oblong, 10-16 In. long, hairy, whlM- 



WBxr, with solid wMta flesh and small, oacnmber-Iike 
Baeas. Colt, the same as mnskmelon or onerunber. 
R.H. 188T:G40.-BeeeDlly lot. into the U. B. (Ball. ST, 
Cranell Exp. &t«>), and Dsed for making preserves and 
Bweet pickles ; s^d to be eatee raw in warm coontrles. 
L. H. B. 
BEBJAltnt BDBH. £eiuoin odoH/wvM. 

BIBT GBABS. See AtrotHi. 

BBMIHAIOA. Referred to Comu: 

BtlZOXB (of Arabic or Semitic origin, meaning a 
gom or perfame). Syn-, lAndira. JJanrAcga. Trees 
or shrubs, aromatic ; Ivs. alternate, usually deciduous, 
emtire or sometimes 3-[obed \ fls. polygamous-dlcecious, 
l4>eta]ons, small, lo axillary, umbel-llke clusters ; calj^ 
•-parted : staminals fls, with S stamens : fr. a berry. 
About 60 species In trop. and E. Asia and N. Amer. 
Some B. Asiatic Bpeoles yield an odorons oil, need In 
perfumery. Only a few deciduous species are cult. 
They are attractive on account ot their handsome (oU- 
Bge, which turns bright yellow in fall, and their black 
or scarlet fr. The hardiest species Is B. odorittnim, 
thongh B. obtusilobum and B. \ypoglaucun may also 
be grown north lu sheltered positions. They thrive best 
in peaty and sandy soil. Prop, usually by seeds sown 
after maturity; also by layers, which root best In peaty 
soil ; of greenwood cuttings under ^Isss, one-half may 
be expected to root. The Benioln of the druggists Is a 
balsamio resin obtained from Styrax Semoin. 

OdOIIIaraai, Nees (Lindlra Bfntoin, Blume). Spicb 

BOBB. BmiAHlK BUBU. WlUJ AlXSFICE. FXVIB BUBH. 

Fig. 224. Shrub, S-IQ ft., nearly glabrous : Ivs.oblong- 
oh«vate, finely dilate, bright green, pale beneath, 3-B In. 
long: fls. yellow, before the Ivs.; berry red, oblong, 
■picy. N. Eng. southward and west to Kana. Em. 366. 
—The bark is aromatic, stimulant, tonic, astringent. 

S. atOviU, Nhs— B. odoiUenuii.— B. grAtOt. O. EoDtie 
(DaphnUlnm craclla. Nee«). Lvi. ovate, B-nerved. eharU- 
"-'-■■-■ — ' " -' — ". hupaBlaHtum. 



BBBBXBID6PtI8 (from B^bwrit and Qreek optU, 
likeness), Berbtridicta. Climbing evergreen Bhrub : 
Its. alternate, petloled, dentate : &a. on lans pedicels in 
terminal racemes ; bracts, sepalB and petals gradually 
passing Into one another, 0-15, the Inner ones concave ; 
stamens S-9 : fr. a berry. One species in Chile. Orna- 
mental low-cllmblng shrub, with deep green foliage and 
crimson fls. In drooping racemes, for temperate regions 
or the cool greenhouse, growing In almost any soil. 
Propag, by seeds bdwd In spring, by greenwood cuttings 
In spring, or by layers in autumn. 

oorBlllnB, Book. Lvs. cordate, oblong-ovate, eoarsaly 
splnulo lie -dentate, 2-3 In. long : fls. globose, over bi In. 
long, crimson, In many-fld. leafy racemes. B.U. G313. 
'■■8- 20=2137. Ai^nizn BBHD.B. 

BfiBBEBIS (Arabic name). BirbtriiUcea. Bab- 
BBBB7, Shrubs, with yellow inner bark and wood, ofl^D 

r' ly: IvB. alternate, often fasciculate, uslially glabrous, 
pie or pinnate, deciduous or perBlstont, mostly spln- 
nlose-deniate : fls. In racemes, rarely umbellate or soli- 
tary i sepals, petals and stamens 8 ; fr. a 1-celled berry 
with one or several oblong seeds, Nearly 100 species la 
America from Brit. Col. to Patagonia, Asia, Eu,,andN. 
Afr. Low ornamental shruba, of which a large number 
18 cultivated. Most of the deciduous species are quite 
Eardy, while the evergreen ones are 1« he recommended 
for more temperate regions, except B. AqaUolittm and 
B. rrpent, which may be cultivated even north in some- 
what sheltered positions. Both evergreen and deciduouB 
kinds are very attractive In sprinic, with their bright or 
orange-yellow fls., and in fall with their red, dark blue 
or nearly black fruits. Some, as B. AmurenaU and B. 
Thunbergii, while amonKst the handsomest in fr., 
assume a splendid fall coloring. They grow in almost 
any soil, but prefer drier situations ; the evergreen 
species thrive best la a sandy compost of peat and 
loam. Prop, by seeds sown soon after maturity, or 
stratified and bowu In spring ; even B. Bulgarii, var. 
atropvrpurea , may be Increased In this way, as a large 
percentage comes 
true. The evergreen 
species grow from 
cuttingB In Septem- 
ber, placed In sand 
nnder glass. Host of 
the deciduous species 
can be grown from 
greenwood cuttings, 
taken from forced 
plants In spring and 
put under glass with 
slight bottom heat. 
Layers put down In 
autumn usually re- 
main 2 years before 
they can be sepa- 
rated : 

may be propagated by 
suckers. Rarer kinds 
and varieties are 
sometimes grafted on 
B.vulgarti or Thtin- 
August 



Habitat i 

Behd. (Undara hTPOBhineB. Uai 



rst™ 



with oi 



Lvs. penninem 



. Blsu- 



black. Japan.— B.msluiiUUun.Nees. AlUedloB.odorlfenmi 
Branehes tmbascCDt : Ivi. oblons. dowu beneslb. 8. states 
B.M. HTO.— B. ottiuaobmn. O. Kontse. tvs, B-nerved. ovaleoi 
»^k>bed: shisters mau-Ud.-. berries blank. Jspan. Q.F.t.lK 
S. pri^oQZ, 8. A Z. Lvs. pennlnerved, eUlptlc -oblong : cloB 
tars tew-lld.. baton the lvs,: benies brownish. K'n. diam 
J^wa.— B, wrldsuni. S. A Z. Lvs. pennlnerved. pubescent be 
aeath ; closteiB many-lid., with the Iva. Jspan. 

AliTBin RlHDEB. 



and the Inner bark 




for dyeing yellow^. 
Some species have 
medicinal properties, jj^ BBn»ln 
In wheat-gTowmg ^,^,,„,„ 

districts, planting of ouonienim 

Berberis should be 
avoided, as It Is the 
host of the ^^etdium -stage ot AtceJnla graminit, a fun- 
gus which causes the wheat-mst. Destroying the Ber- 
beris, however, will not check the propagation of the 
fungus, as it is able to grow and to spread for years 
without forming the .d^cidteM-stage. Monogr. of spe- 



dee cult. In England In Flore de* SerrM, S: U mnd 7S 
(1860-1). 

Indax : Amnraniii, No. 2 ; AqnifoUom. 21 ; uiatata, 
IG; upenDft,l; atropantDraft,! : £«alff, 19; buxlfoUk, 
9; CuudeniU, 1; Carotiuiana, i; Darwliil, U; dnieli, 
1, IP ; emarglnMa, 3; Fornuel, 31; Fremond, IT; Hako- 
daU, 2 j hetflTopoda, 6 ; iliclfolla, 11, 14 ; InWffrlfoUa, 
T ; JuDBioQl, 13, 16 ; ' " ' " "" " -' '-' " 



; Japonic*, 2, 19 ; Mailmoirieil, 8 



inUre, 1-2 In. lonf : 
ai long a« the f— 
ihort-OTal or ae 
'The plant aold ii 
thli name la nmall; B. vulfarii. 

S. atntntll. Deaf. From 4-6 ft., with alender, often 
arebing bnncheg and anull, 3-4-pBrted aplnea : lTa.«a- 
neate, oblong or obovate-laiie«olate, ooaraely aetiiloiK- 



2)3. B*(b«ia vulgaria, Ic 

Nepalenila, 20 : turroea, 22 ; Nenbenl, 14 ; pinnata, 
18 ; plmiflora, S ; repena, 23 ; Sitbotdi, 2. and aappl. 
lUt : Slnenali, G : Btenophjlla, 10 ; Tbanbergl, 8 ; vul- 
garU, 1 ; Watlichlana, i:i. 

A. Lvl. limpla, uiiialJji tateiculale In rk< aiilt Of 

*}>i(M«, dtciduovt or ptriiiUM. 

9, Faliagt dceidiioiu .- lei. MeniraBiiCMtf or 

0. FU.tnrae»m«t. 
D. Branelu* gray.txetpttltOMtonXtpitTplt-ltavtd 

1. TnlgtrlB, I.lnn . CouvoN Bajibebbt. Tig. 225, 226. 
Tittm 1-8 ft., rarely IS; branches grooTed, nprlgbt or 
arehlug ; Its. oblong -ipathulate or obovate, aetolJie- 
dentate, nieiiibraoac«oua, 1-2 In. long : nwemei pendn- 
loaB, manr-Bd.; fla. bright yellow : rr. oblong, aanallr 
purple. Hay, June. £u. to E. Asia : escaped from eal- 
tareandnatanlliedinE.N.Amer. On. a5:683.-Uand- 
arane In aprlnKr with Ita golden yellow fls. and light 
green foliage; and In fall, with Its bright scarlet fruits, 
remaining through the whole winter. A very viriable 
■pecles ; also the six following speclei are Ineladed by 
aome botanUtfi ai varieties. Of tbe many garden forms, 
the most effective la Tar. atropoipbraa, Bgl., with pur- 
ple colored Its. Ot. 9:278,1. There are also varletieB 
With variegated Iva. and purplish black, whitish or yellow 
berries, aa var. ilba, whfte-fru 

less ; var. dUoll, leas acid ; ti __.. _. _. 

Tar. mltis, leas thorny : var. nigra, black-fmlted ; 
TioliMa or btota-TloUMO, tIo let-fruited. The spinet 
of tbe Barberry are, morpholofclcally, Its., and the Itb. 
are borne on sbon branches in their axils (Fig. Z2fl). 
The stamens are aensltlve. Touch the fllaments with a 
pin when the Ss. Brut open, and the atamena fly for- 
ward upon the pistil. 

2. Amnrtnili, Rupr. (B. vulgiti; var. Am\n4*tU, 
Rgl. ). Three to S ft. : branches Btraight.upright, grooved: 
Its. cuoeate. oblong or elliptic, densely dilate -dentate, 
distinctly veined beneath. 1-3 In. long: racemes upH^t 
or nodding, 6-12-fld., about as long aa IvB. ; fr. oblong, 
BcarlHl. Manchuria, N.China. Gng. 6: 119. Var. Ja- 
pAnlea, Behd. {B. vulgirit, var. Jap6nica, Rgl. B.Sii- 
k]IiIt,Hort.,notMiq. B. BakodAU.-Kon.). Lvs. firmer 
and more chartaceous, prominently veined beneath. 
Bhorler pelloled, dark green above. Jap. G.F.3:219a« 
B. SieboMi. A.Q. 18: 451. — Vigorous-growing sbmba, 
standing draught well, with brilliant orange and scarlet 
fall-coloring, especially the variety. 

3. eittftrgiilltt*, Wind. One to 3 ft., In culture UBually 
higher : spines simple to 6-parted, sometimes longer 
than tbe IvB. : Ivs. cuneate, obovate or obovate -oblong, 
aetulose -dentate, H-i% In. long : racemes short, up- 
right ; petals naually emarglnate. S. Eu. to HlnuJ.— 
Low spiny shrub with handsome fall-coloring. 

DD. BraneJiti rtddith brown or bmtcn : Ivi. Hsuafly 
tparttly dentate, lomelimea entire. 

4. Cuud«nab, Hill. (,B. (7an)linidi>a,Loud.). One lu 
S ft. : spines small, 3-parted ; Its. cuneate-oblong, re- 



1.^ in. long : racemea pendnlons, slender-pednncled, 
brl^t or pale yellow ; berries oval or oblong, blood-red. 
Ftom CaneasQS to Hlmal. and China. B.M. 6573.— A 
budy, graceful species, very handsome In fruit. 

6. kMMftpodft, Bchrenk. Three to 6 ft. : branches 
atont, spreading, with few short spines ; Its. broadly 
obovate, entire or remotely serrate, pale bluish green, 
lK-2 in. long, some short and some jilender-petioled : 
fls. In long-stalked. few-9(t. racemes, orange-yellow, fra- 
grant; fr. oblong, dark blue with glaucous *-' " — 

Turkestan, Songaria. Q.P. 8:455.- — 
very dlatinn:) ipeclei. 



T. InUgmrin*, Bnnge. In habit and appearanoe very 

'"-- "- " --' ^"Icult to. disttDgntsb wftbont O.-otas- 

and brown : Iva. broad-obovate, re- 



like No. 6, and d 



motely dentate or entire, dark bluish green abo 
oemes dense and upright. Perala, Turkestan, Bongoria. 
CC. FU. uinaUy tolitarg. rarely in fev-fld. umbeln 

Ivi. entire. 

8. ThAnbOTgU, DC. Flga. 227, 228. Dense, low a^b, 

S-4 ft. : branches spreading, deeply grooved, brown, 

with simple aplnes ; Its. oboTate or spaunlate, quite en- 

" 9, glaueasoent beneMh, K-lHin. long: fls. 1-3, pale 



Oug.l;21I; G;119,353,355. Hn.,2;llg. A.F.e:G28.- 
One of the most valuable species, especially remarkable 
for Ita low, dense, boriiontal growth, its large, brilliant 
red trs. , remaining freah till the following spring, and tbr 
Its hrlsht scarlet taJI-eol- 



BB. Foliagt ecergreen or Malf.tvei 
C. Lvs. entire, or rarely loifJi few ipiny teetX. 
9. bnxittlia, Poir. (B.dilcii. Sweet). One to 3 ft.: 
iranche» brown, grooTed ; spines usnally 3-parted, 
.hart : Its. caneatc. obovate or elliptic, H-^n. long : 
Is. solitary, on long pedicels, orange yellow : fr. nearly 



BERBERI8 



155 



tfobcM, blMikish purple. Hay. Chile to Strait of H>- 
gelln. B.M. asoe. S.B.F.O. Ik 1: 100. Pntl. IS; 171 
-*A very gncflful, ti^e-Howaring nhrub ; one of tb* 
hurdleM of the evergreen ipeoleB ; will Btuid the win 
ter eren north If somewhat protoctod. 

10. Itenophjlla, Hut. (B. Ddmini x tmpttrifdHa). 
Height 1-3 ft., with Blender, ■rching bnuicheB.: Iva, 
nuTow-oblong, revolat« at the m'arglnB, splBf pointed, 
M-IH in. long, dark green above : &a. 2-6, In pedntt- 
filed, pendolooB nmbelH. Of garden origin. Ha;. " " 
m. 7:619. A.F. 6: 325.— Handsomo shrub, nearly aa 
lurdj aa the former. 

CO. Li)», coartety apiny dmtatt. 
D. Ftt. Ih timpt* Toeemtt or eltttUn. 

11. OiolUUK, Font. HoUy-laarral. Lva. phrtlall; ever- 
graen, penlstlng till late In winter, Bhlning dark green, 
ovate, tapering at baee, coanely Bpiny-toothed : pedioela 
■hort, 4-Bd., somewhat eorymbose ; fla. oran^-yellow. 
Terra del Fuego. B.H. 4308. F.8. 3:291. 

12. DirvM, Hook. Height 1-3 ft.: branches brown, 
pobeBoenl wben young : Ivb. sessile, enneate, obovate, 
naually 3-fld at the apei, gloMy dark green above, X-1 
In. long: racemes short, many-fld., pendulous; tla. 
orange-yellDw, oft«n reddish oatside : Btyle longer than 
the ovary : fr. duk purple. Chile to Patagonia. B.H. 
4fieo. P.S. 7:663. P.F.Q, 2:46. 

13. WamBlkIinm,DC.(9.J^d)Hi!iiin{,Hort.,notUndl.]. 
Sbmb, tA 10 ft., with grayish brown branches : spines 
3-pan«d, nearly an Inch long : Ivb. BesaUe, ablong-ellip- 
tte or lanceolate, remotely spiny serrate, shining on both 
aides, 1-2 in. long : fla. long-pedlcelled, nodding, 3-6 in 
selnater. Himalayas. B.H. 4656. P.F.6. 1:79. 

14. Sabbertl, Lem. {B. ilieiKlia, Hort., rfol Porst. 
B. Aquifilium x vulgirii). Blanches grayish brown, 
without spines, nprigbt : Ivs.' simple, oval or ovate, 
■ometimes with 1 or 2 emaller lateral Ifta., soiny or 
•etalose-dentue, dark grayish green above, lM-3 in. 
Ions: fls. in racemes. Of garden origin. ' " ' ■" 

a.C. I" " 



3. III. 9:73. 75.-Hardy north, I 



s. not persistent. 




VB. Berberis TbiinbcrsU. 



. FU. 1 



AA. Lvi. ptnnatt, pariiitenl: branthel Ipintlait. 

{Mahimia.j 

B. PtHottt ihort or ainoit none. 

O. Baeemtt ftn-fld., tlender, matlly lattrat. 

17. Trtawnti, Torr. From 5-12 ft.: Ifts. 3-7, rigidly 

torlaeeous, ovate or oblong, with few strong, spiny teeth, 

rUooons, dnll, S-1 In. long: rwemes loose, »-T-fld.; 



319. 1 



nlXX). 



pedleelB slender: fr. at least Hia. in diam., red. In- 
flated, and nther dry. W. Texas to Utith and Hex. 
Q.F. 1:497. — Remarkable for its pale, glaneona follag* 
and large berries. Not hardy north. 

cc. Bactmtt mann  fid., donte,' 

18. pinnkU, Lag. (Makinia faiciculirit. DO.}. Tw» 
to 3 ft. : IflB. 6-17, OTste or ovate- lanceolate, eoriaeeoui, 
nndnlate at the margin and with few spiny teeth, dark 
green, Bomewbat shining: fls. In abort,fascioled racemes; 
fr. bine. Calif., N. Hex. B.H. ^396. B.B. 9:702.-Not 
hardy north. 

la. JKpfrnlea, Spreng. ( JT. Japinica, DC. B. BialU, 
Fort.|. Height S-IO'^.: Ifts. 9-13,. roundish or ovate, 
'coriaceous, usu^tty truncate at the base, with large,'re- 
mote, ipiny teeth. 2-9 in. long : raoemes 3-4 In. long, 
fascicled: fr. bluish black. China, Japan. B.H. 4846, 
4852. P.F.Q. 1:1]. F.8. 6:79.-VBry elfecUve by Ita 
large foliage, thriving beat, like the other Habonhu, Id 
a partly shaded position. Hardy north to New Tock in 
aheltered positions. 

I, Spreng. (fi. JapSniea, Hort.). Tall, 



. Pitiolii 



. Lttt. I 



or tlongaitd. 



indcd I 



t tki . 



21. AqnilAllnm, Pursh {MaXbnia AqHinUvm, Nntt.). 
Fig. 229. From 3-6 ft.: Ifts. 5-9, oblongoroblong-ovate, 
shiny dark green above, splnulose-dantate : raceme* 
erect, fascicled: berries blue, -small. May. British Co- 
lumbia to Ore. B.R. 17:1125. L.B.C. 1S:1T1S. P.U.B. 
V: 6.— Handsome evergreen shrub, hardy north In'shel- 
tered positions. 

22. serrAaa, Pursh. Dwarf evergreen shrub : sts. but 
a few inches higb, tipped with long, bask-like, pointed 
bud-scales : irta. 11-21, lance-ovate, 3-fi-ribbed, remotely 
spiny -toothed, borne on a xtrongty Jointed stalk: ra- 
oemeselongated, erect: fr. oblong, blue. Ore. B.H. 3949. 
L.B.C, 18:1701. F.S. 3:127. P.H. 7:55, as MafionUt 



compound, ptndvloui raetmtt. 

15. Mlftito,DC. Bnah,2-«ft.: IvB. oblong,seml-per- 
•istent, nsually splnose-dentat«, 1-3 in. long : fls. in 
long-pednncled, componnd racemes. Himalayas. B.B. 
9:729. 

16. Jlnewnl, Lindi. Shrub, much branched : Ivs. 
oblong, 2-3 In. long, with few large and strong spines : 
fls. orange. In drooping panicles oreomponnd racemea. 
Seoador. I.E. 6:201. 









fr. like the former. Brit. Call 
Calif, and N. Hex. B.B. 14:1176. L.B.C. 19:1847. 
CO. Lftt. euntnte at bai*, tmrroic-lanceolal*. 
24. 76rtuiel, Lludl. Dwarf : Ifts. 6-9, distant, nar- 
rondy lanceolate; spiny teeth namerons, small : raeemes 
erect, fascicled. China. F.S. 3:287 bis. 

B. attiTUtcintka, Mart. One to 3 ft., evncresn: spinet S- 
parted: Its. small, splur: fls. in sessils closten. Chile. B.B. 



S1;5G.— S. XUmtmii. Pr*l, Alll*! to B. «iiar|lB»ti. 1 
4taiue ihrnbt wllb imftll Ivi. uid lou tplim, tSlcLljt 8«rd 
Conlu.— £. ovuUm. W^a lUl^t 4 ft.: l<ri. decide 
■mall, BDtlrv or ipaivel; iplnulov* t Jli, ■oUUitt or few. ] 
kl>TU- B.M - ~  ~ 



. Roib. ThTH ti 
b few tWh, wbll 



ft.: iTI. 

«.' Hlmal.— B. Bit- 

■B, bracl^iiitiTVI. Edctw.— B. 
HuDlltoD — B. arlsUtn.— £. en- 
til. Hm1-pflr>iBt«iit, ^ueooi b#- 
endnlooB. Himal. B.U. 47M. 
' ft. : Iti. nnlit«nt, orblcnlar, 
31 bvnHtth : fli. Id dflna*, cId- 
-B. wridMS, Lindl. — B. florl- 



penlil«Dt, obloDS. ei 

Inata, TU.— f! CAUrii 

H- ft. nmeuWUrn. G^. 
cr bmul-oblaiv. HpinDiif, eIaiu 
boH) csliuUn. Ctal]«. B.M.aTTi 
buiul».— fl. erntaffina, DC, Ixurijvi. « 
entlr* or iplDQloBe; fli. In Bhort. erect n 
apt to UliuL — B. Ouisa, Unn. Spisn 
mi. muill, nnullx entire: Ai. 3-6. In 
B. Bn.. (M«it,~£. duUAfa, UndL Li 
orbloiilar. v1thfewinlii7teeth: raeemee 
Hex. B,R.21:175a.-£.didpk<ina,Mu. L 
■plnnlcxeilli.lons-pHlkidled.fucleled: fr. tnuulncld. Cbiu. 
" —- -!K»Jia7liin. ' "■ 1-— -1— J— > '-■ 



: fr. bloe 



B. rmpHriliUaTi. 



ent-Uiu 



edkeOed. 

Ktbem 



"'""''"'~-S 



I. l-i, llender-pednn 



'iiiuls : 






tbei 

baddinj 



»n.elj PL 



-B.Hiiboldi.l 

1. Llndl. LvA. plnnfete. perftlitenC ; Iftj 

B. B.'SdTm ,- Br<ri/oiioiSo? Soric"fil.Trif ul£L* H %tv!^). 

tootbed: Vnwoiei iho'rt, few"" Te^to' Mei"*B.K. : 

robublynvRT, Lenflete oblon^oTate^s-potnted nt 



lonc-pednneled, 



■HmelT ft^militte 
BQ, nmi^i-iiEe. nmikl. B.U. 2540.— fi. 

111. greeolib rellow. fiisclcled. or In i 
If. T11S. 

Alfbid Kshdkb 



Fbid W. Cakd. 

BIBOHlMIA (derlTatloD aaeertaln). RhamnAcea. 
Shrabi, moetly climbing, rarely treea : Ivs. deciduoun, 
alIemBl«, slendrr, petiuled, entire or nearly bd, wllb mi- 
Data ■t<pule«; fla. inponapicuouK. 6-merou8, Intermltia!, 
usually leafy panicles : fr. a«mall berry-like drupe with 
'2-celled atAne. Twelve apeeiee In E. Aela, N. Amer., B. 
Afr.- Ornamental cUrablnft Bbrnbs, rot quite hardy 
nortb, with small, bright green graceful foliage, Dsetul 
(or covering trellig work in sunny ponltiom. They 
grow in almost any soil. Prop, by seeds and by root- 
cuttings in ipring under Blass ; alno by UyerlDK the 
yonng shoots and by cuttings of mature wood In fall 

■a&Ddaiu, Koch {B. volUbilin, DC). Supple Jack, 
Ten to 15 ft.: Ivs. ovale or oblong-ovate, acuminate, 
Otten nndulate, \-2 In. long, with 9-1^ pairs of lateral 
veini ; 9s. greenish white : fr. bluish black. June. 
8. states. 

tumidAm, Sieb. A Zncc. Closel; allied to the former. 
Lrs. conlate, ovate, with &-tl pairs o( veins : fls. green- 
ish : fr. flrst red. becoming black at length. July. Jap., 
China. — Hardier than tbe former, not hiEh-climbing ; 
Mtnetlve in late summer, with its red fruits. 

AuKKU Rehdek. 



3-5-lld : Iva. oboVBte-lanceolate. entire or splnali 
deuH, pendnlou. Colo.loN. Mei. U.F. lit«2.-J 
Wall. Lts. decldnooi, enUre or iparself ■pinaloi 

3a:(t (■■ B. ombellatal.— £. Oulmiwli. Korb — I 
B. hrlrrnphilla. Itat. Lvt. penlBUut. nr&tj<-luin 

or with S-4 upLnr ij«tb : Ot, wlitarj, _, 

B. mnta, Stev. JtFlKh. — B. Fncmclni.— £. lUrioi. Hort.- 
withfswspliv'teelh: n*. imall. on pednn'cl^, loose 'racrmH! 
Psta. P.S. a.p. flB.— AI«riun>, Rojle. L»«. •eml-peralstMit, 
obovBte-laneeolate, entire or aplDiiloie'. laoemes seuile. mneb 
lonsvr than tbe tvs.. dntoploft : fr. violet. Ulmal. B.M. 7cr?A. 
— B.pdJIiifa, Bentb. Lvi. pii^te. penlilent i Ifta. »-13, ante 
or ovate-lanceolate, si^ohc raeemea eomponnd. looHe. Mex. 
B.R. 30:18.— B. ruKiralio, L*m. Lvt. penlitent, ablons, entlm 
orwltb few coarse teeth at tbaapei: da. 4-5 on a short pedon- 
«le. ArEcntlna.- j;. l<n)lina, I«me. AlUed to B. Sinensis. 
Lira, nsoallv entire, brlcht (reen : racemes short, dense, pednn- 
eled. Oriiln nnkncwn.-B. ttrrita, Koebns <B. mlcrophylla, 
var. aemla. HoR.}. Lts. imall. splnolote. deddooni : m- 

B. SWrim, Pall. Lvs. d«ldiunis. obovnie, remoteli dentate- 
oUlate: fls.Bbort'pedlFelled,salitar]'ur2-3. Siberia. B.R.fl:4OT, 
-B. Bitbaldi, Mia. Low: branches brown. S-edged tows ' 



BEBTOLONU 



Name applied to varii 

Slanta, partloalarly Vo members of the Labiita, >■ 
[enthas and Honardas. Tbe Bergamot essence of 
eommerce la made from a citrona fmlt. See Citnu. 

JBtEEIA (after I>r. Andrew Benr, a Hadraa botanist). 
Syn.. BiTTfa, DC., not Eleln. Tiliicta. A genua <rf 
one or two species, with bo familiar allies. 

AaunoBllla, BoEb. High tree: Ivs.entire, heart-shaped, 
loDg-petloled, smooth, 6-T-nerved, alternate : fls. in 
racemes, small, white, very nnmeroas; fr. a 3-celled e^)- 
Eole with 6 wings, the 3-12 seeds with stiff hairs, which 
readily penetrate tbe skin and produce a painful itching. 
Growing abundantly In tbe Pbilipplnes and Ceylon, 
where it is one of the largest and moat valuable timber 
trees. The wood, being light and Btrong. is used for 
building, for oil casks, and for boats. It la exported aa 
"Trlncomaiee wood." Cult, by Dr. FranoeschI, Santa 
Barbara, Calif. q. t. HastinoB. 

BIBTHOLLBTIA (after Lonls Claude Berthollet, 
French chetiilst). MyHiem. Brazil Not. Paka 
Not. Cream Nct. Niooeb Toe. Largo trees : Ivs. al- 
ternate, bright greoD. leathery, about 2 ft. long, 6 In. 
broad : fls. cream colored ; calyx parts united and tear- 
ing into 2 parts when tbe flower opens ; petals 6, ita- 
mens many, united Into a hood -shaped mass, tbe upper 
ones sterile ; fr. round, about 6 In. In dlam., with a hard 
aheU containing 18-24 3<slded nnU. Fig. 230. Spe- 



XWI. 

elea 2, both ot which famish Braail nuts. Cnrionsly 
enough, the common trade name of the Braail not la 
Castanea, which Is properly tbe name of the genna that 
Includes the chestnuts. 

exoSlE«,Humb. ABonpl. Fig. 230. Atree, lOIKIU ft.; 
with a smooth trunk 3-4 ft. indiam.: branches near tbe 
top. It forms large forests on tbe banks of the Amaion 
and Rio Negro. The natives gather tbe nula In large 
quantities, chopping the fruit open. They are exportedin 
large quantities, cbletiv from Para. An oil Is expressed 
from tbe kernels, and the bark is used at Para for caulk- 
ing ahlps. Tbe tree la of little value for decorative pnr- 
jToses, and, according to tbe Bulletin on Nut Culture of 
the Division of Pomology, U. 8. Dept. of Agr., is too 
tender (or growth anywberelntbe United Stales. — Colt. 
at Santa Barbara, Calif. q_ j. Habtihob. 

BEBTOIrftBU [after A. Bertolini, Italian botanist). 
MtlastoBiAcea. Splendid warmhonse foliage plant! 
from Braitl, always dwarf, and sometimes creeping ; the 
garden forms with membranaeeoua, 5-7-nerved leaves 
5-!i in. long, and purple beneath: fls. rose-colored, 6- 
petaled, In scorpiold racemes or spikes. Within the 
restricted definition of the latest monographer of the 
Melastomacete (A. Colgnesux. in DC. Hon. Phan. vol. 71, 
there are only five good species, but some earlier bota- 
nists do not separate certain allied genera which osa- 
ally cannot be distinguished by habit alone. The surest 
character is the inBated and 3-aagled or 3-wlnged ealys 
of Bertolonia. In Bertolonla, flower-parta >i«ln S'(, bat 



BEBTOLONIA 



BESCHORNEBIA 



157 



the oyrj is 3-celled. Gravesia has a 5-eelled ovary, 
and Sonerila is trimeroas. In Bertolonia the connective 
of the anthers has no appendage ; in Salpinga there is 
a spur below and behina the connective ; in Monolena 
there is a spur in front, and the calyx is not hairy. 

Bertolonias are essentially fanciers' plants. It is 
somewhat difficalt 'to bring out their true ebaracterlstics 
nnder ordinanr stove treatment, as they require a more 
humid atmosphere than can usually be maintained, even 
in a small house. The additions! shelter of a small 
frame should be provided, where the atmospheric con- 
ditions will be much more easily regulated. A plentiful 
supply of water at the roots is necessary ; syringing or 
sprinkling overhead is not advisable. The most con- 
venient method of propagation is by cuttings, which 
strike readily, in a moderately close propagating case 
filled with sharp, clean sand. The pots should be thor- 
oughly clean and drained, and the compost open and 
porous. Thrive in dense shade. Old plants are not so 
brilliant as young ones. 

Bertolonias and their allies furnish an excellent ex- 
ample of Van Hontte's triumphs in hybridization. The 
two species described below have probably been im- 
portant factors in the plant-breeding, and €htiv€sia gut- 
tata even more so. Gravesia is a Madagascar plant, 
and has, perhaps, been crossed with the Brasllian Ber- 
tolonias. Unfortunately, the pictures in Flore des Ser- 
res show no flowers, and the pedigree is not given. The 
Bertonerilas figured and described in I.H. 43, pp. 188 
and 189, with colored plates 64 and 68, are presumably 
hybrids between Bertolonia and Sonerila. Excepting v. 
macHlata and C. marmorata, the following are hybrids. 

A. Veins not lined an both sides with a colored band, 

marmorita, Kaudin. Stem less densely hairy than 
the above : Ivs. more narrowly ovate, or ovate-oblong, 
acute, sparsely hairy, streaked with white along the 
veins: calyx sparsely hairy, not glandular: petals 
somewhat blunter, dilute purple. R.H. 1848:381, as 
Mrioenema marmorata, VKadin. F.S.7: 750, as B. maeu- 
lata, var. marmorata, Planchon. Goigneaux recognises 
two varieties, var, genulna, with Ivs. green above, and 
banded with white along the veins ; var. flsnte {Urioe- 
nima onto and B. esn^, Naudin), with Ivs. dark green 
with a coppery east, but not spotted or only slightly so. 

Mfriadai, Van Houtte. Spots red on the lower Ivs. 
and white on the upper or younger ones : Ivs. purple 
beneath. F.S. 21: 2235 (1875). 

▲A. Veins lined on both sides vfith a white or colored 

band. 

B. Bands and spots magenta or purple, 

mim'^t*! DO. Stem short, decumbent, rooting at the 
base, densely clothed with rusty hairs : Ivs. long- 
petioled, cordate, broadlv ovate, obtuse, hispid above 
and at margins, dark velvety green above, often spot- 
ted: calyx densely clothed with glandular hairs: petals 
obovate, somewhat acute, rose-colored. B.M. 4551. 

Hootta&iia, Van Houtte (B. Van ffoiUtei, Hort.). 
Lvs. purple beneath. This was the sensational plant of 
1874, and Van Houtte refused |2,000 for his stock of it. 
It was originated by his propagator, Marchand. F. S. 
20:2120. 

BB. Bands and spots silvery white. 

0. Spots very distinct. 

HnbyAiiA, Van Houtte. This has bars of white con- 
necting the veins. The under side of the lvs. seems to 
be green instead of purple, at least toward the tip. F.S. 
23:2381. 

BodoekilUm, Van Houtte. Distinguished from the 
above and all others of this group by the abundance of 
dark red color in the upper surface of the lvs. Veins 
of the under side prominent and green. F.S. 23 : 2382. 

00. Spots very faint. 

LegrelMaA, Van Houtte ( B. Legrille, Hort. ) . There 
are a few longitudinal bars, but they do not connect the 
veins. Referred to Qravesia guttata by Ooigneaux. 
F.S. 23: 2407. 

Other trade names are B. guttata. Hook, f.— Gravesia gut- 
tata.— 1?. margaritdeea, Hort. Bull.»Salpin«a margaritaoea.— 
B. primmlesflbra, Hort.— Monolema prlmulAflora.— B. pubis- 



eens, Hort., with long white haire and a ehooolate band down 
the eenter. Banador.— B. jmnetatlssima, Hort.— B. superbiS' 
sima, Hort. (B. kuperba 1 Hort.), with roee colored spots, which 
are larger and brighter near the margin. F.M..151 (1875).— 
Probably a var. of Gravesia guttata. 

Wm. Soott, Tarrytown, N. T., and W. M. 

BSBTOVEBiLA. A class of handsome foliage plants^ 

fresumably hybrids between Bertolonia and Sonerila. 
.H. vol. 43 (1896). For culture, see Bertolonia. 

BE8CH0BV&BIA (after H. Beschomer, German 
botanist). AmaryllidAeea. Succulent desert plants, al- 
lied to Bravoa and Doryanthes. Lvs. in a rosette, glau- 
cous, roughish at the margins, not so thick, firm or 
fleshy as in Agave (which has a strong end-spine and 
horny marginal prickles): rootstock short. Tuberous. 
In Beschomeria, the perianth is usually reddish green, 
with scarcely any tube and with long, oblanceolate seg- 
ments ; in Doryanthes the perianth is bright red, the seg- 
ments long, narrowly falcate ; in Bravoa the perianth 
is red or white, the tube curved, subcylindral, and the 
segments short. J. G. Baker, AmaryllideaD, 161. Oulture 
similar to Agave. The species are very closely allied, 
and difficult to distinguish. The following are the only 
kinds well known, and they are all from Mex. They flower 
at long, irregular periods, as do century plants. 

The species succeed best when treated similarly to 
Agaves, with the exception of the soil, which may be 
made richer by the addition of crushed bone and a 
little vegetable mold. All of the species need green- 
house protection in the northern states. Useful for 
bedding. 

▲. Soughish on both surfaces of lvs. 

taUlldra, Eunth. Lvs. 12 or more, lK-2 ft. long, 1 in» 
broad, linear, long-acuminate, narrowest of the genus. 
B.M. 4642.— The oldest and best known species. 

AA. Boughish beneath and on the margins of lvs. 

B. Lvs. very glaucous. 

Ton4]ii, Jaoobi {B. Tonelidna, J mcobi). Allied to B., 
tubi flora, hat with looser habit and much broader lvs. 
Lvs. 15-20, 1-lH ft. long, 2-2>^ in. broad, short-acumi- 
nate, and more boldly contracted below the middle. 
B.M. 609L 

BB. Ijvs. less glaucous. 

o. Base of lvs. thick, about ^ inch. 

Dekoftexitoa, 0. Koch. Lvs. 15-20, 2-4K ft. long, 
2-2H in. broad, oblanceolate, long-acuminate, very grad- 
ually tapering both ways from the middle, 1-llkin. 
broad above the base ; the bases thickest in the genus. 
B.M. 6768. 

00. Base of lvs. thinner. 

D. ITarrowed to less than 1 inch above the base. 

braeteita, Jacobi. Lvs. 20^30, lK-2 ft. long, 2 in. 
broad, short-acuminate ; texture thin but firm. B.M. 
6641.— In the picture the margins are rougher than in 
any other species, and they are also wavy or revolute at 
intervals. 

DD. Narrowed to H inch above the base. 

yueooidet, Hook, f . Lvs. about 20, 1-lK ft. long, 2 in. 
broad, lanceolate, short-acuminate. B.M. 5203.— The 
lvs. are broader than in^. tuHflora, shorter acuminate, 
and more boldly narrowed below the middle. In the 
picture cited, the lvs. seem more spreading and less 
revolute than in the rest of the genus. 

B. Calif&mica is offered by Dr. Franceschi, Santa 
Barbara, Oalif ., without description. 

As Beschomerias can be certainly identified onlj 
when in flower, the following key is added : 

A. Inflorescence racemose. 

B. Pis. highly colored, purple and red— TonelW. 
BB. Fls. dull-colored, reddish fpn^n—tubi flora. 
L. Inflorescence panicled. 

B. Pis. 2 or 3 in a cluster— /><Ajo«feriana. 
BB. Fls. more numerous in the cluster, 3-7. 
o. Peduncles bright red— yttccotd««. 
00. Peduncle dull reddish brown— &raef«ato. 

G. W. Olivsb and W. M. 



158 



BESLERIA 



BETUIiA 



BEBLtBIA (ftfter Basil Besler, Naremberg apothe- 
cary, and reputed author of the superb Hortus Eystetten- 
sLs, 1613). Oeinerdeea. Tropical plants, mostly sub- 
shmbs, with somewhat 4-angled stems, large, membra- 
naceous, opposite, petiolate Ivs. prominently veined be- 
neath, and yellow, white or purple fls. ^. Imray is 
herbaceous, with serrate Its. and yellow axillary fls. 
B.M. 6341. Prop, by cuttings. None are known to be 
offered in America. 

BABBEBA (after Dr. Besser, professor of botany at 
Brody). Mexican Coral Dbops. An exceedingly pretty 
summer-flowering bulbous plant, with umbeU of pendu- 
lous fls., wUch are Termlllon outside, have a white co- 
rona or cup within, and long, purple stamens. It is a 
monotypio genus allied to Androstephium. Perianth 
cup-shap^, the tube shorter than the oblong-lanceolate 
segments ; stamens 6. Culture simple. Bulbs planted 
out, and lifted when ripe. 

ttegaat, Schult. f. Bulb globular, 1 in. thick, tnni- 
cated : Ivs. 2-3, about 1(K-12 in., or eren 2 ft., long : 
scape 1-2 ft. long, hollow, fragile ; umbels 4-10-fld. ; 
pedicels 1-lS in* long ; perianth miO lines long, keeled 
on the back, yariously marked with white within, but 
nsually with vermilion margins and center-band : fls. 
borne through two months of late summer and early 
autumn. G.F. 4:125. Gn. 26:423. B.R. 25:34. B.B. 
1546, as Pharium fiMtuloium, F.S. 4:424, as B. minia- 
^«m.— Strong bulbs sometimes throw up 6-10 scapes, 
with 12-20-fld. umbels. '^. h. 

BATA( Latin name). Oh^napodidesm, Perhaps a dosen 
or 15 species of herbs, ranging from the Canary Islands 
to eastern India. One polymorphous species yields the 
cultivated Beets. This Is B. vulgaris , Moq., the origi- 
nal form of which is perennial, and grows on the coasts 
of southern Europe, reaching as far N. as the Straits of 
Dover. Moquin (DO. Prodr. 13, pt.2:56) divides the 
derivatives of this species into three groups : (1) The 
slender- and hard-rooted, essentially wild fonns, includ- 
ing B. maritima of Linnsus ; (2 jLeaf Beet {B. Clela), 
comprising the various kinds of Chard or Spinach Beet 
(see Ohard); (3) the common garden Beets, or Beet- 
root. The ornamental Beets, grown for their handsome 
colored Ivs., are akin to the Chards. All these races 
have been developed in comparatively modem times, 

Srobably from one original form. Of. Stnrtevant, Amer. 
Tat. 1887:433. See Be€i. l. h. B. 

BETEL, or BETLE. The leaf of Piptr BetU, a kind 
of pepper used in wrapping the pellets of betel-nut and 
lime wnieh are commonly chewed in the Orient. The 
pellets are hot, acrid, aromadc, astringent. They redden 
the saliva and blacken the teeth, and eventually corrode 
them. The betel-nut is the fruit of Areea OateehUf a 
palm. 

BETOEIGA and BETOET. See StaehyM. 

BITIFLA (ancient Latin name) . BstuUteea, a tribe of 
Cupulifera, Biboh. Trees or shrubs, with the bark usu- 
ally separating into thin, papery plates : Ivs. alternate, 
deciduous, petioled, serrate : fls. monoecious, apetalous, 
in catkins, opening in spring with the Iva. ; staminate 
catkins usually long and pendulous, formed in the au- 
tnnm and remaining naked during the winter, every 
scale bearing 8 fls., each with 2 stamens divided at the 
apex ; plstillfite catkins oblong or cylindrical, bearing in 
the axU of every scale 3 naked ovaries : fr. a minute 
nut, often erroneously called seed, with membranaceous 
wings, dropping at maturity with the bracts from the 
slender rachis. About 35 species in N. America, Europe, 
N. and Cent. Asia, especially in the northern regions. 
No tree goes farther north than the Birch ; in N. America 
B, papyrifera reaches66°N. lat., and in Europe B. alba 
goes to the North Cape, and is still a forest tree at 70°. 
The hard and tough wood is often used in the manu- 
facture of furniture and of many small articles, in 
making charcoal, and for fuel ; from the bark, boxes, bas- 
kets, and many small articles are made ; also canoes from 
that of the B, papyrifera ; in Russia and Siberia it is 
dsed in tanning leather. The sap of some species is used 
as a beverage. The Birches are very ornamental park 



trees, hardy, except 2 or 3 Himalayan species, and espe- 
cially valuable for colder climates. Their foliage is rarely 
attacked by insects, and turns to a bright or orange-yellow 
in fall. Their graceful habit, the slender, often pendulous 
branches, and the picturesque trunks make them con- 
spicuous features of the landscape. Especially remark^ 
able are those with white-colored bark, as B. papyrifera, 
populifoliat alba, Urmani, and also B. Maximateictii 
with yellow bark. Most Birches prefer moist, sandy and 
loamy soil ; but some, as B. alba and populifolia, grow 
as satisfactorily in dry localities and poor soil as in 
swamps and bogs, and they are especially valuable in 
replanting deserted grounds as nurses for other trees ; 
both are comparatively short-lived tre